Mongolian writing systems
Many alphabets have been devised for the Mongolian language over the centuries, and from a variety of scripts. It has spawned several alphabets, either as attempts to fix its perceived shortcomings, or to allow the notation of other languages, such as Sanskrit and Tibetan. Mongol chinese in Inner Mongolia and other parts of China, on the other hand, the Xianbei spoke a proto-Mongolic language and wrote down several pieces of literature in their language. They are believed to have used Chinese characters to phonetically represent Xianbei like the Japanese system of Manyōgana, with only minor modifications, it is used in Inner Mongolia to this day. Its most salient feature is its direction, it is the only vertical script that is written from left to right. This is because the Uyghurs rotated their script 90 degrees anticlockwise to emulate the Chinese writing system, as a variant of the traditional script there exists a vertical square script, called folded script, used e. g. on the Mongolian banknotes.
In 1587, the translator and scholar Ayuush Güüsh created the Galik alphabet, inspired by Sonam Gyatso and it primarily added extra letters to transcribe Tibetan and Sanskrit terms in religious texts, and also from Chinese & Russian. Later some of these letters officially merged to traditional alphabet as group named Galig usug to transcribe foreign word in todays use, the script was used by Kalmyks of Russia until 1924, when it was replaced by the Cyrillic alphabet. In Xinjiang, the Oirats still use it, the traditional Mongolian alphabet is not a perfect fit for the Mongolian language, and it would be impractical to extend it to a language with a very different phonology like Chinese. Therefore, during the Yuan Dynasty, Kublai Khan asked a Tibetan monk, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa, the script did not receive wide acceptance and fell into disuse with the collapse of the Yuan dynasty in 1368. After this it was used as a phonetic gloss for Mongols learning Chinese characters. However, scholars such as Gari Ledyard believe that in the meantime it was the source of some of the letters of the Korean hangul alphabet.
The Soyombo script is a created by the Mongolian monk and scholar Bogdo Zanabazar in the late 17th century. Zanabazar had created it for the translation of Buddhist texts from Sanskrit or Tibetan, aside from historical texts, it can usually be found in temple inscriptions. It has relevance to linguistic research, because it reflects certain developments in the Mongolian language. At around the time, Zanabazar developed the Horizontal square script. The scripts applications during the period of its use are not known and it was largely based on the Tibetan alphabet, read left to right, and employed vowel diacritics above and below the consonant letters. Additionally, a dot was used below consonants to show that they were syllable-final, before the 13th century, foreign scripts had to be used to write the Mongolian language
Tatar was one of the five major Mongol tribal confederations in the Mongolian Plateau in the 12th century. The name Tatar was first recorded on the Kul Tigin monument as Otuz Tatar Bodun,732, subsequently the wider region was referred to by Europeans as Tartary or Tartaria. The Tatars inhabited the north-eastern Gobi in the 5th century and the Tatars became subjects of the Khitan Liao dynasty in the 10th century, after the fall of the Liao, the Tatars experienced pressure from the Jurchen Jin dynasty and were urged to fight against the other Mongol tribes. The Tatars lived on the pastures around Hulun Nuur and Buir Nuur. After the establishment of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars were subjugated by the Mongol Empire under Genghis Khan, under the leadership of his grandson Batu Khan, they moved westwards, driving with them many of the Turkic peoples toward the plains of Russia in the Turkic migrations. Their name was used by Russians and Europeans to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule, later, it was used for any Turkic or even Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians
History of Mongolia
The area of present-day Mongolia has been ruled by various nomadic empires, including the Xiongnu state, the Xianbei state, the Rouran Khaganate, the Turkic Khaganate and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan was able to unite and conquer the Mongols, forging them into a force which went on to create the largest contiguous empire in world history. After the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty in 1368, the Mongols returned to their patterns of internal strife. At the end of the 17th century, what is now Mongolia had been incorporated into the area ruled by the Manchu-led Qing dynasty. During the collapse of the Qing in 1911, Mongolia declared independence but had to struggle until 1921 to firmly establish de facto independence and until 1945 to gain international recognition. As a consequence, it came under strong Soviet influence, In 1924, the Mongolian Peoples Republic was declared, after the Revolutions of 1989, the Mongolian Revolution of 1990 led to a multi-party system, a new constitution in 1992, and a transition to a market economy.
The climate of Central Asia became dry after the large tectonic collision between the Indian Plate and the Eurasian Plate and this impact threw up the massive chain of mountains known as the Himalayas. The Himalayas, Greater Khingan and Lesser Khingan mountains act like a wall, blocking the warm. Many of the mountains of Mongolia were formed during the Late Neogene, the Mongolian climate was more humid hundreds of thousands of years ago. Mongolia is known to be the source of priceless paleontological discoveries, the first scientifically confirmed dinosaur eggs were found in Mongolia during the 1923 expedition of the American Museum of Natural History, led by Roy Chapman Andrews. During the middle to late Eocene Epoch, Mongolia was the home of many Paleogene mammals with Sarkastodon, Homo erectus possibly inhabited Mongolia as much as 800,000 years ago but fossils of Homo erectus have not yet been found in Mongolia. Stone tools have been found in the southern, region, important prehistoric sites are the Paleolithic cave drawings of the Khoid Tsenkheriin Agui in Khovd province, and the Tsagaan Agui in Bayankhongor Province.
A neolithic farming settlement has been found in Dornod Province, contemporary findings from western Mongolia include only temporary encampments of hunters and fishers. The population during the Copper Age has been described as paleomongolid in the east of what is now Mongolia and this culture is the main archaeological find of the Bronze Age Mongolia. Deer stones and the omnipresent kheregsüürs probably are from this era, deer stones are ancient megaliths carved with symbols that can be found all over central and eastern Eurasia but are concentrated largely in Siberia and Mongolia. Most deer stones occur in association with ancient graves, it is believed that stones are the guardians of the dead, there are around 700 deer stones known in Mongolia of a total of 900 deer stones that have been found in Central Asia and South Siberia. Their true purpose and creators are still unknown, some researchers claim that deer stones are rooted in shamanism and are thought to have been set up during the Bronze Age around 1000 BC, and may mark the graves of important people.
Later inhabitants of the area likely reused them to mark their own burial mounds, in Mongolia, the Lake Baikal area, and the Sayan and Altai Mountains, there are 550,20,20, and 60 known deer stones respectively
The Ordos culture was a culture occupying a region centered on the Ordos Loop during the Bronze and early Iron Age from the 6th to 2nd centuries BCE. The Ordos culture is known for significant finds of Scythian art and is thought to represent the easternmost extension of Indo-European Eurasian nomads, under the Qin and Han dynasties, from the 6th to 2nd centuries BCE, the area came under at least nominal control of contemporaneous Chinese states. Equestrian nomads occupied the previously settled by the Zhukaigou culture from the 6th to the 2nd century BCE before being driven away by the Xiongnu. The Ordos Plateau was covered by grass and trees and was sufficiently watered by numerous rivers, at the time, it contained the best pasture lands on the Asian Steppe. However, it has now turned to the Ordos Desert through a combination of overgrazing and climatic change. The Ordos are mainly known from their remains and artifacts. Its relationship with the Xiongnu is controversial, for some scholars they are the same, many buried metal artefacts have emerged on the surface of the land as a result of the progressive desertification of the region.
According to Iaroslav Lebedynsky, they are thought to be the easternmost people of Scythian affinity to have settled here, just to the east of the better-known Yuezhi. Because the people represented in archaeological finds tend to display Europoid features, noted by Otto J. Maenchen-Helfen. Other scholars have associated it with the Yuezhi, the weapons found in tombs throughout the steppes of the Ordos are very close to those of the Scythians, who known on the Asian Steppes as the Saka. While the ethnolinguistic origins and character of the Ordos culture are unknown, the art of the Ordos culture appears to have influenced that of the Donghu people, a Mongolic-speaking nomadic tribe located to the east, suggesting that the two had close ties. The Ordos population was in contact – and reportedly often at war – with the pre-Han and Han peoples. The Ordos culture covered, regions occupied by the Han, including areas just north of the Great Wall of China, to the west of the Ordos culture was another Indo-European people, the Yuezhi, although nothing is known of relations between the two.
In Chinese accounts, the Xiongnu first appear at Ordos in the Yi Zhou Shu and Classic of Mountains and Seas during the Warring States period before it was occupied by the states of Qin and Zhao. As the Xiongnu expanded southward into Yuezhi territory around 160 BCE under Modun and it is thought the Xiongnu occupied the Ordos area during the same period, when they came in direct contact with the Chinese. From there, the Xiongnu conducted numerous devastating raids into Chinese territory, the Han–Xiongnu War began with Emperor Wu of Han, and the Han colonized the area of the Ordos as the commandery of Shuofang in 127 BCE. Prior to this campaign, there were already earlier established by Qin. Ordos bronzes from the British Museum, Christopher I, empires of the Silk Road, A History of Central Eurasia from the Bronze Age to the Present
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
The Khalkha is the largest subgroup of Mongol people in Mongolia since the 15th century. The two original major Khalkha groups were ruled by the male line descendants of Dayan Khan. The Baarin, Jaruud and the Ozeed became Dayan Khans fifth son Achibolods subjects, the Thirteen Khalkhas of the Far North are the major subethnic group of the independent state of Mongolia. They number 1,610,400 of Mongolias population, the Khalkha or Halh dialect is the standard written language of Mongolia. The term Халх has always puzzled linguists and historians, in the similar manner, the sub-ethnic groups within the Khalkha Unit have been historically recorded in books and documents as Jalair Khalkha, Sartuul Khalkha, Tanghut Khalkha etc. Lastly, Mongolians have always linked the term Халх to the name of the Khalkhyn Gol, Dayan Khan created Khalkha Tumen out of Mongols residing in the territory of present-day central Mongolia and northern part of Inner Mongolia. In Mongolian historical sources such as Erdeniin Erih it clearly stated how Khalkha Tumen was created and this special ceremony is maintained by only southern khalkhas and no other southern Mongols have such rituals.
Under Dayan Khan, the Khalkha were organized as one of three tümen of the Left Wing, Dayan Khan installed the fifth son Alchu Bolad and the eleventh son Geresenje on the Khalkha. The former became the founder of the Five Halh of Southern Mongolia and they were called Inner Khalkha and Outer Khalkha respectively, by the Manchus. Mongolian chronicles called Geresenje as Khong Tayiji of the Jalayir, which indicates that the part of the Khalkha were descendants of the Jalayir tribe. The Five Halh consisted of five tribes called Jarud, Onggirat and they lived around the Shira Mören valley east of the Greater Khingan. They clashed with but were conquered by the rising Manchus. The Five Khalkha except for the Jarud and the Baarin were organized into the Eight Banners, note that Khalkha Left Banner of Juu Uda League and Khalkha Right Banner of Ulaanchab League were offshoots of the Seven Khalkha. The Seven Khalkha were involved in fights against the Oyirad in the west. Geresenjes descendants formed the houses of Tüsheet Khan, Zasagt Khan and they preserved their independence until they had to seek help from the Kangxi Emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty against the Zungar leader Galdan in 1688.
In 1725 the Yongzheng Emperor gave Tsering independence from the house of Tüsheet Khan, the Khalkha led the Mongolian independence movement in the 20th century. After enduring countless hardships, they established the independent state of Mongolia in northern Mongolia, the overwhelming majority of Khalkha Mongols now reside in the modern state of Mongolia. However, there are four small banners in China,2 in Inner Mongolia,1 in Qinghai, there are several groups among the Buriats in Russia, they no longer retain the Khalkha self-identity and language
The Kalmyks are the Oirats in Russia, whose ancestors migrated from Dzungaria in 1607. They created the Kalmyk Khanate in 1630–1724 in Russias North Caucasus territory, today they form a majority in the autonomous republic of Kalmykia on the western shore of the Caspian Sea. Through emigration, small Kalmyk communities have established in the United States, Germany. The Kalmyk are a branch of the Oirats, Mongols whose ancient grazing-lands spanned present-day parts of Kazakhstan, Mongolia, for 400 years the Oirats conducted a military struggle for domination and control over both Inner Mongolia and Outer Mongolia. The struggle ended in 1757 with the defeat of the Oirats in Dzungaria, at the start of this 400-year era, the Western Mongols designated themselves as the Four Oirat. The alliance comprised four major Western Mongol tribes, Choros, collectively, the Four Oirat sought power as an alternative to the Mongols, who were the patrilineal heirs to Genghis Khan. Smaller tribes belonging to the confederation included the Khoits, Bayids, these nomadic tribes roamed the grassy plains of western Inner Asia, between Lake Balkhash in present-day eastern Kazakhstan and Lake Baikal in present-day Russia north of central Mongolia.
They pitched their yurts and kept herds of cattle, flocks of sheep, donkeys, Paul Pelliot translated the name Torghut as garde de jour. He wrote that the Torghuts owed their name either to the memory of the guard of Genghis Khan or, as descendants of the Keraites and this was documented among the Keraites in The Secret History of the Mongols before Genghis Khan took over the region. The Four Oirat was an entity formed by the four major Oirat tribes. During the 15–17th centuries, they established under the name 10 tumen Mongols and they reestablished their traditional pastoral nomadic lifestyle during the end of the Yuan dynasty. The Oirats formed this alliance to defend themselves against the Khalkha Mongols, until the mid-17th century, when bestowal of the title of Khan was transferred to the Dalai Lama, all Mongol tribes recognized this claim and the political prestige attached to it. In response to the Western Mongols’ self-designation as the Four Oirat and this means that the Khalkha Mongols claimed to have forty tümen to the four tümen maintained by the Four Oirat.
The Oirat alliance was decentralized and unstable, for instance, the Four Oirat did not have a central location from which it was governed, and it was not governed by a central figure for most of its existence. The four Oirats did not establish a military or a unified monastic system. Lastly, it was not until 1640 that the Four Oirat adopted uniform customary laws, as pastoralist nomads, the Oirats were organized at the tribal level, where each tribe was ruled by a noyon or prince who functioned as the chief taishi chieftain. The chief taishi governed with the support of lesser noyons, who were called taishi and these minor noyons controlled divisions of the tribe and were politically and economically independent of the chief tayishi. Chief taishis sought to influence and dominate the chief taishis of the tribes, causing intertribal rivalry, dissension
The Mongolian nobility arose between the 10th and 12th centuries, became prominent in the 13th century, and essentially governed Mongolia until the early 20th century. The Mongolian word for nobility, derives from the Mongol word yazgur, the supreme ruler of the Mongol Empire. Noyon, meaning King of a State, a ruler of a state under the Mongol Empire. Jinong, meaning Crown Prince, the heir apparent of the Great Khaan, during the Yuan dynasty, the Jinong resided in Karakorum and administered ceremonial events. Mirza, a Persian term meaning Prince, Tumetu-iin Noyan, meaning Commander of a Tümen. A tümen was a unit of 10,000 troops. There were initially only nine tümens in the Mongol Empire in 1206, mingghan-u Noyan, meaning Commander of a Mingghan. A mingghan was a unit of 1,000 troops. Jagutu-iin Darga, meaning Commander of a Zuut, a zuut was a military unit of 100 troops. Arban-u Darga, meaning Commander of an Aravt, an aravt was a military unit of 10 troops. Cherbi, a title for a Kheshig commander, bey, a Turkish term meaning Chieftain.
Begum, a Turkish term used to refer to the wife or daughter of a bey, referred to a princess or noble lady. Behi, referred to a noble lady, the supreme ruler of the Northern Yuan Empire. Khan, a title for a Mongol feudal lord, by the mid-16th century, there were a number of khans in Mongolia as local feudal lords started calling themselves khan. Note that this khan is different from khaan, khaan was reserved for the supreme ruler only, the crown prince or heir apparent of the Khaan. He resided in the Inner Mongolia region, from the 15th century, the title became a hereditary one and was no longer reserved exclusively for the heir apparent of the Khaan. Khong Tayiji, originated from the Chinese term huangtaizi and it was used to refer to a descendant of Genghis Khan who had his own fief. Taiji, a title for a descendant of Genghis Khan, Wang, a title for a descendant of Qasar or any of Genghis Khans brothers who had his own fief
The Soyombo symbol is a special character in the Soyombo alphabet invented by Zanabazar in 1686. The name Soyombo is derived from Sanskrit svayambhu self-created and it serves as a national symbol of Mongolia, to be found on the Flag of Mongolia, the Emblem of Mongolia, and on many other official documents. In the Soyombo alphabet, the two variations of the Soyombo symbol are used to mark the start and end of a text and it is thought to be possible that the symbol itself may predate the script. The Soyombo has ten elements in the arrangement of abstract and geometric symbols. They are fire, moon, two triangles, two rectangles, the Taiji and two vertical rectangles. The elements in the symbol are given the significance, Fire is a general symbol of eternal growth, wealth. The three tongues of the flame represent the past and future, sun and moon symbolise that the Mongolian nation will exist for eternity as the eternal blue sky. Mongolian symbol of the sun and fire derived from the Xiongnu, the two triangles allude to the point of an arrow or spear.
They point downward to announce the defeat of interior and exterior enemies, the two horizontal rectangles give stability to the round shape. The rectangular shape represents the honesty and justice of the people of Mongolia, the Taiji symbol illustrates the mutual complement of man and woman. In socialist times, it was interpreted as two fish symbolizing vigilance, because fish never close their eyes. The two vertical rectangles can be interpreted as the walls of a fort and they represent unity and strength, relating to a Mongolian proverb, The friendship of two is stronger than stone walls. The Soyombo symbol has appeared on the national Flag of Mongolia since 1911 and it served as the Emblem of Mongolia from 1924 to 1940, and was included in the design again in 1992. Mongolian Armed Forces vehicles bear the symbol as a marking, the symbol is seen all over the country, especially on a hillside outside of Ulaanbaatar. The flag and coat of arms of Buryatia as well as the flag of Agin-Buryat Okrug in Russia, and that of the Inner Mongolian Peoples Party display the top elements
They spoke the Khitan language, which is related to the Mongolic languages. As the Liao dynasty, they dominated a vast area north of and including parts of China, There is no consensus on the etymology of the name of Khitan. Feng Jiasheng argues that it comes from the Yuwen chieftains names, zhao Zhenji thinks that the term originated from Xianbei and means a place where Xianbei had resided. Japanese people scholar Otagi Matsuo considers Khitans original name is Xidan, various forms of the word Khitan survive in the many languages as the name of China. The use of the name Khitai to mean China or Chinese in such Turkic languages as Uyghur is considered pejorative by the Han Chinese and they have different stories about their origin. According to Khitan records, their ancestor was Qishou Khagan. Qishou Khagan was a man riding a white horse who floated down the Laoha River and met Kedun. At the intersection of the two rivers, at the foot of the holy Muye Mountain, they met and mated, giving birth to eight sons, a temple with portraits of Khitan ancestors was built on Mount Muye their holiest mountain.
The Qidan Guozhi records a Khitan legend in its preface, There was a chief called Naihe and this chief was nothing but a skull hidden under a rug in a round felt tent, so that he was invisible. Only when something serious had happened in his state, a horse and a gray ox were sacrificed to him, he took on a human figure. After the affairs had been settled, he returned to the tent and he disappeared, for his countrymen peeped at him. Then there was another chief called Waihe who was living in a round felt tent. He wore a head and was clad in pigskin. When there was an action he came out, he retired, it happened that his wife stole his pigskin, he abandoned her and nobody knew where he went. Then there was one called Zhouli Hunhe. Each day he ate nineteen and had one left. These three chiefs were known for their abilities in running their state. In 630, Tang Taizong received the capitulation in southern Manchuria, from the 5th to the 8th centuries, they were dominated by the steppe power to their West and the Chinese to their south
The Altai Uriankhai refer to a Mongolian tribe around the Altai Mountains that were organized by the Qing dynasty. They now form a subgroup in western Mongolia and eastern Xinjiang, the Uriyangkhai or Uriankhai people first appeared in the 7th century as one of the people in Mongolia. The Mongolian term Uriankhai had been applied to all Samoyed, Turkic or Mongol people to the north-west of Mongolia in the 17th century, the Uriyangkhai in this sense were first subjugated by the Khotgoid Khalkha and by the Dzungars. In the mid 14th century, they lived in Liaoyang province of modern China, after the rebellion of the northern Uriankhai people, they were conquered by Dayan Khan in 1538 and mostly annexed by the northern Khalkha. Second group of Uriankhai lived in central Mongolia and they started moving to the Altai Mountains in beginning 16th century, some groups migrated to Khövsgöl Province during the course of the Northern Yuan dynasty. In the Altai Range,7 Altai Uriankhai banners were established into two wings attached to Qing ambans and their territory included eastern Khovd Province and Khovsgol Province.
Most were Oirat Mongolian speakers with Oirat, Buriat, or Mongolian clan names, in the aftermath of the Dungan revolt, the Kazakhs migrated into Altai Uriankhai territory. In 1906, the Qing court transferred Altai Uriankhai banner from Khovds jurisdiction to the new Altai district, in 1913, the district was divided between Boghda Khaanate of Mongolia and the Chinese province of Xinjiang, leaving some Uriankhais in far northwestern Xinjiang. The Altai Uriankhai in Mongolia were attached to the Dorbeds, the Altai Uriankhai and the Kazakhs formed Bayan-Ölgii Province in 1940. Notable Altayin Uriyankhgai people include Damchaa. B, the movie actor and the specialist in Esperanto of Mongolia
Slab Grave culture
Slab Grave culture is a archaeological culture of the Late Bronze Age and Early Iron Age Mongols. According to various sources, it is dated from 1,300 to 300 BC, the Slab Grave Culture became an eastern wing of a huge nomadic Eurasian world which at the beginning of the 1st millennium BC produced a civilization known as Scythian-Siberian. The anthropological type of the population is predominantly Mongoloid, the newcomers from the area of Tuva. The name of the culture is derived from the main typology of the graves, its graves have rectangular fences of vertically set slabs of gneiss or granite, were found settlements and ritual structures, rock paintings, deer stones, and other remains of that culture. The most recent graves date from the 6th century BC, the gap is not less than three centuries, and the monuments that would fill this chronological gap are almost unknown. The slab graves are both individual and collective in groups of 5-8 to large burials with up to 350 fences, large cemeteries have a clear plan.
In Aga Buryat District were found more than three thousand fences, most of the graves are burials, some are ritual fences - cenotaphs. Graves are oriented along west-east axis, deceased are laid on the back, with the head to the east. The fences vary from 1.5 m to 9.6 m, the grave pits under stome kurgan mounds are covered with slabs that often are of considerable sizes. The depth of the burial pits vary from 0,6 m to 2, 5–3 meters, in places within the fence sometimes were installed deer stones, single slabs with images of deer, less frequently of the horses, accompanied with solar signs and armaments. A burial complex on the Lami mountain in the Nerchinsk area consisted of graves about 30 meters in length, not plundered fence was covered by several slabs each weighing up to 0,5 tons. Under cover slabs was an altar with skulls of horses, below were five burial chambers for inhumation. Most of the graves were looted, the buried clothing and footwear is colorful, with various ornaments of bronze and stone, buttons, pendants, cowrie shells.
The accompanying tools are rare and needle beds, even less common are weapons, daggers, bow end caps. In some graves are horse harnesses, whip handles, there are bronze objects, fewer iron and precious metals. Jars are round-bottom earthenware, some tripods, vessel ornament are impressions, rolled bands, indentations. The art of the Slab Grave Culture belongs to the animal style art that depicts domesticated and wild animals, daily life, the Slab Grave Culture art has many common features with cultures of Southern Siberia, Karasuk and others. Thousands of graves can now be seen in the southern Baikal area, in some cases they form a cemetery, with a clear plan and a strict order