The Zuiderzee was a shallow bay of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 metres and a coastline of about 300 km. It covered 5,000 km2, its name is Dutch for "southern sea", indicating that the name originates in Friesland, to the north of the Zuiderzee. In the 20th century the majority of the Zuiderzee was closed off from the North Sea by the construction of the Afsluitdijk, leaving the mouth of the inlet to become part of the Wadden Sea; the salt water inlet changed into a fresh water lake now called the IJsselmeer after the river that drains into it, by means of drainage and polders, an area of some 1,500 km2 was reclaimed as land. This land became the province of Flevoland, with a population of nearly 400,000. In classical times there was a body of water in this location, called Lacus Flevo by Roman authors, it was much smaller than its forms and its connection to the main sea was much narrower.
Over time these lakes eroded their soft peat shores and spread. Some part of this area of water was called the Vlie; the Marsdiep was once a river. During the early Middle Ages this began to change as rising sea levels and storms started to eat away at the coastal areas which consisted of peatlands. In this period the inlet was referred to as the Almere, indicating it was still more of a lake, but the mouth and size of the inlet were much widened in the 12th century and after a disastrous flood in 1282 broke through the barrier dunes near Texel; the disaster marked the rise of Amsterdam on the southwestern end of the bay, since seagoing traffic of the Baltic trade could now visit. The more massive St. Lucia's flood occurred 14 December 1287, when the seawalls broke during a storm, killing 50,000 to 80,000 people in the fifth largest flood in recorded history; the name "Zuiderzee" came into general usage around this period. The size of this inland sea remained stable from the 15th century onwards due to improvements in dikes, but when storms pushed North Sea water into the inlet, the Zuiderzee became a volatile cauldron of water resulting in flooding and the loss of ships.
For example, on 18 November 1421, a seawall at the Zuiderzee dike broke, which flooded 72 villages and killed about 10,000 people. This was the Second St. Elizabeth's flood; the Netherlands was part of the First French Empire between 1810 and 1813. A département was formed in 1811 and named as Zuyderzée after the Zuiderzee, of which the territory corresponded to the present provinces of North Holland and Utrecht. In 1928, the 6-meter and 8-meter sailing events for the Amsterdam Summer Olympics were held on the Zuiderzee. Around the Zuiderzee many fishing villages grew up and several developed into walled towns with extensive trade connections, in particular Kampen, a town in Overijssel, also towns in Holland such as Amsterdam and Enkhuizen; these towns traded at first with ports on the Baltic Sea, in England, in the Hanseatic League, but also with the rest of the world when the Netherlands established its colonial empire. When that lucrative trade diminished, most of the towns fell back on fishing and some industry until the 20th century when tourism became the major source of income.
Contained within the Zuiderzee were five small islands, the remains of what were once larger islands, peninsulas connected to the mainland, or in the case of Pampus, an artificial island. These were Wieringen, Schokland and Marken; the inhabitants of these islands subsisted on fishing and related industries and still do in the case of Urk and Wieringen. All of these islands, except for Pampus, are now connected to it; the construction in the early 20th century of a large enclosing dam tamed the Zuiderzee. The creation of this dam was a response to the flood of January 1916. Plans for closing the Zuiderzee had been made over thirty years earlier but had not yet passed in parliament. With the completion of the Afsluitdijk in 1932, the Zuiderzee became the IJsselmeer, large areas of water could be reclaimed for farming and housing; these areas, known as polders, were the Wieringermeer, the Noordoostpolder, Flevoland. This enormous project under the direction of Cornelis Lely, called the Zuiderzee Works, ran from 1919 to 1986, culminating in the creation of the new province of Flevoland.
The reclamation project was intended to reclaim the former southwestern portion of the Zuiderzee, a polder that would have been called the Markerwaard, but this final stage of the reclamation project was indefinitely postponed in the 1980s. Zuiderzee Museum, dedicated to the history and culture of the former Zuiderzee Zuiderzee Cycle Route, long-distance cycle route around the former Zuiderzee
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The Eurasian sparrowhawk known as the northern sparrowhawk or the sparrowhawk, is a small bird of prey in the family Accipitridae. Adult male Eurasian sparrowhawks have orange-barred underparts; the female is up to 25% larger than the male – one of the greatest size differences between the sexes in any bird species. Though it is a predator which specialises in catching woodland birds, the Eurasian sparrowhawk can be found in any habitat and hunts garden birds in towns and cities. Males tend to take smaller birds, including tits and sparrows; the Eurasian sparrowhawk is found throughout the subtropical parts of the Old World. Eurasian sparrowhawks breed in suitable woodland of any type, with the nest, measuring up to 60 cm across, built using twigs in a tree. Four or five pale blue, brown-spotted eggs are laid; the chicks hatch after fledge after 24 to 28 days. The probability of a juvenile surviving its first year is 34%, with 69% of adults surviving from one year to the next. Mortality in young males is greater than that of young females and the typical lifespan is four years.
This species is now one of the most common birds of prey in Europe, although the population crashed after the Second World War. Organochlorine insecticides used to treat seeds before sowing built up in the bird population, the concentrations in Eurasian sparrowhawks were enough to kill some outright and incapacitate others. However, its population recovered after the chemicals were banned, it is now common, classified as being of Least Concern by BirdLife International; the Eurasian sparrowhawk's hunting behaviour has brought it into conflict with humans for hundreds of years racing pigeon owners and people rearing poultry and gamebirds. It has been blamed for decreases in passerine populations; the increase in population of the Eurasian Sparrowhawk coincides with the decline in House Sparrows in Britain. Studies of racing pigeon deaths found that Eurasian sparrowhawks were responsible for less than 1%. Falconers have utilised the Eurasian sparrowhawk since at least the 16th century; the species features in Teutonic mythology and is mentioned in works by writers including William Shakespeare, Lord Tennyson and Ted Hughes.
Within the family Accipitridae, the Eurasian sparrowhawk is a member of the large genus Accipiter, which consists of small to medium-sized woodland hawks. Most of the Old World members of the genus are called goshawks; the species' name dates back to the Middle English word sperhauk and Old English spearhafoc, a hawk which hunts sparrows. The Old Norse name for the Eurasian sparrowhawk, was thought to have been coined by Vikings who encountered falconry in England. English folk names for the Eurasian sparrowhawk include blue hawk, referring to the adult male's colouration, as well as hedge hawk, spar hawk, spur hawk and stone falcon; the Eurasian sparrowhawk was described by Linnaeus in his 18th century work, Systema Naturae, as Falco nisus, but moved to its present genus by French zoologist Mathurin Jacques Brisson in 1760. The current scientific name is derived from the Latin accipiter, meaning'hawk' and nisus, the sparrowhawk. According to Greek mythology, the king of Megara, was turned into a sparrowhawk after his daughter, cut off his purple lock of hair to present to her lover, Minos.
The Eurasian sparrowhawk forms a superspecies with the rufous-chested sparrowhawk of eastern and southern Africa, the Madagascan sparrowhawk. Geographic variation is clinal, with birds becoming larger and paler in the eastern part of the range compared to the west. Within the species itself, six subspecies are recognised: A. n. nisus, the nominate subspecies, was described by Linnaeus in 1758. It breeds from west Asia to western Siberia and Iran. A. n. nisosimilis was described by Samuel Tickell in 1833. It breeds from central and eastern Siberia east to Kamchatka and Japan, south to northern China; this subspecies is wholly migratory, wintering from Pakistan and India eastwards through South-East Asia and southern China to Korea and Japan. It is similar to, but larger than, the nominate subspecies. A. n. melaschistos was described by Allan Octavian Hume in 1869. It breeds in mountains from Afghanistan through the Himalayas and southern Tibet to western China, winters in the plains of South Asia.
Larger and longer tailed than nisosimilis, it has dark slate-coloured upperparts, more distinct rufous barring on the underparts. A. n. wolterstorffi, described by Otto Kleinschmidt in 1900, is resident in Corsica. It is the smallest of all the races, darker on the upperparts and more barred below than the nominate subspecies. A. n. granti, described by Richard Bowdler Sharpe in 1890, is confined to Madeira and the Canary Islands. It is dark. A. n. punicus, described by Erlanger in 1897, is resident in north-west Africa, north of the Sahara. It is similar to nisus, being large and pale
Den Oever is a village in the Dutch province of North Holland. It is a part of the municipality of Hollands Kroon, lies about 18 kilometres east of Den Helder; the village is located at the west side of the Afsluitdijk: therefore the Stevin lock and three series of five sluices for discharging the IJsselmeer into the Wadden Sea were constructed in Den Oever. In 2001, the town of Den Oever had 2286 inhabitants; the built-up area of the town was 0.53 km², contained 938 residences. The eightsided wooden grain smock mill "De Hoop" is situated in the middle of the village with a wingspan of 17 metres, it dates back into the 17th century and has been restored in the second half of the 20th century. Unusually, the mill has never had had a hoist mechanism. Breezanddijk Kornwerderzand Den Oever Lighthouse Media related to Den Oever at Wikimedia Commons Mill description in Dutch with images on www.molendatabase.nl
The Zaan is a small river in the province of North Holland in the northwestern Netherlands and the name of a district through which it runs. The river was a side arm of the IJ bay and travels 13.5 kilometers through the municipalities of Zaanstad and Wormerland north of Amsterdam, from West-Knollendam in the north to Zaandam in the south, where it empties into the IJ. The municipality of Zaanstad and several towns along the Zaan are named for the river: Koog aan de Zaan, Oostzaan and the city of Zaandam; the river runs past the Zaanse Schans, a village with historic windmills and houses. It is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Netherlands; the region through which the river runs is called the Zaan district. It comprises the municipalities of Zaanstad and most of Wormerland. During the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th century, the Zaan district was dotted with windmills with a variety of functions and it is considered to be one of the world's first industrialized areas. Joining an considerable number of flour mills were, for example, from 1592 "wood mills" for sawing wood, from 1600 "hemp mills" for extracting fibers from flax and hemp, from 1601 oil mills for crushing oil-bearing seeds and "paint mills" producing dyes and paint, shortly after paper mills for the production of paper.
By the mid-17th century 900 windmills could be found along the river, some of them still preserved in the Zaanse Schans. The Zaan district continues to be a industrialized area with many factories around the city of Zaandam. A number of major Dutch companies, like Verkade, were founded in the Zaan district; the dialect spoken in the Zaan area is known as Zaans. It has some similarities with the West Frisian dialect. French impressionist painter Claude Monet stayed in Zaandam in the summer of 1871 and produced a series of 24 paintings of the Zaan district, writing to his friend Camille Pissarro that, "there is enough here to paint for an entire lifetime." Monet returned to the Zaan district to paint during visits to the Netherlands in following years. The name of the Alkmaar-based football club AZ is short for Alkmaar Zaanstreek
Hindeloopen is an old city on the North of the Netherlands on the IJsselmeer. It lies within the municipality of Súdwest Fryslân, it is famous because of the Hindeloopen hindeloopen costume. Hindeloopen is one of the eleven cities of Friesland, it had a population of around 875 in January 2017. Hindeloopen received city rights in 1225 and in 1368 it became a member of the Hanseatic League. Since the 12th and 13th century, shippers of Hindeloopen undertook journeys to the North and Baltic Sea Coasts; the strong overseas connections with foreign countries and infrequent contact with the hinterland were the reasons for the developing of the Hindeloopen language. The shipping trade brought the population of Hindeloopen a great prosperity; the 17th and 18th century were golden times. At that time, the people of Hindeloopen spent a lot of money in Amsterdam on precious fabrics and objects, which were supplied through the Dutch East India Company; the rich town developed in those days her own costume and a individual style with colorful painted walls and furniture.
In the small streets some sea captains houses remind of this time of glory. You can see an anchor hanging on the façades of these houses, in those years a sign, that the captain could still accept freight. In summertime when the captain was at sea, the captain's wife lived with the children in the so-called “Likhus”. A little house behind the captain's house at the waterline. Before 2011, the city was part of the Nijefurd municipality and before 1984 Hindeloopen was an independent municipality. In the old center you can get a feel for Hindeloopen's unique character by wandering through the narrow streets and looking for the lovely views, the typical wooden bridges and characteristic façades. In the Museum Hindeloopen you can become acquainted with the rich maritime history and living culture of Hindeloopen, which manifests itself in the rich Hindeloopen art and in the fine old costumes. Peter Tazelaar Official website Museum Hindeloopen Museum Hindeloopen: Hindelooper schilderkunst, stads- en scheepvaarthistorie
Merlin Theodore Minshall was a British naval officer and adventurer. He is claimed to have been one of the inspirations behind James Bond, the fictional spy created by Ian Fleming. Minshall worked for Fleming during the Second World War, as a member of the Royal Navy's Naval Intelligence Division, he wrote about his life in a book entitled Guilt-Edged. Its content is summed up by Len Deighton in the foreword: "His mother was a spy in World War I. Ian Fleming was his boss throughout the Second World War. Unwittingly sucked into the world of Nazi espionage during an innocent sailing trip, he was seduced by a lovely but lethal German agent and met Field Marshal Göring face to face, he was the first man to cross the Sahara on a motorcycle and while travelling through the Congo, he accidentally discovered a secret German army. But Romania set the scene for the height of espionage activity – when he single handedly pirated a ship from under Nazi eyes and blew up a vital link in German tanker communications.
The man is Merlin Minshall and this is his unique story." The book was translated into Dutch by Iet Grader and is renamed De Avonturier, published in 1976. Son of Colonel Thomas Herbert Minshall, DSO, a well known consultant electrical engineer and newspaper proprietor and Theodora Minshall née Wigham-Richardson, he was educated at Charterhouse and Oxford University. Upon graduation Minshall trained as an architect at London University, before embarking on his boat the Hawke on his quest to be the first Englishman to sail across Europe to the Black Sea. Minshall traded for the Hawke in Bosham, exchanging for it from Gerald Hulse in 1931 with a sports car. Hulse had only purchased the Hawke the year before from Dr. Marmaduke Fawkes who had owned the boat since 1926 having bought it over from the Netherlands. Minshall was accompanied by his first wife, but they separated during this trip and were divorced; the subsequent encounter with the German agent, Lisa Kaltenbrunner came while sailing down the River Danube.
She hitched a lift on his yacht – but it was no coincidence. She had been sent to discover whether he was charting the river and investigating oil storage depots for British intelligence. Having seduced him, she attempted to poison him, but Minshall survived, the knowledge he had gained did indeed prove useful to the British in a subsequent operation during the war. Minshall was well known as an amateur racing driver, who specialised in the kind of road races that are illegal today. A two time competitor in the Monte Carlo rally, his greatest triumph came in 1937, when he was presented with a trophy by Benito Mussolini for winning the 1937 Italian Foreign Challenge Trophy – a three-day, 4,000-mile road race between Rome and Sicily, it involved over 400 cars, led to the death of four drivers. He was the first man to drive an air cooled vehicle north to south across the Sahara desert. At the outbreak of World War II, he was recalled to duty as part of the RNVR where he had a varied career, including working for Ian Fleming.
He was a watchkeeper in the Admiralty operations room in London. In early 1940 he was a major participant in the failed scheme to block the Danube in Rumania to disrupt German oil imports, working under diplomatic cover as British Vice Consul in Bucharest. In 1940, leading a joint NID/SOE team, Minshall ran Operation Shamrock, where a commandeered fishing smack was used as an observation platform for monitoring German U-boat traffic in the Gironde estuary. Minshall received a "Mentioned in Despatches" for his part in this operation. Subsequently, he ran a section at HMS Flowerdown, using direction finding and transmitter analysis to identify the positions of individual ships; as such, during May 1941 he played a part in the hunt for the Bismarck. Posted to Fiji, he managed to get his posting changed to New Zealand, where he worked on various intelligence projects, including establishing a Z machine intercept station at Rapuara near Blenheim. Recalled to the UK, he was landed in occupied Yugoslavia as officer in charge of the Allied Naval Mission to Tito in Yugoslavia.
Minshall was married four times, the first to Elizabeth Dorothy Magdalene Loveday, from whom he was divorced in 1935. His second wife was Isolde Llewellyn, his third Janine Paulette Sergent of Lyons and fourth Christina Majorie Zambra, great niece of the Scottish artist Harrington Mann, with whom he had four sons Peter, Matthew and Timothy. Inspirations for James Bond Minshall, Guilt Edged, Bachman & Turner, 1975. ISBN 978-0-85974-032-6 Minshall, Merlin, De Avonturier translation in Dutch of Guilt Edged by Iet Grader Hollandia BV 1976 ISBN 90-6045-950-4 M. R. D. Foot & Brooks Richards, Secret Flotillas: Clandestine Sea Operations to Brittany 1940–1944, Routledge, 2004. ISBN 978-0-7146-5316-7 Google books of Secret Flotillas Times Obituary CBC Interview with Merlin Minshall Merlin's association with Singer cars in motorsport WRNZNS history