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Zoutpansberg was the north-eastern division of the Transvaal, South Africa, encompassing an area of 25,654 square miles. The chief towns at the time were Leydsdorp, it was divided into two districts prior to the first general election of the Union of South Africa in 1910. Since 2005 the area is divided into the Capricorn and Mopani district municipalities of Limpopo province; this was the district to which Louis Tregardt and Hans van Rensburg, the forerunners of the Great Trek, journeyed in 1835. In 1845 Hendrik Potgieter, a prominent leader of the Voortrekkers, moved there; the Zoutpansberg Boers formed a semi-independent community, in 1857 Stephanus Schoeman, their commandant-general, sided against Marthinus Pretorius and Paul Kruger when they invaded the Orange Free State. It was not until 1864 that Zoutpansberg was definitively incorporated in the South African Republic as a result of the Transvaal Civil War; the white settlers in Zoutpansberg had for many years a reputation for lawlessness, were regarded as typical "back velt Boers".

Zoutpansberg contained a larger native population than any other region of the Transvaal. It was estimated at 201,539 in 1903. Tregardt and his companions had been shown gold workings by the natives, it was in this district in 1867-70, in the neighbouring region of Lydenburg, that gold mines were first worked by Europeans south of the Limpopo, it is a mineralized area. Dzata ruins Kingdom of Mapungubwe Schoemansdal, abandoned Voortrekker town

Viola Concerto (Bartók)

The Viola Concerto, Sz. 120, BB 128 was one of the last pieces written by Béla Bartók. He began composing his viola concerto while living in Saranac Lake, New York, in July 1945; the piece was commissioned by William Primrose, a respected violist who knew that Bartók could provide a challenging piece for him to perform. He said that Bartók should not "feel in any way proscribed by the apparent technical limitations of the instrument". Primrose asked Bartók to write the concerto in the winter of 1944. There are several letters between them regarding the piece. In one from September 8, 1945, Bartók claims that he is nearly done with it and only has the orchestration to complete; the sketches however show that this was not the case. When Bartók died, the piece was finished by his close friend Tibor Serly in 1949. A first revision was made by Bartók's son Peter and Paul Neubauer in 1995, it was revised once more by Csaba Erdélyi; the concerto was premiered on December 2, 1949, by the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra with Antal Doráti conducting and Primrose as violist.

The concerto has three movements, Bartók states in a letter dated August 5, 1945 that the general concept is, "a serious Allegro, a Scherzo, a slow movement, a finale beginning Allegretto and developing the tempo to an Allegro molto. Each movement, or at least 3 of them will, preceded by a recurring introduction, a kind of ritornello." The first movement is in a loose sonata form. The slow second movement is shorter, closes with a short scherzo movement, an attacca right into the third movement; the time stamps, as seen in Bartók's manuscript, state that the first movement should be 10’20", the second 5’10" and the third 4’45". The first and third movements of the concerto is said to loosely contain a phrase, reminiscent of the Scottish tune "Gin a Body Meet a Body, Colmin' Thro' the Rye." This is done in honor of William Primrose's heritage. Bartók's manuscript only specifies: flute, oboe, 2 clarinets, horns, 2 trumpets, strings. Tibor Serly's edition is orchestrated for: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B♭, 2 bassoons, 3 horns in F, 3 trumpets in B♭, 2 trombones, timpani and strings.

Peter Bartók and Paul Neubauer's edition is orchestrated for: piccolo, 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets in B♭, 2 bassoons, 4 horns in F, 3 trumpets in B♭, tenor trombone, bass trombone, timpani, strings. There are some large discrepancies between the different editions of this concerto, due to little being known about Bartók's intentions; some are as simple as the metronome markings for each movement. Each editor had different interpretations of fingerings for the concerto. One edition suggests beginning the first movement on the open A string, while others suggest beginning on the D string; the Peter Bartók edition has interesting fingerings because Paul Neubauer edited most of the viola part. Many bowings differ between different editions, some of them inserted to accent certain rhythms and high notes, such as in mm. 8-10 in the Tibor Serly edition, where William Primrose included some bowing suggestions to emphasize the syncopation of the line. Overall, there are a significant amount of surface level discrepancies such as bowings and dynamics.

However, some editions contain more changes than editor markings. Peter Bartók explains, "It became clear that we could not compare the printed score with the final manuscript prepared from my father’s sketches by Tibor Serly, discover engraving errors, but we would have to start with the sketch itself."The first of the note changes begins in measure 44 on beat two, where there is an added D♯ as a double stop against a D♮. In the next measure, the first beat is transposed down an octave to facilitate performance. Everything remains consistent until measure 54. At this point Tibor Serly has the viola resting, yet Peter Bartók has included two measure of a melody to the soloists’ line; the most significant changes have yet to appear. Tibor Serly's edition places measure 67 as a 64 bar, but Peter Bartók splits it into a 44 bar plus a 34 bar, he adds a group of triplets, it is now clear why an orchestra must be certain which edition they are performing and ensure everyone has the same parts. This trend of alterations continues as Peter Bartók adds octave displacements, omits what is measure 74 in the Tibor Serly score.

Tibor Serly arranged the work as a Cello Concerto. After the completion, a gathering of friends of Bartók expressed an eight-to-six preference for the cello adaption over the original. Cellist János Starker was the first to record the transcribed version. Béla Bartók, Concerto for Viola and Orchestra. Compact disc. Hong-Mei Xiao, HNH International Ltd, 1998. Conductor János Kovács and soloist Hong-Mei Xiao playing both the Peter Bartók and the original Tibor Serly; this CD will be useful for comparing the two versions. Other recordings: Béla Bartók, Concerto for Viola and Orchestra.

Death and the King's Horseman

Death and the King's Horseman is a play by Wole Soyinka based on a real incident that took place in Nigeria during British colonial rule: the horseman of a Yoruba King was prevented from committing ritual suicide by the colonial authorities. In addition to the British intervention, Soyinka calls the horseman's own conviction toward suicide into question, posing a problem that throws off the community's balance. Soyinka wrote the play in Cambridge, where he was a fellow at Churchill College during his political exile from Nigeria, he has written a preface to the play, explaining what he sees as the greatest misconceptions in understanding it. In particular, he says that the play should not be considered as "clash of cultures." Rather, the play demonstrates the need for interaction between African and European cultures, as per Soyinka's post-Biafran cultural philosophy. Death and the King's Horseman builds upon the true story on which Soyinka based the play, to focus on the character of Elesin, the King's Horseman of the title.

According to Yoruba tradition, the death of the king must be followed by the ritual death of the king's horseman as well as the king's dog and horse, because the horseman's spirit is essential to helping the chief's spirit ascend to the afterlife. Otherwise, the king's spirit will bring harm to the Yoruba people; the first half of the play documents the process of this ritual, with the potent, life-loving figure Elesin living out his final day in celebration before the ritual process begins. At the last minute, the local British colonial ruler, Simon Pilkings, the suicide being viewed as barbaric and illegal by the British authorities. In the play, the result for the community is catastrophic, as the breaking of the ritual means the disruption of the cosmic order of the universe and thus the well-being and future of the collectivity is in doubt; the community blames Elesin as much as Pilkings, accusing him of being too attached to the earth to fulfill his spiritual obligations. Events lead to tragedy when Elesin's son, who has returned to Nigeria from studying medicine in Europe, takes on the responsibility of his father and commits ritual suicide in his place so as to restore the honour of his family and the order of the universe.

Elesin kills himself, condemning his soul to a degraded existence in the next world. In addition, the dialogue of the native suggests that this may have been insufficient and that the world is now "adrift in the void". Another Nigerian playwright, Duro Ladipo, had written a play in the Yoruba language based on this incident, called Oba waja. Duty Anti-colonialism is considered a theme by some scholars based on aspects of the text, but Soyinka calls the colonial factors "an incident, a catalytic incident merely" in the "Author's Note" prepended to the play; every character in Death and the King's Horseman at some point uses a traditional Yoruba proverb. Through his vast knowledge of Yoruba proverbs, Soyinka is able to endow his play with a strong Yoruba sentiment. Characters employ Yoruba proverbs as a means of bolstering their opinions and persuading others to take their point of view; the Praise-singer gets annoyed with Elesin for his decision to take a new wife and tries to dissuade him: Because the man approaches a brand-new bride he forgets the long faithful mother of his children.

Ariyawo-ko-iyaleSimilarly, Iyaloja tries to admonish Elesin against his earthly attachments and stay true to the ritual upon which the good of his society depended: Eating the awusa nut is not so difficult as drinking water afterwards. Ati je asala ko to ati mu omi si i. Another common way in which Soyinka uses proverbs is with Elesin. Elesin himself uses several proverbs in order to convince his peers that he is going to comply with their ritual and thus join the ancestors in orun: The kite makes for wide spaces and the wind creeps up behind its tail. Awodi to'o nre Ibara, efufu ta a n'idi pa o ni Ise kuku ya; the elephant trails no tethering-rope. Ajanaku kuro ninn'mo ri nkan firi, bi a ba ri erin ki a ni a ri erinThe river is never so high that the eyes of a fish are covered. Odu ki ikun bo eja l'ojuThe final way in which proverbs appear in the play is when Iyaloja and the Praise-singer harass Elesin while he is imprisoned for failing to complete his role within the ritual: What we have no intention of eating should not be held up to the nose.

Ohun ti a ki i je a ki ifif run imuWe said you were the hunter returning home in triumph, a slain buffalo pressing down on his neck. A ki i ru eran erin lori ki a maa f'ese wa ire n'ileThe river which fills up before our eyes does not sweep us away in its flood. Odo ti a t'oju eni kun ki igbe'ni lo Written in five scenes, it is performed without interruption. Soyinka himself has directed important American productions, in Chicago in 1976 and at Lincoln Center in New York in 1987, but according to Andrew Gumbel, the play "has been much more admired than performed"; the British premiere was directed by Phyllida Lloyd at the Royal Exchange Theatre in Manchester in 1990. It starred Claire Benedict; the play was performed at London's Royal National Theatre beginning in April 2009, directed by Rufus Norris, with choreography by Javier de Frutos and starring Lucian Msamati. The play was staged by the St. Louis Black Repertory Theater February 2008, directed by Olusegun Ojewuyi, dramaturge for the Oregon Shakespeare's production.

It was performed at the Oregon Shakespeare Festival from February 14 to July 2009 as well. A Yoruba translation Iku Olokun Esin was als

Transportes Aéreos Nacional

Transportes Aéreos Nacional was a Brazilian airline founded in 1946. It was merged into Varig in 1961, when Varig bought the Consórcio Real-Aerovias-Nacional, of which Transportes Aéreos Nacional was one of the partners. Transportes Aéreos Nacional was founded in 1946 by Hilton Machado, former pilot of Serviços Aéreos Cruzeiro do Sul and Manuel José Antunes, former co-pilot of Aerovias Brasil and other two share-holders, it was authorized to function on February 26, 1947, the first regular flights took off in 1948, from Belo Horizonte, the headquarters of the airline, to Rio de Janeiro and Cuiabá using its first two Douglas DC-3/C-47. After two years of activities, São Paulo was included in the network and the fleet increased to 6 Douglas C-47. Between 1949 and 1955 Nacional successively purchased and incorporated the smaller airlines Viabras, OMTA, Central Aérea, VASD, Itaú. All the airlines were operated in the form of a consortium, which took the name of Consórcio de Transportes Aéreos; this consortium was organized as one company of limited responsibility on November 20, 1953 maintaining the name of Nacional.

Those acquisitions increased the number of cities served to 74 in 1954 and its frequencies, using 28 aircraft. It had an international service to Asunción. However, being the fleet based on Douglas DC-3/C-47 and Curtiss C-46 Commando, Nacional was unable to fly longer sectors without stops. On August 2, 1956, Linneu Gomes, the owner of Real Transportes Aéreos purchased 85% of the shares of Transportes Aéreos Nacionais and added the airline to a Consortium formed by Real Transportes Aéreos and Aerovias Brasil; the consortium took the name of Consórcio Real-Aerovias-Nacional. The powerful group was able to fly to the entire Brazilian territory and some international destinations. Though maintaining legal independent identities, because they were controlled by the same person, Linneu Gomes, the three airlines operated jointly and in practice it was Real which controlled the consortium. In its time, the Consortium dominated the passenger traffic on the triangle São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, the economic center of the country.

In 1961 the three airlines of the consortium Real-Aerovias-Nacional were purchased by and merged into Varig. Accidents involving fatalities 12 August 1952: a Douglas DC-3/C-47A-80-DL registration PP-ANH belonging to Viabras en route from Rio Verde to Goiânia crashed following an in-flight bomb explosion at the location of Palmeiras de Goiás Goiás. All 24 passengers and crew died. 31 May 1954: a Douglas DC-3/C-47A-80-DL registration PP-ANO en route from Governador Valadares to Belo Horizonte-Pampulha strayed off course and struck Mount Cipó in cloudy conditions. All 19 passengers and crew died. 10 April 1957: a Douglas DC-3/C-47 registration PP-ANX operated by Real Transportes Aéreos en route from Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont to São Paulo-Congonhas crashed into a mountain over the location of Ubatuba. The no. 2 engine caught fire. Due to rain, the crew noticed Papagaio Peak on Anchieta Island too late; the aircraft crashed into the mountain. Of the 30 passengers and crew aboard, 27 died. 18 September 1957: a Convair 440-62 registration PP-AQE operated by Real Transportes Aéreos, flying from São Paulo to Porto Alegre to Montevideo to Buenos Aires had an accident during touch down operations in Montevideo.

While on a night landing procedure under fog, the aircraft undershoot the runway by 1,030m, causing the left and middle gear to hit an earth bank bordering a highway. The right wing further on the aircraft lost both propellers; the right wing broke off. One crew member died. 7 December 1960: a Curtiss C-46A-60-CK Commando registration PP-AKF operated by Real Transportes Aéreos operating flight 570 from Cuiabá to Manaus-Ponta Pelada crashed near on Cachimbo mountains. The engine no.2 failed during the flight. Altitude was lost, the pilot jettisoned some of the cargo, it caught fire. 15 passengers and crew died. Aerovias Brasil, a partner of the consortium Real-Aerovias-Nacional Real Transportes Aéreos, a partner of the consortium Real-Aerovias-Nacional Instituto Histórico-Cultural da Aeronáutica. História Geral da Aeronáutica Brasileira: de janeiro de 1946 a janeiro de 1956 após o término da Segunda Guerra Mundial até a posse do Dr. Juscelino Kubitschek como Presidente da República. 4. Rio de Janeiro: GR3 Comunicação & Design.

Pp. 349–350. Transportes Aéreos Nacional Accidents as per Aviation Safety Database Real Transportes Aéreos Accidents as per Aviation Safety Database

Nairobi derby

The Nairobi derby commonly known as the Mashemeji derby and the Ingo-Dala derby, is the name of the local derby between two major association football teams in Nairobi: A. F. C. Leopards and Gor Mahia, it is the oldest rivalry in Kenyan football history. Fans of both A. F. C. Leopards and Gor Mahia recognize each other as arch-rivals. Gor Mahia has won the Kenyan Premier League a record 18 times, while A. F. C. Leopards have 12 league titles to their name as at 2019; the two clubs have been bitter rivals since they first locked horns on 5 May 1968. In a match on 23 March 2012, Gor Mahia fans began to riot after midfielder Ali Abondo was given a red card following a dangerous tackle on Leopards' Amon Muchiri. Gor Mahia was banned by the Sports Stadia Management Board from using their facilities for the rest of the 2012 season as a result; this was the reason for the postponing of their Round of 8 derby match in the 2012 KPL Top 8 Cup. Before that, on Heroes' Day 2011, Leopards fans had caused abandonment of an FKL Cup quarter final by pelting linesmen with objects after Gor Mahia went ahead with a superbly worked goal from a Moses Odhiambo and Moses Otieno combination which saw the former head in a superbly taken free kick by the latter.

Leopards were made to forfeit the game and controversially escaped further bans despite the 1-0 scoreline being allowed to stand. Gor Mahia went on to memorably lift the Cup beating Sofapaka at the Nairobi City Stadium six days and earn a right to represent Kenya in the 2012 CAF Confederation Cup. On 8 June 2014, the two teams faced off again in a Kenyan Premier League match at the Nyayo National Stadium. Having taken the lead in the 24th minute through Timonah Wanyonyi, Gor Mahia conceded the equaliser in the 35th minute when Charles Okwemba sent Jacob Keli through on goal, with Keli slotting home past keeper Jerim Onyango. A. F. C. Leopards had to wait until the second half to take the lead, when Okwemba was fouled by left back David Owino before heading the ball into the back of the net from an Abdallah Juma free kick. Bernard Wanyama sealed the victory for Ingwe in the 73rd minute, after chesting the ball down from an Okwemba lobbed through pass before hitting the cross bar and ending up in the back of the net.

The defeat condemned Gor Mahia to their heaviest defeat that season until that point. The Gor Mahia fanbase is predominantly Luo while that of AFC leopards is Luhya, making the rivalry tribal despite the significant support of "neutrals" for both clubs; the passion of the fans during encounters between the teams add to the intensity of the derby matches. Both teams have been involved in cases of hooliganism, but Gor Mahia fans are found on the wrong side of the law more than their A. F. C. Leopards counterparts. After winning their 2013 FKF President's Cup semi-final against Sony Sugar, Gor Mahia fans began celebrating the win, with a huge number of them invading the pitch to attack Sony Sugar players; the incident resulted in Sony Sugar goalkeeper Wycliffe Kasaya being admitted to hospital. Only four days the fans attacked Sofapaka officials during a 2013 Kenyan Premier League match, they descended on the club's assistant coach Martin Ndagano and their medic Charles Omondi, forcing them out of the stadium, making away with the latter's mobile phone in the process.

During a 2014 Kenyan Premier League match against Thika United, A. F. C. Leopards fans descended onto the pitch in the 85th minute in frustration at their side's failure to come back from a 1–0 deficit; the incident cost A. F. C. Leopards the game, as the KPL handed Thika United a 2–0 win and handed A. F. C. Leopards a fine of Ksh. 500,000 to be paid by 20 June 2014

Kardec (film)

Kardec is a 2019 Brazilian drama film directed by Wagner de Assis and written by L. G. Bayão and Wagner de Assis. Hippolyte Léon Denizard Rivail, a French educator who, when studying the phenomenon of "Spinning tables ", discovers that there is the possibility of communicating with the spirits; as an encoder of the Spiritism doctrine, Professor Rivail assumes the pseudonym of Allan Kardec and elaborates, under the guidance of the spirits, the five main books that guide Spiritist studies. Christian Baltauss Letícia Braga as Julie Sandra Corveloni as Amélie Louise D'Tuani as Ermance Dufaux Genésio de Barros as Padre Boutin Charles Fricks as Charles Baudin Julia Konrad as Ruth-Celine Leonardo Medeiros as Rivail / Allan Kardec Henrique Neves as Cáligrafo Guilherme Piva as Didier Júlia Svacinna as Caroline Guida Vianna as Madame Plainemaison Dalton Vigh as Sr. Dufaux The film had a week of filming in Paris and four weeks on locations in Rio de Janeiro. All the scenes in the French capital had digital intervention for the erasure of modern buildings.

Kardec on IMDb