Zune is a discontinued brand of digital media products and services marketed by Microsoft. Zune included a line of portable media players, digital media player software for Windows PCs, a music subscription service known as a "Zune Music Pass", music and video streaming services for the Xbox 360 game console via the Zune Software, music, TV and movie sales, desktop sync software for Windows Phone. Zune provided music streaming for United Airlines inflight after a partnership in 2010; the Zune hardware players were discontinued in October 2011. In June 2012, Microsoft announced plans to discontinue all "Zune" services; the www.zune.net domain now redirects to Xbox's website. The Windows Phone App succeeded Zune Software as the desktop sync service for Windows Phone 8, as part of Microsoft's discontinuation of the Zune brand. However, Zune Software must still be used for Windows Phone 7 desktop sync, is still available to download from the Windows Phone website for all Windows Phone 7 devices. In November 2015 Microsoft retired the Zune music streaming service.
Remaining Zune subscribers were switched over to Microsoft's Groove Music platform. Zune music and devices were follow-on to Microsoft's MSN Music service. MSN Music was created in 2004 to compete with Apple's iTunes services. After only two years, Microsoft announced the closing of MSN Music in 2006 before announcing the Zune service. In 2008, Microsoft shut down the MSN Music licensing servers only two years after promising users the servers would be available for five years; the first-generation Zune device was created by Microsoft in close cooperation with Toshiba, which took the design of the Gigabeat S and redeveloped it under the name Toshiba 1089 as registered with the Federal Communications Commission starting in 2006. Xbox 360 overseer J Allard ran the project, codenamed "Argo", staffed with Xbox and MSN Music Store developers who worked on "Alexandria", finalized as Zune Marketplace. Both products were united under the Zune brand name in the U. S. market. While some features were praised, the initial Zune has been regarded with derision and jokes for its bulky size and brown color, with CNET regarding it at best as a "high-profile underdog alternative to Apple's iPod" where other Windows Media MP3 players from Creative, iRiver, Samsung had not succeeded.
At midnight on December 31, 2008, many first generation Zune 30 models froze. Microsoft stated that the problem was caused by the internal clock driver written by Freescale and the way the device handles a leap year, it automatically fixed itself 24 hours but an intermediate "fix", for those who did not wish to wait, was to drain the device's battery and recharge after 12 noon GMT on January 1, 2009. The first generation and Zune devices included a number of social features, including the ability to share songs with other Zune users wirelessly. Songs, transferred over wi-fi could be played three times over three days; the second-generation Zune 4, 8, 80 devices, manufactured by Flextronics, introduced the touch-sensitive Zune Pad, shaped like a squircle. The 4 and 8 GB Zune devices use flash memory and are smaller in size than the 80 GB version, which uses a hard drive; the 30 GB Zune was not redesigned, although it received a software update that brought its interface in line with the second generation models.
At the same time, the Zune 2.0 software was released for Windows PCs. This version of the software was re-written and featured a new user interface. Zune devices feature games developed using XNA. An early version of XNA Game Studio 3.0, released in May 2008, allowed developers to work on games for Zune devices. This generation included a 120 GB model, one of the largest storage capacities released for a portable media player; the third-generation Zune 16 and 120 devices were released in September 2008, coinciding with the release of the Zune Software 3.0 update. The only changes to this generation of devices were to the firmware, made available for all previous models, the storage capacity. Included in this firmware update was the ability to tag and purchase songs heard on FM radio, channels which can be customized to deliver suggested songs for the user, the games Hexic and Texas Hold' em, support for audiobooks from online stores such as Audible.com and others that support OverDrive media files, a clock, changed quicklist functionality.
The ability to purchase songs from Zune Marketplace on the device while connected to the Internet via Wi-Fi was introduced. To help push this feature, Microsoft partnered with Wayport to allow Zune devices to access its network of over 10,000 wireless hotspots, including those at McDonald's restaurants. Zune Pass customers in the United States could now download 10 tracks to keep per month in addition to the existing subscription-dependent unlimited music downloads. On the same day, the Zune 4.0 software was released to support the Zune HD. In addition, it became possible for Zune Pass subscribers to stream tracks through a computer’s web browser. Zune 4.0 supports internet radio streams but this feature is disabled by default and can only be enabled by a third-party patch. This was the first firmware released for the Zune line which did not provide new features for older Zune models; these models were given a firmware update with version 3.2. Microsoft released Zune 4.5 on April 5, 2010. This update introduced codec features.
A firmware update brought picks and an improved the TV-out exp
The Zune HD is a portable media player in the Zune product family released on September 15, 2009 by Microsoft. It was a direct competitor with Apple's iPod touch series of mobile devices, it was released in 16 and 32 GB capacities. A 64 GB version was released on April 9, 2010, it has a touchscreen interface for navigation and included Wi-Fi for synchronization, access to the Zune Marketplace and Web browsing. The Zune HD utilized the Nvidia Tegra APX 2600 chip, allowing it to play 720p video through the optional HDMI Zune dock on a high-definition television. Otherwise, content would be scaled down to 480×272 pixels on the player's OLED touchscreen. Soon after Apple released the iPod Touch, Microsoft R&D department head, Robbie Bach, began work on a touchscreen Zune player to combat it; the department started on reworking the Windows CE–based OS of the older Zune to suit the new multitouch PMP. Astro Studios was contracted to design the Zune HD's aluminium casing. On June 19, 2009, Zune Insider host Matt Akers confirmed that the Zune HD would have an Nvidia Tegra APX 2600 chip and OLED touchscreen.
The Zune HD was released on September 15, 2009 to retail markets in black and platinum colors and 16 or 32GB capacities. Two months on November 6, 2009, firmware update 4.3 was released. The new firmware version improved the performance of the web browser, added support for the apps that were to be released in the days that followed, fixed several notable bugs. On November 11, 2009, several new apps appeared on the Zune Marketplace; the apps included Project Gotham Racing: Ferrari Edition, Audiosurf: Tilt, Lucky Lanes Bowling, Vans Sk8: Pool Service and Piano. The Zune HD's Twitter app was released on December 2009 to the Zune Marketplace. Microsoft promptly fixed this following an outcry among Zune HD owners in version 1.1 of the app. After being promised before the end of 2009, the Facebook app was made available on the Zune Marketplace on March 1, 2010; the app had some API issues in which it could not download most information from Facebook, but these issues were corrected 2 days without a software update.
On April 5, 2010, after being announced at CES 2010, firmware version 4.5 was released, bringing with it several new features, such as on-device Smart DJ, Xvid codec support, Marketplace support through the optional dock. Less than one week on the 9th of April, a 64GB capacity Zune HD went on sale. On October 3, 2011, Microsoft announced that it has discontinued all Zune hardware, encouraging users to transition to Windows Phone. While that announcement was removed as erroneous, it was reposted permanently and confirmed by Microsoft soon thereafter. In 2012, Microsoft launched a successor to the Zune Marketplace. Leading up to the launch of that service, a number of features of Zune and the Zune Marketplace were discontinued. Zune HD apps were no longer available though the Zune Software, social components of Zune were deactivated, limitations were placed on music video purchasing and viewing; as of late 2012, the ability to download songs directly to the Zune HD has been broken. According to the Zune Support Twitter feed, Microsoft will not be fixing it, instead announcing that it is part of the transition from Zune Music to Xbox Music.
The specifications as listed by the official web site of the Zune HD, as well as reported by various sources: 3.3-inch glass capacitive multi-touch OLED display with a 16:9 480x272 resolution Built-in accelerometer Windows Embedded CE 6.0 operating system 16, 32, 64 GB flash memory options CPU and GPU: Nvidia Tegra APX with one ARM11 and one ARM7 processor cores, plus 6 other dedicated cores RAM: 128 MB Hynix SDRAM 802.11b/g Wi-Fi with open, WEP, WPA, WPA2 authentication modes and WEP 64-bit and 128-bit, TKIP, AES encryption modes Built-in rechargeable 3.7V 660mAh lithium-ion polymer battery with up to 33 hours of audio playback and 8.5 hours of video Size: 52.7x102.1x8.9mm Weight: 74g FM/HD Radio tuner Equalizer Web browser Support for apps built with Microsoft's XNA platform The Zune restarts however every time XNA apps exit. Audio output: Analog RCA and Optical Digital out Audio support:CBR and VBR audio, up to 48 kHz sample rate, for: WMA Standard up to 384 kbit/s WMA Pro stereo up to 768 kbit/s WMA Lossless stereo up to 768 kbit/s Unprotected AAC-LC up to 320 kbit/s MP3 up to 320 kbit/s Video support:WMV Main and Simple Profile, CBR or VBR 720 x 480 pixels with a bit rate of up to 10.0 Mbit/s and a framerate of up to 30 frames per second.
720 x 576 pixels with a bit rate of up to 10.0 Mbit/s and a framerate of up to 25 frames per second. Advanced profile up to L2, CBR or VBR 1280 x 720 pixels with a bit rate of up to 14.0 Mbit/s, a framerate of up to 30 frames per second. Up to 720p resolution and 14 Mbit/s bit rate, CBR or VBR for: H.264, Baseline Profile up to Level 3.1 support VC-1 Main and Simple Profile, Advanced profile up to Level 2. MPEG-4 Part 2 Advanced Simple Profile up to 4.0 Mbit/s bit rate 720p high definition video output using HDMI or composite connections As of August 2011, the Zune Marketplace has 62 apps for Zune HD, of which 42 are games. All of the apps and games are free. Apps available excluding game
Zune Social was the online component of Microsoft's Zune initiative. It is a social networking website that displays a user's most-played artists and played songs, a list of the users friends, what your friends are listening to, any comments about them, it has been compared to iLike and Last.fm in that it tracks and displays, or "scrobbles," songs that the user has played. The central component of Social is the Zune Card, it is a Flash-based widget that can be embedded on social networking pages. It showcases the user's most played songs, their most played artists and number of times that artist has been played, a user-selected list of favorite songs. Clicking a song, artist, or album will bring up the respective page on the Social website. Select songs have an option to preview a 30-second clip, users can download the song via Zune Marketplace, suggest the song to a friend, or add it as one of their favorites. In May 2008, Microsoft added Reputation badges to users' Zune Cards, which can be earned by having listened to an album or artist a certain number of times, or by making helpful posts in the Zune forums.
In addition, Zune Cards can now be synced with user's devices. Comparisons to Microsoft's Xbox Live Gamertag are inevitable, as the two services use the same back-end, they differ in that the Gamercard shows the user's played games, while the Zune Card displays played songs. Users sign into the service via Windows Live ID and can link their Gamertag and Zune tag so that friends on Xbox Live will carry over to the new service. Plays are recorded on both the device and software, the software sends play updates by default every 15 minutes. Songs played on the device are recorded during the sync process, though the order they show up on the Zune Card is a result of the sync order. Only albums that are in AMG and Zune Marketplace are shown, plays are kept in the database for 28 days only. If a user listens to an artist or album enough times, Zune awards that user a badge. Users earn badges for contributing useful information to the Zune.net forums and for reviews. Album Power Listener Bronze - 200 or more plays Silver - 1,000 or more plays Gold - 5,000 or more playsArtist Power Listener Bronze - 200 or more plays Silver -1,000 or more plays Gold - 5,000 or more playsForums Contributor Bronze - 10 or more posts rated Silver - 25 or more posts rated Gold - 50 or more posts rated highlyReviews Contributor Bronze - 10 or more reviews rated Silver - 20 or more reviews rated Gold - 50 or more reviews rated highlyBadges are permanent and do not expire.
Batanga Deezer iLike Jamendo MeeMix MOG Musicovery Pandora Radio Slacker Official website
Internet Explorer Mobile
Internet Explorer Mobile is a discontinued mobile browser developed by Microsoft, based on versions of the Trident layout engine. IE Mobile comes loaded by default with Windows Phone and Windows CE. Versions of Internet Explorer Mobile are based on the desktop version of Internet Explorer. Older versions however, called Pocket Internet Explorer, are not based on the same layout engine. Internet Explorer Mobile 11, the last version, supported, is based on the desktop version of Internet Explorer 11 and came with Windows Phone 8.1. A new browser, Microsoft Edge replaced Internet Explorer Mobile in Windows 10 Mobile; the latest version of Internet Explorer Mobile includes tabbed browsing. The browser supports multi-touch gestures, including pinch-to-zoom as well as tap-to-zoom, although not the Touch API at present. Bing Search is integrated with Internet Explorer Mobile, it can display websites in both "mobile" and "desktop" versions. Internet Explorer Mobile 6 is included with Windows Mobile 6.5 and Zune HD.
Internet Explorer Mobile 7 is included with Windows CE 7. Internet Explorer Mobile 9 is included with Windows Phone; each version has the same Trident rendering engine as its desktop counterpart, but with additional improvements. Pocket Internet Explorer was first introduced in Windows CE 1.0, released in November 1996. It does not derive from the Internet Explorer code and was written from scratch for being as lightweight as possible. PIE 1.1 was released that supported cookies, HTTPS, SSL. Pocket Internet Explorer 2.0, released in September 1997 with Windows CE 2.0, added many new features: offline browsing, resizing images to fit to screen, richer HTML support, including framesets and tables. PIE 3.0, introduced in July 1998 with Windows CE 2.10, added support for JScript and various secure protocols. Pocket Internet Explorer 4 was the first to support ActiveX, CSS, VBScript as well as further extending support for HTTPS and advanced HTML features. Pocket PC 2002 version of PIE brought limited support for DHTML and XML, the ability to browse WAP sites – a feature not present in Internet Explorer for PC, Internet Explorer 6.0 added support for IFrames.
With it, came a new version of the Internet Explorer Mobile browser. New features for the browser included multi-touch gesture support, tabbed browsing, a new UI, smooth zoom in/out animations, a hybrid rendering engine of the Internet Explorer 7 and Internet Explorer 8 desktop versions. According to Engadget and Gizmodo, rendering speed and quality has improved and was now on par with those of competing mobile browsers based on WebKit. At Mobile World Congress 2011 in February, 2011, Microsoft unveiled a major upgrade to Internet Explorer Mobile based on the rendering engine of Internet Explorer 9. Like its desktop counterpart, the browser features full hardware acceleration. Changes in this version included moving the address bar to the bottom of the screen and having it present in landscape orientation. Microsoft showed a number of HTML5 demonstrations for the browser; this is the last version supported on Windows Phone 7. In the Windows Phone Developer Summit in June 2012, Microsoft revealed that the next version of Windows Phone, Windows Phone 8, will come with the same web browsing engine to be used in Windows 8 PCs and tablets.
IE10 Mobile will be faster and more secure, with advanced anti-phishing features like SmartScreen Filter to block dangerous websites and malware. With the help of shared core between IE10 Desktop and IE10 Mobile, Internet Explorer 10 Mobile supports a broader range of the HTML5 capabilities and boosts applications/websites' performance; when it came out IE10 Mobile out-performed the Galaxy S III, HTC One S, iPhone 4S on iOS 6 Beta in the SunSpider benchmark. On July 15, 2014, Microsoft released Windows Phone 8.1, which includes the new Internet Explorer Mobile 11 browser. This version gets closer to the desktop counterpart, by carrying over many of its improvements. New features include: support for WebGL. Furthermore, the butt
A song is a single work of music, intended to be sung by the human voice with distinct and fixed pitches and patterns using sound and silence and a variety of forms that include the repetition of sections. Through semantic widening, a broader sense of the word "song" may refer to instrumentals. Written words created for music or for which music is created, are called lyrics. If a pre-existing poem is set to composed music in classical music it is an art song. Songs that are sung on repeated pitches without distinct contours and patterns that rise and fall are called chants. Songs in a simple style that are learned informally are referred to as folk songs. Songs that are composed for professional singers who sell their recordings or live shows to the mass market are called popular songs; these songs, which have broad appeal, are composed by professional songwriters and lyricists. Art songs are composed by trained classical composers for recital performances. Songs are recorded on audio or video.
Songs may appear in plays, musical theatre, stage shows of any form, within operas. A song may be for a solo singer, a lead singer supported by background singers, a duet, trio, or larger ensemble involving more voices singing in harmony, although the term is not used for large classical music vocal forms including opera and oratorio, which use terms such as aria and recitative instead. Songs with more than one voice to a part singing in polyphony or harmony are considered choral works. Songs can be broadly divided depending on the criteria used. Art songs are songs created for performance by classical artists with piano or violin/viola accompaniment, although they can be sung solo. Art songs require strong vocal technique, understanding of language and poetry for interpretation. Though such singers may perform popular or folk songs on their programs, these characteristics and the use of poetry are what distinguish art songs from popular songs. Art songs are a tradition from most European countries, now other countries with classical music traditions.
German-speaking communities use the term art song to distinguish so-called "serious" compositions from folk song. The lyrics are written by a poet or lyricist and the music separately by a composer. Art songs may be more formally complicated than popular or folk songs, though many early Lieder by the likes of Franz Schubert are in simple strophic form; the accompaniment of European art songs is considered as an important part of the composition. Some art songs are so revered. Art songs emerge from the tradition of singing romantic love songs to an ideal or imaginary person and from religious songs; the troubadours and bards of Europe began the documented tradition of romantic songs, continued by the Elizabethan lutenists. Some of the earliest art songs are found in the music of Henry Purcell; the tradition of the romance, a love song with a flowing accompaniment in triple meter, entered opera in the 19th century, spread from there throughout Europe. It became one of the underpinnings of popular songs.
While a romance has a simple accompaniment, art songs tend to have complicated, sophisticated accompaniments that underpin, illustrate or provide contrast to the voice. Sometimes the accompaniment performer has the melody. Folk songs are songs of anonymous origin that are transmitted orally, they are a major aspect of national or cultural identity. Art songs approach the status of folk songs when people forget who the author was. Folk songs are frequently transmitted non-orally in the modern era. Folk songs exist in every culture. Popular songs may become folk songs by the same process of detachment from its source. Folk songs are more-or-less in the public domain by definition, though there are many folk song entertainers who publish and record copyrighted original material; this tradition led to the singer-songwriter style of performing, where an artist has written confessional poetry or personal statements and sings them set to music, most with guitar accompaniment. There are many genres of popular songs, including torch songs, novelty songs, rock and soul songs, other commercial genres, such as rapping.
Folk songs include ballads, plaints, love songs, mourning songs, dance songs, work songs, ritual songs and many more. Air Animal song: bird vocalization, whale song, zoomusicology Aria Canticle Hymn Instrumental Lists of songs Madrigal Poem and song Song structure Theme song Vocal music Marcello Sorce Keller, "The Problem of Classification in Folksong Research: a Short History", Folklore, XCV, no. 1, 100- 104. Jean Nicolas De Surmont, From vocal poetry to song, toward a Theory of Song Obects" with a foreword by Geoff Stahl, Ibidem
A touchpad or trackpad is a pointing device featuring a tactile sensor, a specialized surface that can translate the motion and position of a user's fingers to a relative position on the operating system, made output to the screen. Touchpads are a common feature of laptop computers, are used as a substitute for a mouse where desk space is scarce; because they vary in size, they can be found on personal digital assistants and some portable media players. Wireless touchpads are available as detached accessories. Touchpads operate in one including capacitive sensing and resistive touchscreen; the most common technology used in the 2010s senses the change of capacitance where a finger touches the pad. Capacitance-based touchpads will not sense the tip of a pencil or other similar ungrounded or non-conducting implement. Fingers insulated by a glove may be problematic. While touchpads, like touchscreens, are able to sense absolute position, resolution is limited by their size. For common use as a pointer device, the dragging motion of a finger is translated into a finer, relative motion of the cursor on the output to the display on the operating system, analogous to the handling of a mouse, lifted and put back on a surface.
Hardware buttons equivalent to a standard mouse's left and right buttons are positioned adjacent to the touchpad. Some touchpads and associated device driver software may interpret tapping the pad as a mouse click, a tap followed by a continuous pointing motion can indicate dragging. Tactile touchpads allow for clicking and dragging by incorporating button functionality into the surface of the touchpad itself. To select, one presses down on the touchpad instead of a physical button. To drag, instead of performing the "click-and-a-half" technique, the user presses down while on the object, drags without releasing pressure, lets go when done. Touchpad drivers can allow the use of multiple fingers to emulate the other mouse buttons. Touchpads are called clickpads if it does not have physical buttons, but instead relies on "software buttons". Physically the whole clickpad formed a button, logically the driver interpret a click as left or right button click depending of the placement of fingers; some touchpads have locations on the touchpad used for functionality beyond a mouse.
For example, on certain touchpads, moving the finger along an edge of the touch pad will act as a scroll wheel, controlling the scrollbar and scrolling the window that has the focus, vertically or horizontally. Many touchpads use two-finger dragging for scrolling; some touchpad drivers support tap zones, regions where a tap will execute a function, for example, pausing a media player or launching an application. All of these functions are implemented in the touchpad device driver software, can be disabled. By 1982, Apollo desktop computers were equipped with a touchpad on the right side of the keyboard. Introduced a year the Gavilan SC included a touchpad above its keyboard. A touchpad was first developed for Psion's MC 200/400/600/WORD Series in 1989. Olivetti and Triumph-Adler introduced the first laptops with touchpad in 1992. Cirque introduced the first available touchpad, branded as GlidePoint, in 1994. Apple Inc introduced touchpads to the modern laptop in the PowerBook series in 1994, using Cirque's GlidePoint technology.
Another early adopter of the GlidePoint pointing device was Sharp. Synaptics introduced their touchpad into the marketplace, branded the TouchPad. Epson was an early adopter of this product; as touchpads began to be introduced in laptops in the 1990s, there was confusion as to what the product should be called. No consistent term was used, references varied, such as: glidepoint, touch sensitive input device, touchpad and pointing device. Users were presented the option to purchase a pointing stick, touchpad, or trackball. Combinations of the devices were common, though touchpads and trackballs were included together. Since the early 2000s, touchpads have become the dominant laptop pointing device as most laptops produced during this period beyond include only touchpads, displacing the pointing stick. Touchpads are used in self-contained portable laptop computers and do not require a flat surface near the machine; the touchpad is close to the keyboard, only short finger movements are required to move the cursor across the display screen.
Touchpads exist for desktop computers as an external peripheral, albeit seen. Touchpads are sometimes integrated in some desktop computer keyboards keyboards oriented for HTPC use. One-dimensional touchpads are the primary control interface for menu navigation on second-generation and iPod Classic portable music players, where they are referred to as "click wheels", since they only sense motion along one axis, wrapped around like a wheel. Creative Labs uses a touchpad for their Zen line of MP3 players, beginning with the Zen Touch; the second-generation Microsoft Zune product line uses touch for the Zune Pad. Apple's PowerBook 500 series was its first laptop to carry such a device, which Apple refers to as a "trackpad"; when introduced in May 1994, it replaced the trackball of previous PowerBook models. In late 2008 Apple's revisions of the MacBook and MacBook Pro incorporated a "Tactile Touchpad" design with button functionality incorporated into the tracking surface. Beginning in the second generation of MacBook Pro, the entire touc
A glove is a garment covering the whole hand. Gloves have separate sheaths or openings for each finger and the thumb. If there is an opening but no covering sheath for each finger they are called fingerless gloves. Fingerless gloves having one large opening rather than individual openings for each finger are sometimes called gauntlets, though gauntlets are not fingerless. Gloves which cover the entire hand or fist but do not have separate finger openings or sheaths are called mittens. Mittens are warmer than other styles of gloves made of the same material because fingers maintain their warmth better when they are in contact with each other. A hybrid of glove and mitten contains open-ended sheaths for the four fingers and an additional compartment encapsulating the four fingers; this compartment can be lifted off the fingers and folded back to allow the individual fingers ease of movement and access while the hand remains covered. The usual design is for the mitten cavity to be stitched onto the back of the fingerless glove only, allowing it to be flipped over to transform the garment from a mitten to a glove.
These hybrids are called convertible mittens or glittens, a combination of "glove" and "mittens". Gloves protect and comfort hands against cold or heat, damage by friction, abrasion or chemicals, disease. Latex, nitrile rubber or vinyl disposable gloves are worn by health care professionals as hygiene and contamination protection measures. Police officers wear them to work in crime scenes to prevent destroying evidence in the scene. Many criminals wear gloves to avoid leaving fingerprints, which makes the crime investigation more difficult. However, the gloves themselves can leave prints that are just as unique as human fingerprints. After collecting glove prints, law enforcement can match them to gloves that they have collected as evidence. In many jurisdictions the act of wearing gloves itself while committing a crime can be prosecuted as an inchoate offense. Fingerless gloves are useful where dexterity is required that gloves would restrict. Cigarette smokers and church organists use fingerless gloves.
Some gloves include a gauntlet that extends partway up the arm. Cycling gloves for road racing or touring are fingerless. Guitar players use fingerless gloves in circumstances where it is too cold to play with an uncovered hand. Gloves are made of materials including cloth, knitted or felted wool, rubber, neoprene and metal. Gloves of kevlar protect the wearer from cuts. Gloves and gauntlets are integral components of pressure suits and spacesuits such as the Apollo/Skylab A7L which went to the moon. Spacesuit gloves combine toughness and environmental protection with a degree of sensitivity and flexibility. Gloves appear to be of great antiquity. According to some translations of Homer's The Odyssey, Laërtes is described as wearing gloves while walking in his garden so as to avoid the brambles. Herodotus, in The History of Herodotus, tells how Leotychides was incriminated by a glove full of silver that he received as a bribe. There are occasional references to the use of gloves among the Romans as well.
Pliny the Younger, his uncle's shorthand writer wore gloves in winter so as not to impede the elder Pliny's work. A gauntlet, which could be a glove made of leather or some kind of metal armour, was a strategic part of a soldier's defense throughout the Middle Ages, but the advent of firearms made hand-to-hand combat rare; as a result, the need for gauntlets disappeared. During the 13th century, gloves began to be worn by ladies as a fashion ornament, they were made of linen and silk, sometimes reached to the elbow. Such worldly accoutrements were not for holy women, according to the early 13th century Ancrene Wisse, written for their guidance. Sumptuary laws were promulgated to restrain this vanity: against samite gloves in Bologna, 1294, against perfumed gloves in Rome, 1560. A Paris corporation or guild of glovers existed from the thirteenth century, they made them in skin or in fur. By 1440, in England glovers had become members of the Dubbers or Bookbinders Guild until they formed their own guild during the reign of Elizabeth I.
The Glovers' Company was incorporated in 1613. It was not until the 16th century that gloves reached their greatest elaboration; the 1592 "Ditchley" portrait of her features her holding leather gloves in her left hand. In Paris, the gantiers became gantiers parfumeurs, for the scented oils, musk and civet, that perfumed leather gloves, but their trade, an introduction at the court of Catherine de Medici, was not recognised until 1656, in a royal brevet. Makers of knitted gloves, which did not retain perfume and had less social cachet, were organised in a separate guild, of bonnetiers who might knit silk as well as wool; such workers were organised in the fourteenth century. Knitted gloves were a refined handiwork that required five years of apprenticeship. In the 17th century, gloves made of soft chicken skin became fashionable; the craze for gloves called "limericks" took hold. This particular fad was the product of a manufacturer in Limerick, who fashioned the gloves from the sk