A deity is a supernatural being considered divine or sacred. The Oxford Dictionary of English defines deity as "a god or goddess". C. Scott Littleton defines a deity as "a being with powers greater than those of ordinary humans, but who interacts with humans, positively or negatively, in ways that carry humans to new levels of consciousness, beyond the grounded preoccupations of ordinary life". In the English language, a male deity is referred to as a god, while a female deity is referred to as a goddess. Religions can be categorized by. Monotheistic religions accept only one deity, polytheistic religions accept multiple deities. Henotheistic religions accept one supreme deity without denying other deities, considering them as aspects of the same divine principle. Although most monotheistic religions traditionally envision their God as omnipotent, omniscient and eternal, none of these qualities are essential to the definition of a "deity" and various cultures conceptualized their deities differently.
Monotheistic religions refer to God in masculine terms, while other religions refer to their deities in a variety of ways – masculine, feminine and without gender. Many ancient cultures – including the ancient Mesopotamians, Greeks and Norsemen– personified natural phenomena, variously as either deliberate causes or effects; some Avestan and Vedic deities were viewed as ethical concepts. In Indian religions, deities were envisioned as manifesting within the temple of every living being's body, as sensory organs and mind. Deities were envisioned as a form of existence after rebirth, for human beings who gain merit through an ethical life, where they become guardian deities and live blissfully in heaven, but are subject to death when their merit is lost; the English language word "deity" derives from Old French deité, the Latin deitatem or "divine nature", coined by Augustine of Hippo from deus. Deus is related through a common Proto-Indo-European origin to *deiwos; this root yields the ancient Indian word Deva meaning "to gleam, a shining one", from *div- "to shine", as well as Greek dios "divine" and Zeus.
Deva is masculine, the related feminine equivalent is devi. Etymologically, the cognates of Devi are Greek thea. In Old Persian, daiva- means "demon, evil god", while in Sanskrit it means the opposite, referring to the "heavenly, terrestrial things of high excellence, shining ones"; the linked term "god" refers to "supreme being, deity", according to Douglas Harper, is derived from Proto-Germanic *guthan, from PIE *ghut-, which means "that, invoked". Guth in the Irish language means "voice"; the term *ghut- is the source of Old Church Slavonic zovo, Sanskrit huta-, from the root *gheu-,An alternate etymology for the term "god" comes from the Proto-Germanic Gaut, which traces it to the PIE root *ghu-to-, derived from the root *gheu-. The term *gheu- is the source of the Greek khein "to pour"; the German root was a neuter noun. The gender of the monotheistic God shifted to masculine under the influence of Christianity. In contrast, all ancient Indo-European cultures and mythologies recognized both masculine and feminine deities.
There is no universally accepted consensus on what a deity is, concepts of deities vary across cultures. Huw Owen states that the term "deity or god or its equivalent in other languages" has a bewildering range of meanings and significance, it has ranged from "infinite transcendent being who created and lords over the universe", to a "finite entity or experience, with special significance or which evokes a special feeling", to "a concept in religious or philosophical context that relates to nature or magnified beings or a supra-mundane realm", to "numerous other usages". A deity is conceptualized as a supernatural or divine concept, manifesting in ideas and knowledge, in a form that combines excellence in some or all aspects, wrestling with weakness and questions in other aspects, heroic in outlook and actions, yet tied up with emotions and desires. In other cases, the deity is a principle or reality such as the idea of "soul"; the Upanishads of Hinduism, for example, characterize Atman as deva, thereby asserting that the deva and eternal supreme principle is part of every living creature, that this soul is spiritual and divine, that to realize self-knowledge is to know the supreme.
Theism is the belief in the existence of one or more deities. Polytheism is the belief in and worship of multiple deities, which are assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, with accompanying rituals. In most polytheistic religions, the different gods and goddesses are representations of forces of nature or ancestral principles, can be viewed either as autonomous or as aspects or emanations of a creator God or transcendental absolute principle, which manifests immanently in nature. Henotheism accepts the existence of more than one deity, but considers all deities as equivalent representations or aspects of the same divine principle, the highest. Monolatry is the belief that many deities exist, but that only one of these deities may be validly worshipped. Monotheism is the belief. A monotheistic deity, known as "God", is u
In ancient Greek religion and mythology, Demeter is the goddess of the grain, harvest and nourishment, who presided over grains and the fertility of the earth. Her cult titles include Sito, "she of the Grain", as the giver of food or grain, Thesmophoros, "Law-Bringer", as a mark of the civilized existence of agricultural society. Though Demeter is described as the goddess of the harvest, she presided over the sacred law, the cycle of life and death, she and her daughter Persephone were the central figures of the Eleusinian Mysteries, a religious tradition that predated the Olympian pantheon, which may have its roots in the Mycenaean period c. 1400–1200 BC. Demeter was considered to be the same figure as the Anatolian goddess Cybele, in Rome she was identified as the Latin goddess Ceres, it is possible that Demeter appears in Linear A as da-ma-te on three documents, all three dedicated in religious situations and all three bearing just the name. It is unlikely. On the other hand, si-to-po-ti-ni-ja, "Potnia of the Grain", is regarded as referring to her Bronze Age predecessor or to one of her epithets.
Demeter's character as mother-goddess is identified in the second element of her name meter derived from Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. In antiquity, different explanations were proffered for the first element of her name, it is possible that Da, a word which corresponds to Ge in Attic, is the Doric form of De, "earth", the old name of the chthonic earth-goddess, that Demeter is "Mother-Earth". This root appears in the Linear B inscription E-ne-si-da-o-ne, "earth-shaker", as an aspect of the god Poseidon. However, the dā element in the name of Demeter is not so equated with "earth" according to John Chadwick; the element De- may be connected with Deo, an epithet of Demeter derived from the Cretan word dea, Ionic zeia —variously identified with emmer, rye, or other grains by modern scholars—so that she is the Mother and the giver of food generally. Wanax was her male companion in Mycenaean cult; the Arcadian cult links her to the god Poseidon, who substituted the male companion of the Great Goddess.
An alternative Proto-Indo-European etymology comes through Potnia and Despoina, where Des- represents a derivative of PIE *dem, Demeter is "mother of the house". Demeter was associated with images of the harvest, including flowers and grain, she was sometimes pictured with her daughter Persephone. Demeter is not portrayed with any of her consorts. Demeter is assigned the zodiac constellation Virgo the Virgin by Marcus Manilius in his 1st century Roman work Astronomicon. In art, constellation Virgo holds Spica, a sheaf of wheat in her hand and sits beside constellation Leo the Lion. In Arcadia, she was known as "Black Demeter", she was said to have taken the form of a mare to escape the pursuit of Poseidon, having been raped by him despite her disguise, dressed all in black and retreated into a cave to mourn and to purify herself. She was depicted with the head of a horse in this region. A sculpture of the Black Demeter was made by Onatas. In epic poetry and Hesiod's Theogony, Demeter is the Corn-Mother, the goddess of cereals who provides grain for bread and blesses its harvesters.
This was her main function at Eleusis, became panhellenic. In Cyprus, "grain-harvesting" was damatrizein; the main theme in the Eleusinian mysteries was the reunion of Persephone with her mother Demeter, when new crops were reunited with the old seed, a form of eternity. According to the Athenian rhetorician Isocrates, Demeter's greatest gifts to humankind were agriculture of cereals, the Mysteries which give the initiate higher hopes in this life and the afterlife; these two gifts were intimately connected in Demeter's myths and mystery cults. In Hesiod, prayers to Zeus-Chthonios and Demeter help the crops grow strong. Demeter's emblem is a bright red flower that grows among the barley. Demeter was zeidoros arοura, the Homeric "Mother Earth arοura" who gave the gift of cereals. In addition to her role as an agricultural goddess, Demeter was worshiped more as a goddess of the earth. In Arcadia, she was represented as snake-haired, holding a dove and dolphin to symbolize her power over the underworld, the air, the water.
In the cult of Flya, she was worshiped as one who sends up gifts from the underworld. There was a temple of Demeter under this name in Phlius in Attica. In Sparta, she was known as Demeter-Chthonia; the Athenians called the dead "Demetrioi", this may reflect a link between Demeter and ancient cult of the dead, linked to the agrarian-belief that a new life would sprout from the dead body, as a new plant arises from buried seed. This was a belief shared by initiates in Demeter's mysteries, as interpreted by Pindar: "Happy is he who has seen what exists under the earth, because he knows not only the end of life, but his beginning that the Gods will give". In the mysteries of P
In comparative mythology, sky father is a term for a recurring concept in polytheistic religions of a sky god, addressed as a "father" the father of a pantheon and is either reigning or former King of the Gods. The concept of "sky father" may be taken to include Sun gods with similar characteristics, such as Ra; the concept is complementary to an "earth mother". "Sky Father" is a direct translation of the Vedic Dyaus Pita, etymologically descended from the same Proto-Indo-European deity name as the Greek Zeû Pater and Roman Jupiter, all of which are reflexes of the same Proto-Indo-European deity's name, *Dyēus Ph₂tḗr. While there are numerous parallels adduced from outside of Indo-European mythology, there are exceptions. In Mesopotamian mythology, An or Anu, Sumerian for "heaven, sky", is the father deity of the Sumerian and Assyro-Babylonian pantheon and is the earliest attested Sky Father deity. Indo-European mythology In the early Vedic pantheon, Dyaus Pita "Sky Father" appears in a marginal position, but in comparative mythology is reconstructed as having stood alongside Prithvi Mata "Earth Mother" in prehistoric times.
In Ancient Rome, the sky father, or sky god, was Jupiter depicted by birds the eagle or hawk, clouds or other sky phenomena. Nicknames included "Sky God" and "Cloud Gatherer". Uranus was the primordial greek god of the sky Ukko in Finnish mythology In Māori mythology, Ranginui was the sky father. In this story, the sky father and earth mother Papatūānuku and had divine children. Wākea is a sky father in Hawaiian mythology. In Native American mythology and Native American religion, the sky father is a common character in creation myths. In China, in Daoism, 天, meaning sky, is associated with light, the positive, etc. whereas 地 meaning earth or land, is associated with dark, the negative, etc. Shangdi 上帝 was a supreme God worshipped in ancient China, it is used to refer to the Christian God in the Standard Chinese Union Version of the Bible. Zhu, Tian Zhu 主,天主 is translated from the English word, "Lord", a formal title of the Christian God in Mainland China's Christian churches. Tian 天 is used to refer to the sky as well as a personification of it.
Whether it possesses sentience in the embodiment of an omnipotent, omniscient being is a difficult question for linguists and philosophers. Tengri "sky", chief god of the early religion of the Turkic and Mongolic peoples. In Ancient Egypt, Horus was ruler of the sky, he was shown as a male humanoid with the head of a falcon. It is not uncommon for birds to represent the sky in ancient religions, due to their ability to fly. However, in Egyptian mythology the sky was perceived as the goddess Nut. In what is now Colombia, the Muisca used to worship Bochica as the sky father. "Taevaisa" is the word by which adherents in Estonia of the Maausk and the Taara native beliefs refer to God. Although both branches of the original Estonian religion - which are just different ways of approaching what is in essence the same thing, to the extent that it remains extant - are pantheistic, heaven has a definite and important place in the ancient pre-Christian Estonian belief system. All things are sacred for those of the faith of the land, but the idea of a sky father - among other "sacrednesses" - is something all Estonians are well aware of.
In newer history, after the arrival of Christianity, the ideas of a sky father and "a father who art in heaven" have become somewhat conflated. One way or another, the phrase "taevaisa" remains in common use in Estonia; the Liber Sancti Iacobi by Aymericus Picaudus tells that the Basques called God Urcia, a word found in compounds for the names of some week days and meteorological phenomena. The current usage is Jaungoikoa, that can be interpreted as "the lord of above"; the imperfect grammaticality of the word leads some to conjecture that it is a folk etymology applied to jainkoa, now considered a shorter synonym. Earth mother Sky deity Thunder god
Reformed Churches in South Africa
The Reformed Churches in South Africa is a Christian denomination in South Africa, formed in 1859 in Rustenburg. Members of the church are sometimes referred to as Doppers. In the early 19th century a new hymnbook was introduced in the Dutch churches in the Netherlands, implemented in the Dutch Reformed Church in the Cape. Many of these songs contradicted the teachings of the three confessions accepted at the Synod of Dort in 1618/1619; some of the church members could not accept these doctrines. When they refused to sing the hymns, they were threatened with excommunication, they had the view: In Gods huis Gods lied. The main founders of the denomination were concentrated in the vicinity of Rustenburg. In 1859, 15 brothers decided to separate them from the Dutch Reformed Church; these 15 members made. At this meeting, 300 members have enrolled as members of Gereformeerde Kerke; the spot is markde today by the Syringa Tree Monument. The Gereformeerde Kerke founded a seminary for theological studies as well as teacher training in Burgersdorp in the Eastern Cape.
It was moved to Potchefstroom in the early 20th century, where it became the Potchefstroom University College for Higher Christian Education, now the North West University. One of the faculties is the seminary for training their ministers; the official name of the church body today is Die Gereformeerde Kerke in Suid-Afrika. It is known as the Reformed Churches in South Africa, it has 415 Congregations ministering to people in all 11 official languages of South Africa. There are congregations in Zimbabwe and Lesotho; the General Synod meets every third year in Potchefstroom. It has ecumenical ties with churches on all the continents of the world; the Gereformeerde Kerke today uses only hymns from the Bible: the Psalms as well as Skrifberymings. Skrifberymings are hymns based on passages from the Bible. Besides the Psalms and Skrifberymings, the hymnal contains the following: Three Forms of Unity, which consist of the Belgic Confession, the Heidelberg Catechism and the Canons of Dort; the liturgical forms for the baptism of children, public confession of faith, the baptism of adults, the holy communion, confirmation of elders and deacons, confirmation of ministers, the marriage ceremony.
The Church Order A number of prayers. Apostles Creed Athanasian Creed Nicene Creed Canons of Dort Belgic Confession Heidelberg Catechism The Reformed Churches have a Presbyterian - Synodal system of church government; the church consists of the Eastern Regional Synod, the Bushweld Synod, the Northwest Synod, the Regional Synod of Free State and KwaZulu-Natal, the Southern Regional Synod, the Randvaal Regional Synod. Criticism that the churches in the RCSA have abandoned the principle that Christ is the only Head of the church, exists; the impression that some of the churches have abandoned the principles from the Reformation has been discussed at the "GKSA Forum". Since Christ reigns through his Word and Spirit, tension arrises when important decisions are made, perceived to deviate from Scripture. In 2017, the Reformed church Bet-El was placed outside the communion of the RCSA as result of such differences; the Reformed Churches in South Africa have their own Theological Seminary " Die Teologiese Skool" in Potchefstroom.
The Reformed Churches in South Africa has a number of growing local congregations. The denomination has local outreaches in Mozambique. There are churches; the Reformed Church in Rustenburg, South Africa has agreement with Koshin Presbyterian Church in Korea to support evangelism, establishing new multicultural churches in Rustenburg area. The church cooperates with the Presbyterian Church of Brazil in missions in Mozambique, it is involved in a Reformed church plant in Hanoi, Vietnam. Through membership in the World Reformed Fellowship, Gereformeerde Gemeenten collabotates WRF's works for example in the International Institute of Islamic Studies. Reformed Churches in South Africa is a member of the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed ChurchesThe Gereformeerde Kerke has sister church relationship with the: Christian Reformed Churches in the Netherlands Reformed Churches in the Netherlands Netherlands Reformed Churches Reformed Churches in Botswana United Reformed Church in Congo Christian Reformed Church in North America Orthodox Presbyterian Church Christian Reformed Churches of Australia Free Church of Scotland Reformed Churches of New Zealand Reformed Church in Japan Presbyterian Church in Korea.
"Professor Dirk Postma", Dr. G. C. P. van der Vyver, Pro Rege Pers, 1958 "Handleiding vir die studie van Kerkgeskiedenis", Prof. S. du Toit, Pro Rege Pers, 1970 Official website Reformed Churches in South Africa Facebook page: Reformed Church in Rustenburg, South Africa Reformed Church in Pretoria, South Africa
An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves. Earthquakes can range in size from those that are so weak that they cannot be felt to those violent enough to toss people around and destroy whole cities; the seismicity, or seismic activity, of an area is the frequency and size of earthquakes experienced over a period of time. The word tremor is used for non-earthquake seismic rumbling. At the Earth's surface, earthquakes manifest themselves by shaking and displacing or disrupting the ground; when the epicenter of a large earthquake is located offshore, the seabed may be displaced sufficiently to cause a tsunami. Earthquakes can trigger landslides, volcanic activity. In its most general sense, the word earthquake is used to describe any seismic event—whether natural or caused by humans—that generates seismic waves. Earthquakes are caused by rupture of geological faults, but by other events such as volcanic activity, mine blasts, nuclear tests.
An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter. Tectonic earthquakes occur anywhere in the earth where there is sufficient stored elastic strain energy to drive fracture propagation along a fault plane; the sides of a fault move past each other smoothly and aseismically only if there are no irregularities or asperities along the fault surface that increase the frictional resistance. Most fault surfaces do have such asperities and this leads to a form of stick-slip behavior. Once the fault has locked, continued relative motion between the plates leads to increasing stress and therefore, stored strain energy in the volume around the fault surface; this continues until the stress has risen sufficiently to break through the asperity allowing sliding over the locked portion of the fault, releasing the stored energy. This energy is released as a combination of radiated elastic strain seismic waves, frictional heating of the fault surface, cracking of the rock, thus causing an earthquake.
This process of gradual build-up of strain and stress punctuated by occasional sudden earthquake failure is referred to as the elastic-rebound theory. It is estimated that only 10 percent or less of an earthquake's total energy is radiated as seismic energy. Most of the earthquake's energy is used to power the earthquake fracture growth or is converted into heat generated by friction. Therefore, earthquakes lower the Earth's available elastic potential energy and raise its temperature, though these changes are negligible compared to the conductive and convective flow of heat out from the Earth's deep interior. There are three main types of fault, all of which may cause an interplate earthquake: normal and strike-slip. Normal and reverse faulting are examples of dip-slip, where the displacement along the fault is in the direction of dip and movement on them involves a vertical component. Normal faults occur in areas where the crust is being extended such as a divergent boundary. Reverse faults occur in areas.
Strike-slip faults are steep structures where the two sides of the fault slip horizontally past each other. Many earthquakes are caused by movement on faults that have components of both dip-slip and strike-slip. Reverse faults those along convergent plate boundaries are associated with the most powerful earthquakes, megathrust earthquakes, including all of those of magnitude 8 or more. Strike-slip faults continental transforms, can produce major earthquakes up to about magnitude 8. Earthquakes associated with normal faults are less than magnitude 7. For every unit increase in magnitude, there is a thirtyfold increase in the energy released. For instance, an earthquake of magnitude 6.0 releases 30 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude earthquake and a 7.0 magnitude earthquake releases 900 times more energy than a 5.0 magnitude of earthquake. An 8.6 magnitude earthquake releases the same amount of energy as 10,000 atomic bombs like those used in World War II. This is so because the energy released in an earthquake, thus its magnitude, is proportional to the area of the fault that ruptures and the stress drop.
Therefore, the longer the length and the wider the width of the faulted area, the larger the resulting magnitude. The topmost, brittle part of the Earth's crust, the cool slabs of the tectonic plates that are descending down into the hot mantle, are the only parts of our planet which can store elastic energy and release it in fault ruptures. Rocks hotter than about 300 °C flow in response to stress; the maximum observed lengths of ruptures and mapped faults are 1,000 km. Examples are the earthquakes in Chile, 1960; the longest earthquake ruptures on strike-slip faults, like the San Andreas Fault, the North Anatolian Fault in Turkey and the Denali Fault in Alaska, are about half to one third as long as the lengths along subducting plate margins, those along normal faults are shorter. The most important parameter controlling the maximum earthquake magnitude on a fault is however not the maximum available length, but the available width because the latter varies by a factor of 20. Along converging plate margins, the dip angle of the rupture plane is shallow about 10 de
Protestantism in South Africa
Protestantism in South Africa accounted for 73.2% of the population in 2010. Its history dates back to the initial European settlement on the Cape of Good Hope in 1652. Since Protestantism has been the predominant religion of the European settlers and today, of South Africa as a whole. According to the CIA Factbook, while the majority of South Africans are Protestant, no individual church predominates; the largest Protestant denomination in the country is Pentecostalism, followed by Methodism, Dutch Reformed and Anglicans. Protestant denominations in South Africa include: Afrikaanse Protestantse Kerk Anglican Church of Southern Africa Apostolic Faith Mission of South Africa Baptist Union of Southern Africa Church of England in South Africa Christian Reformed Church in South Africa Free Church in Southern Africa Die heilsleer Evangelical Lutheran Church in Southern Africa Methodist Church of Southern Africa Nazareth Baptist Church Nederduits Gereformeerde Kerk Presbyterian Church of Africa United Congregational Church of Southern Africa Uniting Presbyterian Church in Southern Africa Uniting Reformed Church in Southern Africa Zionist Churches Afrikaner Calvinism Apostolic Church of South Africa - Apostle Unity Huguenots in South Africa Roman Catholicism in South Africa Islam in South Africa CIA Factbook on South Africa Stephen Offutt, New Centers of Global Evangelicalism in Latin America and Africa focuses on El Salvador and South Africa.
New Apostolic Church
The New Apostolic Church is a chiliastic Christian church that split from the Catholic Apostolic Church during an 1863 schism in Hamburg, Germany. The church has existed since 1863 since 1897 in the Netherlands, it came about from the schism in Hamburg in 1863, when it demerged from the Catholic Apostolic Church, which itself started in the 1830s as a renewal movement in, among others, the Anglican Church and Church of Scotland. Premillennialism and the Second Coming of Christ are at the forefront of the New Apostolic doctrines. Most of its doctrines are akin to mainstream Christianity and its liturgy, to Protestantism, whereas its hierarchy and organisation could be compared with the Roman Catholic Church; the New Apostolic Church is neither Catholic. It is a central church in the Irvingian orientation of Christianity; the church considers itself to be the re-established continuation of the Early Church and that its leaders are the successors of the twelve apostles. This doctrine resembles Restorationism in some aspects.
The official abbreviation in English-speaking countries is NAC, whereas it is NAK in German, ENA in French, INA in Portuguese and Spanish. In England in 1832, John Bate Cardale was called, through prophecies, as the first apostle of the second sending. Eleven more men from various Christian denominations, social positions and religious training were called to the newly founded apostle ministry from until 1835. After a long period of combined preparation, these apostles started to travel around the world, preaching the gospel of Jesus Christ; the main point of their gospel was. They were convinced that the restoration of the apostles' ministry was necessary to achieve that perfect condition. After the death of three apostles in 1855, the apostolate declared that there was no reason to call new apostles. During a meeting at Albury in 1860, the German Prophet Heinrich Geyer called two evangelists to be apostles. After deliberation, the apostles rejected this calling, explained the callings of substitutes as coadjutors to the remaining apostles and affirmed that no further callings to the apostolate would be accepted.
On 10 October 1862, while traveling with the Apostle Woodhouse in Königsberg, the Prophet Geyer called Rudolf Rosochaki to be an apostle while staying in his home. As callings in private were no longer accepted by the English apostles, Rosochaki was told to wait patiently until God would confirm his calling in the presence of witnesses. In December, Geyer informed Angel F. W. Schwartz, of the Hamburg congregation, that Rosochaki had been called and Angel Schwartz invited both of them to Hamburg. In the afternoon service of 4 January 1863, Schwartz asked the men to describe what had happened and Schwartz, along with most of the congregation, accepted this calling of Rosochaki to the apostolate. A few days Apostle Rosochaki became doubtful of the divine origin of his calling as an Apostle after meeting with some of the other apostles, he subordinated himself once more to Apostle Woodhouse and left the schismatics, returning to the Catholic Apostolic congregation on 17 January 1863. On 26 January 1863 Angel Schwartz met with Apostle Woodhouse and Archangel Rothe in Berlin and expressed his belief in the need to continue the Apostle ministry.
Therefore, on 6 February 1863 Apostle Woodhouse informed the Hamburg congregation, in writing, of its expulsion from the Catholic Apostolic Church. This is known as the "Hamburg Schism"; the Hamburg congregation, along with Prophet Geyer, split off to form the Allgemeine Apostolische Mission in 1863, shortly thereafter the Dutch branch of the Restored Apostolic Mission Church, at first known as Apostolische Zending and registered as Hersteld Apostolische Zendingkerk in 1893. Today, 4 January 1863 is considered the date; as Rosochaki had returned to the Catholic Apostolic Church, this left the newly independent Hamburg congregation without apostolic authority: no more believers could be sealed. On 12 April 1863, a deacon delivered a prophecy calling Priest Carl Louis Preuss as an Apostle. Prophet Heinrich Geyer confirmed this calling a little later. On 25 May 1863, Friedrich Wilhelm Schwartz was called as an Apostle through many prophetically gifted members in the congregation, through Prophet Geyer.
Thus began the work of the Apostles of the New Order, with German "apostles" spreading "the word" around the world. The Prophet Geyer initiated the first schism in the new body for the same reason as the schism from the English Apostles and as for leaving the Catholic Apostolic congregations, namely Apostles not validating the Prophet's call for an Apostle. Friction existed between the Prophet Geyer and Apostle Preuss concerning whether Prophets or Apostles had higher authority, when Apostle Preuss died on 25 July 1878, open conflict broke out. Geyer had called the coal dealer Johannes F. L. Gueldner as an apostle in a private meeting four months before apostle Preuss' death. Apostle Preuss had refused to recognize this calling and, on his deathbed, designated Elder Wichmann as his successor. However, he was not able to stop Geyer because "the word of a prophet carried more weight in those days than the word of the Lord". Geyer called Gueldner again as an apostle, as the successor of Preuss, in a service on 4 August 1878.
The majority of the Hamburg congregation protested, Wichmann stepped up t