SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Zurvanism

Zurvanism is an extinct branch of Zoroastrianism in which the divinity Zurvan is a First Principle who engendered equal-but-opposite twins, Ahura Mazda and Angra Mainyu. Zurvanism is known as "Zurvanite Zoroastrianism", may be contrasted with Mazdaism. In Zurvanism, Zurvan was aka. Zurvan was portrayed as a transcendental and neutral god, without passion, one for whom there was no distinction between good or evil; the name'Zurvan' is a normalized rendition of the word, which in Middle Persian appears as either Zurvān, Zruvān or Zarvān. The Middle Persian name derives from Avestan zruvan-, "time", grammatically without gender. Although the details of the origin and development of Zurvanism remain murky, it is accepted that Zurvanism was a branch of greater Zoroastrianism. Zurvanism enjoyed royal sanction during the Sassanid era but no traces of it remain beyond the 10th century. Although Sassanid-era Zurvanism was influenced by Hellenic philosophy, the relationship between it and the Greek divinity of Time has not been conclusively established.

Non-Zoroastrian accounts of Zurvanite beliefs were the first traces of Zoroastrianism to reach the west, leading European scholars to conclude that Zoroastrianism was a monist religion, an issue of controversy among both scholars and contemporary practitioners of the faith. The Avestan word zruvan is etymologically related to the late Sanskrit word sarva, meaning "all, entire", which carries a similar semantic field in signifying a monist quality; the earliest evidence of the cult of Zurvan is found in the History of Theology, attributed to Eudemus of Rhodes. As cited in Damascius's Difficulties and Solutions of First Principles, Eudemus describes a sect of the Medes that considered Space/Time to be the primordial "father" of the rivals Oromasdes "of light" and Arimanius "of darkness"; the principal evidence for Zurvanite doctrine occurs in the polemical Christian tracts of Armenian and Syriac writers of the Sassanid period. Indigenous sources of information from the same period are the 3rd century Kartir inscription at Ka'ba-i Zartosht and the early 4th century edict of Mihr-Narse, the latter being the only native evidence from the Sassanid period, frankly Zurvanite.

The post-Sassanid Zoroastrian Middle Persian commentaries are Mazdean and with only one exception do not mention Zurvan at all. Of the remaining so-called Pahlavi texts only two, the Mēnōg-i Khrad and the Selections of Zatspram reveal a Zurvanite tendency; the latter, in which the priest Zatspram chastises his brother's un-Mazdaean ideas, is the last text in Middle Persian that provides any evidence of the cult of Zurvan. The 13th century Zoroastrian Ulema-i Islam, a New Persian apologetic text, is unambiguously Zurvanite and is the last direct evidence of Zurvan as a First Principle. There is no hint of any worship of Zurvan in any of the texts of the Avesta though the texts are the result of a Sassanid era redaction. Zaehner proposes that this is because the individual Sassanid monarchs were not always Zurvanite and that Mazdean Zoroastrianism just happened to have the upper hand during the crucial period that the canon was written down. In the texts composed prior to the Sassanid period, Zurvan appears twice, as both an abstract concept and as a minor divinity, but there is no evidence of a cult.

In Yasna 72.10 Zurvan is invoked in the company of Space and Air and in Yasht 13.56, the plants grow in the manner Time has ordained according to the will of Ahura Mazda and the Amesha Spentas. Two other references to Zurvan are present in the Vendidad, but although these are late additions to the canon, they again do not establish any evidence of a cult. Zurvan does not appear in any listing of the Yazatas; the origins of the cult of Zurvan remain debated. One view considers Zurvanism to have developed out of Zoroastrianism as a reaction to the liberalization of the late Achaemenid-era form of the faith. Another view proposes that Zurvan existed as a pre-Zoroastrian divinity, incorporated into Zoroastrianism; the third view is that Zurvanism is the product of the contact between Zoroastrianism and Babylonian-Akkadian religions. Certain however is that by the Sassanid era, the divinity "Infinite Time" was well established, and—as inferred from a Manichaean text presented to Shapur I, in which the name Zurvan was adopted for Manichaeism's primordial "Father of Greatness"—enjoyed royal patronage.

It was during the reign of Sassanid Emperor Shapur I that Zurvanism appears to have developed as a cult and it was in this period that Greek and Indic concepts were introduced to Zurvanite Zoroastrianism. It is however not known whether Sassanid-era Zurvanism and Mazdaism

Home Office

The Home Office is a ministerial department of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, responsible for immigration and law and order. As such it is responsible for policing in England and Wales and rescue services in England, visas and immigration and the Security Service, it is in charge of government policy on security-related issues such as drugs, counter-terrorism and ID cards. It was responsible for Her Majesty's Prison Service and the National Probation Service, but these have been transferred to the Ministry of Justice; the Cabinet minister responsible for the department is the Home Secretary. The Home Office, considered to be one the Great Offices of State, continues to be known in official papers and when referred to in Parliament, as the Home Department; the Home Office is headed by the Home Secretary, a Cabinet minister supported by the department's senior civil servant, the permanent secretary. As of October 2014, the Home Office comprises the following organisations: National Crime Agency HM Inspectorate of Constabulary Independent Chief Inspector of Borders and Immigration Independent Office for Police Conduct and other oversight bodies Home Affairs Select Committee HM Chief Inspector of Fire Services Border Force HM Passport Office Immigration Enforcement Corporate Services UK Visas and Immigration Police Services Fire and Rescue Services Office for Security and Counter-Terrorism Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs Animals in Science Committee Disclosure and Barring Service Gangmasters Licensing Authority Independent Police Complaints Commission Investigatory Powers Tribunal Migration Advisory Committee National DNA Database Ethics Group Office of Surveillance Commissioners Office of the Immigration Services Commissioner Police Advisory Board for England and Wales Police Discipline Appeals Tribunal Police Remuneration Review Body Security Industry Authority Technical Advisory Board A number of functions of the National Policing Improvement Agency were transferred to the Home Office in October 2012, ahead of the future abolition of the agency.

These included: Use of the Airwave communications system by police forces The Police National Database The National DNA Database Legislative powers regarding police employment Forensics policy The National Procurement Hub for information technology The Home Office Ministers are as follows: The Department outlined its aims for this Parliament in its Business Plan, published in May 2011 and superseded its Structural Reform Plan. The plan said the department will: 1. Empower the public to hold the police to account for their role in cutting crime Introduce directly elected Police and Crime Commissioners and make police actions to tackle crime and anti-social behaviour more transparent 2. Free up the police to fight crime more and efficiently Cut police bureaucracy, end unnecessary central interference and overhaul police powers in order to cut crime, reduce costs and improve police value for money. Simplify national institutional structures and establish a National Crime Agency to strengthen the fight against organised crime 3.

Create a more integrated criminal justice system Help the police and other public services work together across the criminal justice system 4. Secure our borders and reduce immigration Deliver an improved migration system that commands public confidence and serves our economic interests. Limit non-EU economic migrants, introduce new measures to reduce inflow and minimise abuse of all migration routes, for example the student route. Process asylum applications more and end the detention of children for immigration purposes 5. Protect people's freedoms and civil liberties Reverse state interference to ensure there is not disproportionate intrusion into people‟s lives 6. Protect our citizens from terrorism Keep people safe through the Government's approach to counter-terrorism 7. Build a fairer and more equal society Help create a fair and flexible labour market. Change culture and attitudes. Empower individuals and communities. Improve equality structures, frontline services and support. On 27 March 1782, the Home Office was formed by renaming the existing Southern Department, with all existing staff transferring.

On the same day, the Northern Department was renamed the Foreign Office. To match the new names, there was a transferring of responsibilities between the two Departments of State. All domestic responsibilities were moved to the Home Office, all foreign matters became the concern of the Foreign Office. Most subsequently created domestic departments have been formed by splitting responsibilities away from the Home Office; the initial responsibilities were: Answering petitions and addresses sent to the King Advising the King on Royal grants Warrants and commissions The exercise of Royal Prerogative Issuing instructions on behalf of the King to officers of the Crown, lords-lieutenant and magistrates concerning law and order Operation of the secret service within the UK Protecting the public Safeguarding the rights and liberties of individualsResponsibilities were subsequently changed over the years that followed: 1793 added: regulation of aliens 1794 removed: control of military forces 1801 removed: colonial business 1804 removed: Barbary State consuls 1823 added: prisons 1829 added: police services 1836 added: registr

Hold the Lion, Please

Hold the Lion, Please is a 1942 Merrie Melodies cartoon, first released on June 6, 1942, distributed by the Vitaphone Corporation and Warner Bros. This is the first Bugs Bunny cartoon where the title does not refer "hare", "bunny", or "rabbit", the character's tenth appearance overall, Chuck Jones' 39th Warner Bros. cartoon. Tedd Pierce handled writing duties; the title is a play on the expression used by switchboard operators of the day, asking the caller to "hold the line." The Three Stooges made a short with a similar title, Hold That Lion, which featured a renegade lion. The short focuses on a lion named Leo who's trying to prove he's still'King of the Jungle' by hunting a small, defenseless animal, he chooses Bugs Bunny as his intended victim, but Leo soon finds out that, in a battle of wits, he's the defenseless one. However, Leo gets Bugs under one paw while raising the other one, claws extended, looking angry. Just Leo's wife, calls him on Bugs' phone, Leo goes from ferocious to meek. After a brief conversation, Leo tells her.

After hanging up the phone, Leo apologizes to Bugs about not being able to "stay and kill him," and dashes home to Hortense. Bugs makes fun of Leo for his submissiveness to his wife, but it's shown that Bugs is just as submissive to his own wife, Mrs. Bugs Bunny, whose presence sends her husband sheepishly slinking back into their rabbit hole. Mrs. Bunny asks the audience, "Who wears the pants in this family?" before lifting up her skirt to show her wearing a pair of pants. Mel Blanc voiced Bugs Bunny, Giraffe, Mrs. Bugs Bunny. Tedd Pierce voiced Leo the Lion. Tex Avery voiced the Hippo. Hold the Lion, Please at The Big Cartoon DataBase Watch Hold the Lion, Please! on YouTube Hold the Lion, Please on IMDb