Human cannibalism is the act or practice of humans eating the flesh or internal organs of other human beings. A person who practices cannibalism is called a cannibal; the expression cannibalism has been extended into zoology to mean one individual of a species consuming all or part of another individual of the same species as food, including sexual cannibalism. Some scholars have argued, that no firm evidence exists that cannibalism has been a acceptable practice anywhere in the world, at any time in history; the Island Carib people of the Lesser Antilles, from whom the word cannibalism is derived, acquired a long-standing reputation as cannibals following the recording of their legends in the 17th century. Some controversy exists over the accuracy of these legends and the prevalence of actual cannibalism in the culture. Cannibalism was practiced in New Guinea and in parts of the Solomon Islands, flesh markets existed in some parts of Melanesia. Fiji was once known as the "Cannibal Isles". Cannibalism has been well documented around the world, from Fiji to the Amazon Basin to the Congo to the Māori people of New Zealand.
Neanderthals are believed to have practiced cannibalism, Neanderthals may have been eaten by anatomically modern humans. Cannibalism was practiced in the past in Egypt during ancient Egypt, Roman Egypt and during famines such as the great famine in the year 1201. Cannibalism has been both practiced and fiercely condemned in several wars in Liberia and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, it was still practiced in Papua New Guinea as of 2012, for cultural reasons and in ritual and in war in various Melanesian tribes. Cannibalism has been said to test the bounds of cultural relativism because it challenges anthropologists "to define what is or is not beyond the pale of acceptable human behavior". Cannibalism has been practiced as a last resort by people suffering from famine in modern times. Famous examples include the ill-fated Donner Party and, more the crash of Uruguayan Air Force Flight 571, after which some survivors ate the bodies of dead passengers; some mentally ill people have done so, such as Jeffrey Dahmer and Albert Fish.
There is resistance to formally labeling cannibalism a mental disorder. The word "cannibalism" is derived from Caníbales, the Spanish name for the Caribs, a West Indies tribe that may have practiced cannibalism, from Spanish canibal or caribal, "a savage", it is called anthropophagy. In some societies tribal societies, cannibalism is a cultural norm. Consumption of a person from within the same community is called endocannibalism. Exocannibalism is the consumption of a person from outside the community as a celebration of victory against a rival tribe. Both types of cannibalism can be fueled by the belief that eating a person's flesh or internal organs will endow the cannibal with some of the characteristics of the deceased. In most parts of the world, cannibalism is not a societal norm, but is sometimes resorted to in situations of extreme necessity; the survivors of the shipwrecks of the Essex and Méduse in the 19th century are said to have engaged in cannibalism, as did the members of Franklin's lost expedition and the Donner Party.
Such cases involve necro-cannibalism as opposed to homicidal cannibalism. In English law, the latter is always considered a crime in the most trying circumstances; the case of R v Dudley and Stephens, in which two men were found guilty of murder for killing and eating a cabin boy while adrift at sea in a lifeboat, set the precedent that necessity is no defence to a charge of murder. In pre-modern medicine, the explanation given by the now-discredited theory of humorism for cannibalism was that it came about within a black acrimonious humor, being lodged in the linings of the ventricle, produced the voracity for human flesh. A well-known case of mortuary cannibalism is that of the Fore tribe in New Guinea, which resulted in the spread of the prion disease kuru. Although the Fore's mortuary cannibalism was well documented, the practice had ceased before the cause of the disease was recognized. However, some scholars argue that although post-mortem dismemberment was the practice during funeral rites, cannibalism was not.
Marvin Harris theorizes that it happened during a famine period coincident with the arrival of Europeans and was rationalized as a religious rite. In 2003, a publication in Science received a large amount of press attention when it suggested that early humans may have practiced extensive cannibalism. According to this research, genetic markers found in modern humans worldwide suggest that today many people carry a gene that evolved as protection against the brain diseases that can be spread by consuming human brain tissue. A 2006 reanalysis of the data questioned this hypothesis, because it claimed to have found a data collection bias, which led to an erroneous conclusion; this claimed bias came from incidents of cannibalism used in the analysis not being due to local cultures, but having been carried out by explorers, stranded seafarers or escaped convicts. The original authors published a subsequent paper in 2008 defending their conclusions. Cannibalism features in the folklore and legends of many cultures and is most attributed to evil characters or as extreme retribution for some wrongdoing.
Examples include the witch in "Hansel and Gretel", Lamia of Greek mythology and Baba Yaga of Slavic folklore. A number of stories in Greek mythology involve cannibalism, in particular cannib
Zuni fetishes are small carvings made from various materials by the Zuni people. These carvings have traditionally served a ceremonial purpose for their creators and depict animals and icons integral to their culture; as a form of contemporary Native American art, they are sold with secular intentions to collectors worldwide. The main source for academic information on Zuni fetishes is the Second Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology submitted in 1881 by Frank Hamilton Cushing and posthumously published as Zuni Fetishes in 1966, with several reprints. Cushing reports that the Zuni divided the world into six regions or directions: north, south, east and below. At the center of each region is a great mountain peak, a sacred place. Yellow mountain to the north, blue mountain to the west, red mountain to the south, white mountain to the east, the multi-colored mountain above, the black mountain below; each direction is represented by a Prey God, or guardian animal, are listed by Cushing as follows: north — the yellow mountain lion, west — the black bear, south — the red badger, east — the white wolf, above or the sky — the multi-colored eagle, below or underground — the black mole.
Each prey god is the “guardian and master” of their region, with the yellow mountain lion being the elder brother of all animals and the master and guardian of all regions. Each one of these regions contains an order of all the guardian animals, but the "guardian and master" of a particular region is the elder brother to all animals of that region; these guardians are considered as having protective and healing powers. They are held by the priests of the medicine orders as if "in captivity" and act as mediators between the priests and the animals they represent. A second group of fetishes, the Prey Gods of the Hunt, belonging to the Hunter Order, or Society, are given in the “prayer songs of the Sa-ni-a-kia-kwe”; these guardian animals are the same as the original regions with the exception of the coyote, which replaces the bear. Sa-ni-a-kia is the awakening of the fetish and subsequently the power of the hunter. In addition to the animals mentioned above, typical traditional Zuni fetishes depict animals such as the wolf, bear, mountain lion, mole, deer and others.
Modern carvers many produce images of non-traditional subjects – dinosaurs, for example – or some insects and reptiles that are traditional but more integral to petroglyphs and the patterns of design in pottery – dragonflies, water spiders, lizards for example. Other animals, such as the horse, were carved in the past for trade; the Zuni was not a horse culture, but their horse carvings were considered by the horse cultures to the north as having great power for the protection of their herds. Traditionally, the materials used by carvers were indigenous to the region or procured by trade; the most important of these materials was turquoise. Jet and coral are frequently used; these materials and their associated colors are principle in the Zuni sunface, a cultural symbol, present in Zuni jewelry and fetishes and represents their sun father. Other materials used are travertine or "Zuni rock", jasper, marble, or organic items such as fossilized ivory and deer or elk antler. Artificial substances such as slag glass are used.
But the most-used stone has been serpentine, a local soft stone found abundantly in the Zuni Mountains and in Arizona. In recent years Zuni carvings, or fetishes, have become popular collectibles and Zuni artisans have familiarized themselves with materials available from all parts of the world in order to serve the aesthetic tastes of collectors. In relation to the carving of zuni fetishes the following metaphysical properties have been identified for the following minerals. Alabaster is a stimulus for meditation, it helps one center, can show one the way to forgiveness. It helps awaken ones inherent talents. Amethyst is a stone of contentment, it balances you intellectually, creates harmony. It brings a connection to the spiritual world from the physical world. Crystals is protection against jinxes. Fluorite promotes discernment, it helps one to see reality and truth, increases concentration. It helps relationships and individuals flourish, its nourishing energy brings about purification of infections and disorder.
Garnet is the "stone of health". It helps expand ones awareness, it helps promote devotion. It is an expression of love. Helps deal with abandonment. Helps one to accept emotions, experiences and is calming and provides stability. Jade is known as the "dream stone" and a stone of "fidelity", it brings devotion to realization of ones potential. It helps in understanding dreams. Helps instill resourcefulness, can aid in providing access from the physical world into the spiritual world, it brings confidence, self-assuredness, self-sufficiency. Jasper This stone is the "supreme nurturer" and reminds us that we are not here for ourselves, but to bring joy and freedom to others, it helps one celebrate times of aloneness. It is a strong stone against negativity, is a sustaining stone when ones energy is low. Labradorite Protects the aura and keeps it c
New Mexico is a state in the Southwestern region of the United States of America. It is one of the Mountain States and shares the Four Corners region with Utah and Arizona. With a population around two million, New Mexico is the 36th state by population. With a total area of 121,592 sq mi, it is the fifth-largest and sixth-least densely populated of the 50 states. Due to their geographic locations and eastern New Mexico exhibit a colder, alpine climate, while western and southern New Mexico exhibit a warmer, arid climate; the economy of New Mexico is dependent on oil drilling, mineral extraction, dryland farming, cattle ranching, lumber milling, retail trade. As of 2016–2017, its total gross domestic product was $95 billion with a GDP per capita of $45,465. New Mexico's status as a tax haven yields low to moderate personal income taxes on residents and military personnel, gives tax credits and exemptions to favorable industries; because of this, its film industry contributed $1.23 billion to its overall economy.
Due to its large area and economic climate, New Mexico has a large U. S. military presence marked notably with the White Sands Missile Range. Various U. S. national security agencies base their research and testing arms in New Mexico such as the Sandia and Los Alamos National Laboratories. During the 1940s, Project Y of the Manhattan Project developed and built the country's first atomic bomb and nuclear test, Trinity. Inhabited by Native Americans for many thousands of years before European exploration, it was colonized by the Spanish in 1598 as part of the Imperial Spanish viceroyalty of New Spain. In 1563, it was named Nuevo México after the Aztec Valley of Mexico by Spanish settlers, more than 250 years before the establishment and naming of the present-day country of Mexico. After Mexican independence in 1824, New Mexico became a Mexican territory with considerable autonomy; this autonomy was threatened, however, by the centralizing tendencies of the Mexican government from the 1830s onward, with rising tensions leading to the Revolt of 1837.
At the same time, the region became more economically dependent on the United States. At the conclusion of the Mexican–American War in 1848, the United States annexed New Mexico as the U. S. New Mexico Territory, it was admitted to the Union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912. Its history has given New Mexico the highest percentage of Hispanic and Latino Americans, the second-highest percentage of Native Americans as a population proportion. New Mexico is home to part of the Navajo Nation, 19 federally recognized Pueblo communities of Puebloan peoples, three different federally recognized Apache tribes. In prehistoric times, the area was home to Ancestral Puebloans and the modern extant Comanche and Utes inhabited the state; the largest Hispanic and Latino groups represented include the Hispanos of New Mexico and Mexican Americans. The flag of New Mexico features the state's Spanish origins with the same scarlet and gold coloration as Spain's Cross of Burgundy, along with the ancient sun symbol of the Zia, a Puebloan tribe.
These indigenous, Mexican and American frontier roots are reflected in the eponymous New Mexican cuisine and the New Mexico music genre. New Mexico received its name long before the present-day nation of Mexico won independence from Spain and adopted that name in 1821. Though the name “Mexico” itself derives from Nahuatl, in that language it referred to the heartland of the Empire of the Mexicas in the Valley of Mexico far from the area of New Mexico, Spanish explorers used the term “Mexico” to name the region of New Mexico in 1563. In 1581, the Chamuscado and Rodríguez Expedition named the region north of the Rio Grande "San Felipe del Nuevo México"; the Spaniards had hoped to find wealthy indigenous Mexica cultures there similar to those of the Aztec Empire of the Valley of Mexico. The indigenous cultures of New Mexico, proved to be unrelated to the Mexicas, they were not wealthy, but the name persisted. Before statehood, the name "New Mexico" was applied to various configurations of the U.
S. territory, to a Mexican state, to a province of New Spain, all in the same general area, but of varying extensions. With a total area of 121,699 square miles, the state is the fifth-largest state of the US, larger than British Isles. New Mexico's eastern border lies along 103°W longitude with the state of Oklahoma, 2.2 miles west of 103°W longitude with Texas. On the southern border, Texas makes up the eastern two-thirds, while the Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sonora make up the western third, with Chihuahua making up about 90% of that; the western border with Arizona runs along the 109° 03'W longitude. The southwestern corner of the state is known as the Bootheel; the 37°N parallel forms the northern boundary with Colorado. The states of New Mexico, Colorado and Utah come together at the Four Corners in New Mexico's northwestern corner. New Mexico has no natural water sources
Religion is a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, worldviews, sanctified places, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements. However, there is no scholarly consensus over what constitutes a religion. Different religions may or may not contain various elements ranging from the divine, sacred things, faith, a supernatural being or supernatural beings or "some sort of ultimacy and transcendence that will provide norms and power for the rest of life". Religious practices may include rituals, commemoration or veneration, festivals, trances, funerary services, matrimonial services, prayer, art, public service, or other aspects of human culture. Religions have sacred histories and narratives, which may be preserved in sacred scriptures, symbols and holy places, that aim to give a meaning to life. Religions may contain symbolic stories, which are sometimes said by followers to be true, that have the side purpose of explaining the origin of life, the universe, other things.
Traditionally, faith, in addition to reason, has been considered a source of religious beliefs. There are an estimated 10,000 distinct religions worldwide, but about 84% of the world's population is affiliated with one of the five largest religion groups, namely Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or forms of folk religion; the religiously unaffiliated demographic includes those who do not identify with any particular religion and agnostics. While the religiously unaffiliated have grown globally, many of the religiously unaffiliated still have various religious beliefs; the study of religion encompasses a wide variety of academic disciplines, including theology, comparative religion and social scientific studies. Theories of religion offer various explanations for the origins and workings of religion, including the ontological foundations of religious being and belief. Religion is derived from the ultimate origins of which are obscure. One possible interpretation traced to Cicero, connects lego read, i.e. re with lego in the sense of choose, go over again or consider carefully.
The definition of religio by Cicero is cultum deorum, "the proper performance of rites in veneration of the gods." Julius Caesar used religio to mean "obligation of an oath" when discussing captured soldiers making an oath to their captors. The Roman naturalist Pliny the Elder used the term religio on elephants in that they venerate the sun and the moon. Modern scholars such as Tom Harpur and Joseph Campbell favor the derivation from ligare bind, connect from a prefixed re-ligare, i.e. re + ligare or to reconnect, made prominent by St. Augustine, following the interpretation given by Lactantius in Divinae institutiones, IV, 28; the medieval usage alternates with order in designating bonded communities like those of monastic orders: "we hear of the'religion' of the Golden Fleece, of a knight'of the religion of Avys'". In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship in mundane contexts. In general, religio referred to broad social obligations towards anything including family, neighbors and towards God.
Religio was most used by the ancient Romans not in the context of a relation towards gods, but as a range of general emotions such as hesitation, anxiety, fear. The term was closely related to other terms like scrupulus which meant "very precisely" and some Roman authors related the term superstitio, which meant too much fear or anxiety or shame, to religio at times; when religio came into English around the 1200s as religion, it took the meaning of "life bound by monastic vows" or monastic orders. The compartmentalized concept of religion, where religious things were separated from worldly things, was not used before the 1500s; the concept of religion was first used in the 1500s to distinguish the domain of the church and the domain of civil authorities. In the ancient Greece, the Greek term threskeia was loosely translated into Latin as religio in late antiquity; the term was sparsely used in classical Greece but became more used in the writings of Josephus in the first century CE. It was used in mundane contexts and could mean multiple things from respectful fear to excessive or harmfully distracting practices of others.
It was contrasted with the Greek word deisidaimonia which meant too much fear. The modern concept of religion, as an abstraction that entails distinct sets of beliefs or doctrines, is a recent invention in the English language; such usage began with texts from the 17th century due to events such the splitting of Christendom during the Protestant Reformation and globalization in the age of exploration, which involved contact with numerous foreign cultures with non-European languages. Some argue that regardless of its definition, it is not appropriate to apply the term religion to non-Western cultures. Others argue that using religion on non-western cultures distorts what people believe; the concept of religion was formed in the 16th and 17th centuries, despite the fact that ancient sacred texts like the Bible, the Quran, others did not have a word or a concept of religion in the original languages and neither did the peopl
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. Water or various other chemicals may compose the crystals. On Earth, clouds are formed as a result of saturation of the air when it is cooled to its dew point, or when it gains sufficient moisture from an adjacent source to raise the dew point to the ambient temperature, they are seen in the Earth's homosphere. Nephology is the science of clouds, undertaken in the cloud physics branch of meteorology. There are two methods of naming clouds in their respective layers of the atmosphere. Cloud types in the troposphere, the atmospheric layer closest to Earth's surface, have Latin names due to the universal adaptation of Luke Howard's nomenclature. Formally proposed in 1802, it became the basis of a modern international system that divides clouds into five physical forms that appear in any or all of three altitude levels.
These physical types, in approximate ascending order of convective activity, include stratiform sheets, cirriform wisps and patches, stratocumuliform layers, cumuliform heaps, large cumulonimbiform heaps that show complex structure. The physical forms are divided by altitude level into ten basic genus-types; the Latin names for applicable high-level genera carry a cirro- prefix, an alto- prefix is added to the names of the mid-level genus-types. Most of the genera can be further subdivided into varieties. Low stratiform clouds that extend down to the Earth's surface are given the common names fog and mist, but have no Latin names. Several clouds that form higher up in the stratosphere and mesosphere have common names for their main types, they are seen infrequently in the polar regions of Earth. Clouds have been observed in the atmospheres of other planets and moons in the Solar System and beyond. However, due to their different temperature characteristics, they are composed of other substances such as methane and sulfuric acid as well as water.
Taken as a whole, homospheric clouds can be cross-classified by form and level to derive the ten tropospheric genera, the fog and mist that forms at surface level, several additional major types above the troposphere. The cumulus genus includes three species. Clouds with sufficient vertical extent to occupy more than one altitude level are classified as low- or mid-level according to the altitude range at which each forms; however they are more informally classified as multi-level or vertical. The origin of the term cloud can be found in the old English clud or clod, meaning a hill or a mass of rock. Around the beginning of the 13th century, the word came to be used as a metaphor for rain clouds, because of the similarity in appearance between a mass of rock and cumulus heap cloud. Over time, the metaphoric usage of the word supplanted the old English weolcan, the literal term for clouds in general. Ancient cloud studies were not made in isolation, but were observed in combination with other weather elements and other natural sciences.
In about 340 BC the Greek philosopher Aristotle wrote Meteorologica, a work which represented the sum of knowledge of the time about natural science, including weather and climate. For the first time and the clouds from which precipitation fell were called meteors, which originate from the Greek word meteoros, meaning'high in the sky'. From that word came the modern term meteorology, the study of clouds and weather. Meteorologica was based on intuition and simple observation, but not on what is now considered the scientific method, it was the first known work that attempted to treat a broad range of meteorological topics. After centuries of speculative theories about the formation and behavior of clouds, the first scientific studies were undertaken by Luke Howard in England and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck in France. Howard was a methodical observer with a strong grounding in the Latin language and used his background to classify the various tropospheric cloud types during 1802, he believed. Lamarck had worked independently on cloud classification the same year and had come up with a different naming scheme that failed to make an impression in his home country of France because it used unusual French names for cloud types.
His system of nomenclature included twelve categories of clouds, with such names as hazy clouds, dappled clouds and broom-like clouds. By contrast, Howard used universally accepted Latin, which caught on after it was published in 1803; as a sign of the popularity of the naming scheme, the German dramatist and poet Johann Wolfgang von Goethe composed four poems about clouds, dedicating them to Howard. An elaboration of Howard's system was formally adopted by the International Meteorological Conference in 1891; this system covered only the tropospheric cloud types, but the discovery of clouds above the troposphere during the late 19th century led to the creation separate classification schemes for these high clouds. Terrestrial clouds can be found throughout most of the homosphere, which includes the troposphere and mesosphere. Within these layers of the atmosphere, air can become saturated as a result of being cooled to its dew point or by having moisture added from an adjacent source. In the latter case, saturation occurs when the dew po
The Puebloans or Pueblo peoples, are Native Americans in the Southwestern United States who share common agricultural and religious practices. When Spaniards entered the area beginning in the 16th century, they came across complex, multi-story villages built of adobe and other local materials, which they called pueblos, or towns, a term that came to refer to the peoples who live in these villages. There are 19 Pueblos that are still inhabited, among which Taos, San Ildefonso, Acoma and Hopi are the best-known. Pueblo communities are located in the present-day states of New Mexico and Texas along the Rio Grande and Colorado rivers and their tributaries; the term Anasazi is sometimes used to refer to Pueblo people but it is now dispreferred. Anasazi is a Navajo word that means Ancient Ones or Ancient Enemy, hence Pueblo peoples' rejection of it. Puebloans speak languages from four different language families, each Pueblo is further divided culturally by kinship systems and agricultural practices, although all cultivate varieties of maize.
Despite increasing pressure from Spanish and Anglo-American forces, Pueblo nations have maintained much of their traditional cultures, which center around agricultural practices, a tight-knit community revolving around family clans and respect for tradition. Puebloans have been remarkably adept at preserving their core religious beliefs all the while developing a syncretic approach to Catholicism. In the 21st century, some 35,000 Pueblo are estimated to live in New Arizona. Despite various similarities in cultural and religious practices, scholars have proposed divisions of contemporary Pueblos into smaller groups based on linguistic and individual manifestations of the broader Puebloan culture; the clearest division between Puebloans relates to the languages. Pueblo peoples speak languages from four distinct language families, which means these languages are different in vocabulary and most other linguistic aspects; as a result each Pueblo language is completely unintelligible to the other languages, with English now working as the lingua franca of the region.
Keresan: family to which Western and Eastern Keres belong, considered by some a language isolate consisting of a dialect continuum spoken at the pueblos of Acoma, Santa Ana, Cochiti and San Felipe. Kiowa-Tanoan: stock to which the Tanoan branch belongs, consisting of three separate sub-branches: Towa: solely spoken at Jemez Pueblo. Tewa: the most widespread Tanoan language with several dialects, spoken at Ohkay Owingeh, San Ildefonso, Santa Clara, Nambé, Pojoaque Pueblos. Tiwa: the only Tanoan sub-branch consisting of separate languages:Northern Tiwa: a language with two dialects, one spoken at Taos and the other at Picuris. Southern Tiwa: consisting of two dialects, spoken at Sandia and Isleta Pueblos. Uto-Aztecan: stock to which Hopi belongs, spoken at Hopi Pueblo. Zuni: family to which Zuni belongs. Anthropologists have studied Pueblo peoples extensively and published various classifications of their subdivisions. In 1950, Fred Russell Eggan contrasted the peoples of the Eastern and Western Pueblos, based on their subsistence farming techniques.
The Western or Desert Pueblos of the Zuni and Hopi specialize in dry farming, compared to the irrigation farmers of the Eastern or River Pueblos. Both groups cultivate maize, but squash and beans have been staple Pueblo foods all around the region. In 1954, Paul Kirchhoff published a division of Pueblo peoples into two groups based on culture; the Hopi, Zuni and Jemez each have matrilineal kinship systems: children are considered born into their mother's clan and must marry a spouse outside it, an exogamous practice. They maintain multiple kivas for sacred ceremonies, their creation story tells. They emphasize four or six cardinal directions as part of their sacred cosmology, beginning in the north. Four and seven are numbers considered significant in their rituals and symbolism. In contrast, the Tanoan-speaking Puebloans have a patrilineal kinship system, with children considered born into their father's clan, they practice marriage within the clan. They have two groups of kivas in their pueblos.
Their belief system is based in dualism. Their creation story recounts the emergence of the people from underwater, they use five directions, beginning in the west. Their ritual numbers are based on multiples of three. Puebloan societies contain elements of three major cultures that dominated the Southwest United States region before European contact: the Mogollon Culture, whose adherents occupied an area near Gila Wilderness. Archeological evidence suggest that people partaking in the Mogollon /moʊɡəˈjoʊn/ culture were foragers who augmented their subsistence through the development of farming. Around the first millennium CE, farming became the main means to obtain food. Water control features are common among Mimbres branch sites, which date from the 10th through 12th centuries CE; the nature and density of Mogollon residential villages changed through time. The earliest Mogollon villages were small hamlets composed of several pithouses. Village sizes increased over time and, by the 11th century, villages composed of ground level dwellings made with rock and earth walls, with r
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon, caused by reflection and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky. It takes the form of a multicoloured circular arc. Rainbows caused by sunlight always appear in the section of sky directly opposite the sun. Rainbows can be full circles. However, the observer sees only an arc formed by illuminated droplets above the ground, centered on a line from the sun to the observer's eye. In a primary rainbow, the arc shows red on the outer violet on the inner side; this rainbow is caused by light being refracted when entering a droplet of water reflected inside on the back of the droplet and refracted again when leaving it. In a double rainbow, a second arc is seen outside the primary arc, has the order of its colours reversed, with red on the inner side of the arc; this is caused by the light being reflected twice on the inside of the droplet before leaving it. A rainbow is not located at a specific distance from the observer, but comes from an optical illusion caused by any water droplets viewed from a certain angle relative to a light source.
Thus, a rainbow can not be physically approached. Indeed, it is impossible for an observer to see a rainbow from water droplets at any angle other than the customary one of 42 degrees from the direction opposite the light source. If an observer sees another observer who seems "under" or "at the end of" a rainbow, the second observer will see a different rainbow—farther off—at the same angle as seen by the first observer. Rainbows span a continuous spectrum of colours. Any distinct bands perceived are an artefact of human colour vision, no banding of any type is seen in a black-and-white photo of a rainbow, only a smooth gradation of intensity to a maximum fading towards the other side. For colours seen by the human eye, the most cited and remembered sequence is Newton's sevenfold red, yellow, blue and violet, remembered by the mnemonic Richard Of York Gave Battle In Vain. Rainbows can be caused by many forms of airborne water; these include not only rain, but mist and airborne dew. Rainbows can be observed whenever there are water drops in the air and sunlight shining from behind the observer at a low altitude angle.
Because of this, rainbows are seen in the western sky during the morning and in the eastern sky during the early evening. The most spectacular rainbow displays happen when half the sky is still dark with raining clouds and the observer is at a spot with clear sky in the direction of the sun; the result is a luminous rainbow. During such good visibility conditions, the larger but fainter secondary rainbow is visible, it appears about 10° outside of the primary rainbow, with inverse order of colours. The rainbow effect is commonly seen near waterfalls or fountains. In addition, the effect can be artificially created by dispersing water droplets into the air during a sunny day. A moonbow, lunar rainbow or nighttime rainbow, can be seen on moonlit nights; as human visual perception for colour is poor in low light, moonbows are perceived to be white. It is difficult to photograph the complete semicircle of a rainbow in one frame, as this would require an angle of view of 84°. For a 35 mm camera, a wide-angle lens with a focal length of 19 mm or less would be required.
Now that software for stitching several images into a panorama is available, images of the entire arc and secondary arcs can be created easily from a series of overlapping frames. From above the earth such as in an aeroplane, it is sometimes possible to see a rainbow as a full circle; this phenomenon can be confused with the glory phenomenon, but a glory is much smaller, covering only 5–20°. The sky inside a primary rainbow is brighter than the sky outside of the bow; this is because each raindrop is a sphere and it scatters light over an entire circular disc in the sky. The radius of the disc depends on the wavelength of light, with red light being scattered over a larger angle than blue light. Over most of the disc, scattered light at all wavelengths overlaps, resulting in white light which brightens the sky. At the edge, the wavelength dependence of the scattering gives rise to the rainbow. Light of primary rainbow arc is 96% polarised tangential to the arch. Light of second arc is 90% polarised.
A spectrum obtained using a glass prism and a point source is a continuum of wavelengths without bands. The number of colours that the human eye is able to distinguish in a spectrum is in the order of 100. Accordingly, the Munsell colour system distinguishes 100 hues; the apparent discreteness of main colours is an artefact of human perception and the exact number of main colours is a somewhat arbitrary choice. Newton, who admitted his eyes were not critical in distinguishing colours divided the spectrum into five main colours: red, green and violet, he included orange and indigo, giving seven main colours by analogy to the number of notes in a musical scale. Newton chose to divide the visible spectrum into seven colours out of a belief derived from the beliefs of the ancient Greek sophists, who thought there was a connection between the colours, the musical notes, the known objects in the Solar System, the days of the week. Scholars have noted that what Newton regarded at the time as "blue" would today be regarded as cyan, what Newton called "indigo" would today be considered blue.
According to Isaac Asimov, "It is customary to list indigo as a colour lying between blue and violet, but it ha