Gorbea or Gorbeia is a mountain and massif, the highest in Biscay and Alava, with a height of 1,481 m AMSL. The massif covers a wide area between the two provinces; the main mountain is a round grass-covered summit where a 20-metre-tall metallic cross has been constructed to reach the altitude of 1,500 m. Other important mountains of the massif are the Lekanda and Aldamin limestone peaks. Part of the massif is delimited North by the high karstic plateau of Itxina, an intrincate landscape of limestone full of shafts and caves such as Supelegor; the Atxular's Eye cave is the only walking access to the plateau. The South is delimited by the Berretín mountain and the lush forests of Zuia The entire massif has been enclosed in a natural park of 200 km2 created by the Basque Government in 1994 to preserve the local flora of beech and oak and fauna of wild boar and deer; the main access points for the mountain are Murgia from Areatza from Biscay. The peak of the Gorbea measures 1.482 meters. It is one of the five “bocineros” mountains of Biscay where general meetings are announced with stakes.
It is between Biscay's frontier. It is accessible from all its slopes and it is surrounded of a natural environment, used for agriculture and other type of rural works; this land was inhabited since the beginning of prehistoric life. This place, conserved apart of the civilization, forms the Natural Park of Gorbea; this park is near Urquiola Natural Park. Both of them have a variety of plants diversity, it has always been so popular for Basque mountaineers. One of the traditions of this mountain is to trek the mountain the last day of the year and the first one, but the most important reference of Gorbea is the cross with the virgin Begoña. Near it, there is mailbox. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII ordered crosses built on the highest Christian mountains as a sign of the new century. Due to the importance of Catholicism in the Basque Country the crosses were built. Therefore, the commission of the Basque Country directed by Ceánuri decided to build the cross on the highest mountain of the Basque Country, Gorbea.
It was agreed to build a cross of 33.33 meters and it was supposed to be opened in 1900 but it was not possible. After that, in 1901, the work started. However, the budget was only 300 euros. On 12 November 1901, the cross was opened. However, most shepherds expected that the cross would fall within a few days, they were right. By the next month, the cross had fallen. No sooner had the first cross fallen down; this time, the cross had the same height as the first one but it was stronger. 22 month after, the second cross was opened and in the first of October 1903 the cross was blessed with water from the river Jordan. But it was not going to endure for many years. In fact, on 12 February 1906, the cross was pulled down by a gale. In 1907, work began on the third cross. However, the design was much simpler and it was not as tall as the two earlier ones; this one was 17.23 metres long and its structure was similar to the Eiffel tower. Its base is square and it has 4 feet, 2 in Alava and 2 in Biscay; the structure is strong.
This time, it was more stable and done by experienced architects. The 4 feet are joined at the top, it has good across in the top pointing the East and the West. At the base, a flame is represented as the light, it was built by Palacio. On 23 June 1963, the religious complex was supplemented with the image of the Virgin Begoña, installed by the Alpine Group Baskonia. Ascension route to Gorbea from Murua Ascension route to Gorbea from Barazar
Iruña de Oca/Iruña Oka
Iruña de Oca is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. Is compounded by five towns called "concejos" which names are: Nanclares de la Oca/Langraiz Oka Montevite/Mandaita Ollávarre/Olabarri Víllodas/Billoda Trespuentes/TraspondeIt was formed in 1976 by the merger of the municipalities of Iruña and Nanclares de la Oca. Iruña de Oca is the most populated municipality of the Cuadrilla de Añana. More than the 35% of the people of Añana live there, it is located in the central part of the Álava province, just 14 km far from Vitoria, the capital city of the Basque Country. IRUÑA DE OCA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex
Añana is both a valley and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain, with the main population nucleus being the village of Salinas de Añana. Moreover, Añana is the name of one of the seven counties in which the province is divided; the town is renowned for its old salt flats. Over 5,000 pans have been built since the Roman times, with exportation of its salt a major business. Now, the area has focused on spa tourism to bring needed income to the area. AÑANA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Salinas de Añana and "Salt Valley" Tourism Office
Aiara is a municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. AYALA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia
Sanctuary of Our Lady of Gold
The Sanctuary of Our Lady of Gold is a place of worship in the Zuia Valley of northern Spain. It is about 3.5 kilometres in the center of the valley. Its altitude is 841 metres above sea level. From Murgia, the road towards Vitoriano reaches the sanctuary; the first known document mentioning it dates to 1138. Local archeologists conducted four excavations from 1964 to 1967, found evidence of human habitation in three eras; the oldest dates to the late Bronze Age. A community inhabited the area from 450 to 350 BC, followed by settlement during the Roman Empire. Nothing remains of the original Romanesque church. According to some historians, the sanctuary dates from the late 11th century to the 12th century; this is evidenced by its Romanesque images, similar to those in churches in the nearby villages of Domaikia, Markina-Xemein and Gillerna. The main church vaults were constructed from the end of the 14th to the 15th century, with false plaster vaults in the sacristy dating to 1771; the church's Baroque altar, built by Antonio de Alvarado in 1691, was preserved after the 1964 renovation and the medieval statue of Our Lady of Gold was restored in 1930.
There are two chapels, one dating to 1638 and the other to 1761
Aramaio is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. ARAMAYONA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish