A logo is a graphic mark, emblem, or symbol used to aid and promote public identification and recognition. It may be of an abstract or figurative design or include the text of the name it represents as in a wordmark. In the days of hot metal typesetting, a logotype was one word cast as a single piece of type, as opposed to a ligature, two or more letters joined, but not forming a word. By extension, the term was used for a uniquely set and arranged typeface or colophon. At the level of mass communication and in common usage, a company's logo is today synonymous with its trademark or brand. Numerous inventions and techniques have contributed to the contemporary logo, including cylinder seals, trans-cultural diffusion of logographic languages, coats of arms, silver hallmarks, the development of printing technology; as the industrial revolution converted western societies from agrarian to industrial in the 18th and 19th centuries and lithography contributed to the boom of an advertising industry that integrated typography and imagery together on the page.
Typography itself was undergoing a revolution of form and expression that expanded beyond the modest, serif typefaces used in books, to bold, ornamental typefaces used on broadsheet posters. The arts were expanding in purpose—from expression and decoration of an artistic, storytelling nature, to a differentiation of brands and products that the growing middle classes were consuming. Consultancies and trades-groups in the commercial arts were organizing. Artistic credit tended to be assigned to the lithographic company, as opposed to the individual artists who performed less important jobs. Innovators in the visual arts and lithographic process—such as French printing firm Rouchon in the 1840s, Joseph Morse of New York in the 1850s, Frederick Walker of England in the 1870s, Jules Chéret of France in the 1870s—developed an illustrative style that went beyond tonal, representational art to figurative imagery with sections of bright, flat colors. Playful children’s books, authoritative newspapers, conversational periodicals developed their own visual and editorial styles for unique, expanding audiences.
As printing costs decreased, literacy rates increased, visual styles changed, the Victorian decorative arts led to an expansion of typographic styles and methods of representing businesses. The Arts and Crafts Movement of late-19th century in response to the excesses of Victorian typography, aimed to restore an honest sense of craftsmanship to the mass-produced goods of the era. A renewal of interest in craftsmanship and quality provided the artists and companies with a greater interest in credit, leading to the creation of unique logos and marks. By the 1950s, Modernism had shed its roots as an avant-garde artistic movement in Europe to become an international, commercialized movement with adherents in the United States and elsewhere; the visual simplicity and conceptual clarity that were the hallmarks of Modernism as an artistic movement formed a powerful toolset for a new generation of graphic designers whose logos embodied Ludwig Mies van der Rohe’s dictum, "Less is more." Modernist-inspired logos proved successful in the era of mass visual communication ushered in by television, improvements in printing technology, digital innovations.
The current era of logo design began in the 1870s with the first abstract logo, the Bass red triangle. As of 2014, many corporations, brands, services and other entities use an ideogram or an emblem or a combination of sign and emblem as a logo; as a result, only a few of the thousands of ideograms in circulation are recognizable without a name. An effective logo may consist of both an ideogram and the company name to emphasize the name over the graphic, employ a unique design via the use of letters and additional graphic elements. Ideograms and symbols may be more effective than written names for logos translated into many alphabets in globalized markets. For instance, a name written in Arabic script might have little resonance in most European markets. By contrast, ideograms keep the general proprietary nature of a product in both markets. In non-profit areas, the Red Cross exemplifies a well-known emblem that does not need an accompanying name; the red cross and red crescent are among the best-recognized symbols in the world.
National Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies and their Federation as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross include these symbols in their logos. Branding can aim to facilitate cross-language marketing. Consumers and potential consumers can identify the Coca-Cola name written in different alphabets because of the standard color and "ribbon wave" design of its logo; the text was written in Spencerian Script, a popular writing style when the Coca Cola Logo was being designed. Since a logo is the visual entity signifying an organization, logo design is an important area of graphic design. A logo is the central element of a complex identification system that must be functionally extended to all communications of an organization. Therefore, the design of logos and their incorporation in a visual identity system is one of the most difficult and important areas of graphic design. Logos fall into three classifications. Ideographs, such as Chase Bank, are abstr
The Salyut programme was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union. It involved a series of four crewed scientific research space stations and two crewed military reconnaissance space stations over a period of 15 years, from 1971 to 1986. Two other Salyut launches failed. In one respect, Salyut had the task of carrying out long-term research into the problems of living in space and a variety of astronomical and Earth-resources experiments, on the other hand the USSR used this civilian program as a cover for the secretive military Almaz stations, which flew under the Salyut designation. Salyut 1, the first station in the program, became the world's first crewed space station. Salyut flights broke several spaceflight records, including several mission-duration records, achieved the first orbital handover of a space station from one crew to another, various spacewalk records; the ensuing Soyuz programme was vital for evolving space station technology from a basic, engineering development stage, from single docking port stations to complex, multi-ported, long-term orbital outposts with impressive scientific capabilities, whose technological legacy continues to the present day.
Experience gained from the Salyut stations paved the way for multimodular space stations such as Mir and the International Space Station, with each of those stations possessing a Salyut-derived core module at its heart. Mir-2, the final spacecraft from the Salyut series, became one of the first modules of the ISS; the first module of the ISS, the Russian-made Zarya, relied on technologies developed in the Salyut programme. The program was composed of DOS civilian stations and OPS military stations: The Almaz-OPS space station cores were designed in October 1964 by Vladimir Chelomei's OKB-52 organization as military space stations, long before the Salyut programme started. For Salyut, small modifications had to be made to the docking port of the OPS to accommodate Soyuz spacecraft in addition to TKS spacecraft; the civilian DOS space station cores were designed by Sergei Korolev's OKB-1 organization – Korolev and Chelomei had been in fierce competition in the Soviet space industry during the time of the Soviet manned lunar programme.
In an effort by OKB-1 to catch up with OKB-52, they took Chelomei's Almaz-OPS hull design and mated it with subsystems derived from their own Soyuz. This was done beginning with conceptual work in August 1969; the DOS differed from the OPS modules in several aspects, including extra solar panels and rear docking ports for Soyuz spacecraft and TKS spacecraft, more docking ports in DOS-7 and DOS-8 to attach further space station modules. When it was realized that the civilian DOS stations could not only offer a cover story for the military Almaz programme, but could be finished within one year, the Salyut programme begun on 15 February 1970 – under the condition that the manned lunar program would not suffer. However, the engineers at OKB-1 switched from the L3 lunar lander effort, perceived as a dead-end, to start work on DOS – despite fears that it would kill the Soviet manned Moon shot. In the end it turned out that the Soviet N1 "Moon Shot" rocket never flew so OKB-1's decisions to abandon the ill-fated Soviet manned lunar program, to derive a DOS space station from existing Soyuz subsystems and an Almaz/OPS hull proved to be right: The actual time from the DOS station's inception to the launch of the first DOS-based Salyut 1 space station took only 16 months.
The space stations were to be named Zarya, the Russian word for'Dawn'. However, as the launch of the first station in the programme was prepared, it was realised that this would conflict with the call sign Zarya of the flight control centre in Korolyov – therefore the name of the space stations was changed to Salyut shortly before launch of Salyut 1. Another explanation given is that the name might have offended the Chinese, who purportedly were preparing a new rocket for launch, which they had named "Dawn"; the Salyut programme was managed by Kerim Kerimov, chairman of the state commission for Soyuz missions. While a total of nine space stations were launched in the Salyut programme, with six manned, setting some records along the way, it was the stations Salyut 6 and Salyut 7 that became the workhorses of the program. Out of the total of 1,697 days of occupancy that all Salyut crews achieved, Salyut 6 and 7 accounted for 1,499. While Skylab featured a second docking port, these two Salyut stations became the first that utilized two docking ports: This made it possible for two Soyuz spacecraft to dock at the same time for crew exchange of the station and for Progress spacecraft to resupply the station, allowing for the first time a continuous occupation of space stations.
The heritage of the Salyut programme continued to live on in the first multi-module space station Mir with the Mir Core Module, that accumulated 4,592 days of occupancy, in the International Space Station with the Zvezda module, that as of 21 August 2012 accumulated 4,310 days of occupancy. Furthermore, the Functional Cargo Block space station modules were derived from the Almaz programme, with the Zarya ISS module being still in operation together with Zvezda. Salyut 1 was launched on 19 April 1971, it was the first space station to orbit the Earth. Its first cre
Mir was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and by Russia. Mir was the first modular space station and was assembled in orbit from 1986 to 1996, it had a greater mass than any previous spacecraft. At the time it was the largest artificial satellite in orbit, succeeded by the International Space Station after Mir's orbit decayed; the station served as a microgravity research laboratory in which crews conducted experiments in biology, human biology, astronomy and spacecraft systems with a goal of developing technologies required for permanent occupation of space. Mir was the first continuously inhabited long-term research station in orbit and held the record for the longest continuous human presence in space at 3,644 days, until it was surpassed by the ISS on 23 October 2010, it holds the record for the longest single human spaceflight, with Valeri Polyakov spending 437 days and 18 hours on the station between 1994 and 1995. Mir was occupied for a total of twelve and a half years out of its fifteen-year lifespan, having the capacity to support a resident crew of three, or larger crews for short visits.
Following the success of the Salyut programme, Mir represented the next stage in the Soviet Union's space station programme. The first module of the station, known as the core module or base block, was launched in 1986 and followed by six further modules. Proton rockets were used to launch all of its components except for the docking module, installed by a US Space Shuttle mission STS-74 in 1995; when complete, the station consisted of seven pressurised modules and several unpressurised components. Power was provided by several photovoltaic arrays attached directly to the modules; the station was maintained at an orbit between 296 km and 421 km altitude and travelled at an average speed of 27,700 km/h, completing 15.7 orbits per day. The station was launched as part of the Soviet Union's manned spaceflight programme effort to maintain a long-term research outpost in space, following the collapse of the USSR, was operated by the new Russian Federal Space Agency; as a result, most of the station's occupants were Soviet.
Mir was deorbited in March 2001. The cost of the Mir programme was estimated by former RKA General Director Yuri Koptev in 2001 as $4.2 billion over its lifetime. Mir was authorised by a 17 February 1976 decree, to design an improved model of the Salyut DOS-17K space stations. Four Salyut space stations had been launched since 1971, with three more being launched during Mir's development, it was planned. By August 1978, this had evolved to the final configuration of one aft port and five ports in a spherical compartment at the forward end of the station, it was planned that the ports would connect to 7.5-tonne modules derived from the Soyuz spacecraft. These modules would have used a Soyuz propulsion module, as in Soyuz and Progress, the descent and orbital modules would have been replaced with a long laboratory module. Following a February 1979 governmental resolution, the programme was consolidated with Vladimir Chelomei's manned Almaz military space station programme; the docking ports were reinforced to accommodate 20-tonne space station modules based on the TKS spacecraft.
NPO Energia was responsible for the overall space station, with work subcontracted to KB Salyut, due to ongoing work on the Energia rocket and Salyut 7, Soyuz-T, Progress spacecraft. KB Salyut began work in 1979, drawings were released in 1982 and 1983. New systems incorporated into the station included the Salyut 5B digital flight control computer and gyrodyne flywheels, Kurs automatic rendezvous system, Luch satellite communications system, Elektron oxygen generators, Vozdukh carbon dioxide scrubbers. By early 1984, work on Mir had halted while all resources were being put into the Buran programme in order to prepare the Buran spacecraft for flight testing. Funding resumed in early 1984 when Valentin Glushko was ordered by the Central Committee's Secretary for Space and Defence to orbit Mir by early 1986, in time for the 27th Communist Party Congress, it was clear that the planned processing flow could not be followed and still meet the 1986 launch date. It was decided on Cosmonaut's Day 1985 to ship the flight model of the base block to the Baikonur cosmodrome and conduct the systems testing and integration there.
The module arrived at the launch site on 6 May, with 1100 of 2500 cables requiring rework based on the results of tests to the ground test model at Khrunichev. In October, the base block was rolled outside its cleanroom to carry out communications tests; the first launch attempt on 16 February 1986 was scrubbed when the spacecraft communications failed, but the second launch attempt, on 19 February 1986 at 21:28:23 UTC, was successful, meeting the political deadline. The orbital assembly of Mir began on 19 February 1986 with the launch of the Proton-K rocket. Four of the six modules which were added followed the same sequence to be a
A space toilet, or zero gravity toilet is a toilet that can be used in a weightless environment. In the absence of weight, the collection and retention of liquid and solid waste is directed by use of air flow. Since the air used to direct the waste is returned to the cabin, it is filtered beforehand to control odor and cleanse bacteria. In older systems, waste water is vented into space, any solids are compressed and stored for removal upon landing. More modern systems expose solid waste to vacuum pressures to kill bacteria, which prevents odor problems and kills pathogens; when humans travel into space, weightlessness causes fluids to distribute uniformly around their bodies. Their kidneys detect the fluid movement and a physiological reaction causes the humans to need to relieve themselves within two hours of departure from Earth; as a result, the space toilet has been the first device activated on shuttle flights, after astronauts unbuckle themselves. There are four basic parts in a space toilet: the liquid waste vacuum tube, the vacuum chamber, the waste storage drawers, the solid waste collection bags.
The liquid waste vacuum tube is a 2 to 3-foot long rubber or plastic hose, attached to the vacuum chamber and connected to a fan that provides suction. At the end of the tube there is a detachable urine receptacle, which come in different versions for male and female astronauts; the male urine receptacle is a plastic funnel two to three inches in width and about four inches deep. A male astronaut urinates directly into the funnel from a distance of three inches away; the female funnel is two inches by four inches wide at the rim. Near the funnel's rim are small holes or slits that allow air movement to prevent excessive suction; the vacuum chamber is a cylinder about 1-foot deep and six inches wide with clips on the rim where waste collection bags may be attached and a fan that provides suction. Urine is stored in waste storage drawers. Solid waste is stored in a detachable bag made of a special fabric that lets gas escape, a feature that allows the fan at the back of the vacuum chamber to pull the waste into the bag.
When the astronaut is finished, he or she twists the bag and places it in a waste storage drawer. Samples of urine and solid waste are taken to Earth for testing; the toilet used on the Space Shuttle is called the Waste Collection System. In addition to air flow, it uses rotating fans to distribute solid waste for in-flight storage. Solid waste is distributed in a cylindrical container, exposed to vacuum to dry the waste. Liquid waste is vented to space. During STS-46, one of the fans malfunctioned, crew member Claude Nicollier was required to perform in-flight maintenance. An earlier, complete failure, on the eight-day STS-3 test flight, forced its two-man crew to use a fecal containment device for waste elimination and disposal. There are two toilets on the International Space Station, located in the Zvezda and Tranquility modules, they use a fan-driven suction system similar to the Space Shuttle WCS. Liquid waste is collected in 20-litre containers. Solid waste is collected in individual micro-perforated bags which are stored in an aluminum container.
Full containers are transferred to Progress for disposal. An additional Waste and Hygiene Compartment is part of the Tranquility module launched in 2010. In 2007, NASA purchased a Russian-made toilet similar to the one aboard ISS rather than develop one internally. On May 21, 2008, the gas liquid separator pump failed on the 7-year-old toilet in Zvezda, although the solid waste portion was still functioning; the crew was unable to repair the malfunctioning part. In the interim, they used a manual mode for urine collection; the crew had other options: to use the toilet on the Soyuz transport module or to use urine-collection bags as needed. A replacement pump was sent from Russia in a diplomatic pouch so that Space Shuttle Discovery could take it to the station as part of mission STS-124 on June 2; the Soviet/Russian Space Station Mir's toilet used a system similar to the WCS. While the Soyuz spacecraft had an onboard toilet facility since its introduction in 1967, all Gemini and Apollo spacecraft required astronauts to urinate in a so-called "relief tube" in which the contents were dumped into space, while fecal matter was collected in specially-designed bags.
The facilities were so uncomfortable that, to avoid using them, astronauts ate less than half the available food on their flights. The Skylab space station, used by NASA between May 1973 and March 1974, had an onboard WCS facility which served as a prototype for the Shuttle's WCS, but featured an onboard shower facility; the Skylab toilet, designed and built by the Fairchild Republic Corp. on Long Island, was a medical system to collect and return to Earth samples of urine and vomit so that calcium balance in astronauts could be studied. With the facilities and cosmonauts for both launch systems employ pre-launch bowel clearing and low-residue diets to minimize the need for defecation; the Soyuz toilet has been used on a return mission from Mir. NPP Zvezda is a Russian developer of space equipment. A next-generation space toilet called the Universal Waste Management System is being developed by NASA for Orion and other long duration missions, it is planned to be quieter, more reliable, more hygienic and more compact than previous systems
Russian Orbital Segment
The Russian Orbital Segment is the name given to the components of the International Space Station constructed in Russia and operated by the Russian Federal Space Agency. The ROS handles Navigation & Control for the entire Station; the segment consists of five modules, which together comprise the base configuration of the cancelled Russian space station Mir-2. The segment is controlled directly from Roskosmos's Mission Control Center in Moscow; the five modules are: Zarya Zvezda Pirs Poisk Rassvet The first module, otherwise known as the Functional Cargo Block or FGB, was the first component of the ISS to be launched, provided the early station configuration with electrical power, storage and navigation guidance, until a short time after the Russian service module Zvezda docked and was transferred control. Zvezda contains. Now used for storage, Zarya provides ports for Soyuz spacecraft and the European ATV to dock to the station. Ships boosting the station's orbit dock to the aft port; the FGB is a descendant of the TKS spacecraft designed for the Russian Salyut program.
5.4 tons of propellant fuel can be transferred automatically to and from ships docked. Zarya was intended as a module for the Russian Mir space station, but was not flown as of the end of the Mir-1 program. Developed by Russia and the former Soviet Union, construction of Zarya was funded by the United States and NASA, Zarya remains a US-owned module; the second module, Zvezda, is the station's Service Module - it provides a living environment for the crew, contains the ISS's main engine system, provides a docking port for Soyuz and Automated Transfer Vehicle spacecraft. The third module, functions as the ROS's airlock, storing EVA spacesuits and providing the equipment necessary for cosmonauts to exit the space station, it serves as a docking compartment for Soyuz and Progress spacecraft. The fourth module, Poisk, is similar to Pirs. Redundancy in airlocks allows one airlock to be repaired internally and externally whilst crew use the other airlock to exit and re-enter the station; the fifth module, Rassvet, is used for cargo storage and as a docking port for visiting spacecraft.
Nauka known as the Multipurpose Laboratory Module or FGB-2, is the major Russian laboratory module which will take the place of Pirs. In October 2011, it was reported that Nauka was expected to be launched in December 2013. Prior to the arrival of the MLM, a Progress robotic spacecraft will dock with PIRS, depart with that module, both will be discarded and burn up in the atmosphere. Nauka will use its own engines to attach itself to the ROS; this module was intended to separate from the ISS before de-orbit with support modules and become the OPSEK space station, in 2017 Roscosmos announced that it had no further intention to separate the ROS from the ISS in the future, will continue working with its partners. It contains an additional set of orientation control. Power provided by its solar arrays will mean the ROS no longer relies on power from the USOS main arrays; the launch date has now slipped for many years, the next possible date is in November 2019. Nauka's mission has changed over time.
During the mid-1990s, it was intended as a backup for the FGB, as a universal docking module. Its docking ports will be able to support automatic docking of both space craft, additional modules and fuel transfer; the Oka-T-MKS was a planned companion module to the ISS. Reported as of December 2012 to be under construction, its development has been delayed; the module would be free-floating most of the time as an autonomous orbital space laboratory for the conduction of experiments, dock with the ISS for experiment maintenance about every 180 days. The Oka-T-MKS space laboratory was contracted to Energia by Roscosmos in 2012. Projected for a 2015 launch date, this has been pushed back indefinitely and some evidence suggests that, unable to locate significant development partnerships, its development has been abandoned. On June 17, 2009, the Russian Federal Space Agency presented to NASA and the other ISS partners a proposal to add additional modules to the Russian segment to ensure its viability past 2016 or 2020.
To this end, a Nodal Module that would be attached to the nadir docking port of Nauka would facilitate the attachment of two additional, larger modules that would be capable of providing an independent power source to the Russian segment should current plans to deorbit the US segment of the ISS after 2016 move forward. As proposed, the Nodal Module would be launched during 2013 by a Soyuz launcher in a similar fashion to how the Pirs and Poisk MRM-2 modules were lifted to orbit; the two larger modules, nominally referred to as Scientific and Power Producing Modules 1 and 2, would be lifted to orbit via Proton launchers in 2014 and 2015, respectively. These two modules would be attached to the port and starboard sides of the Nodal Module, leaving its aft docking port accessible for possible future expandability and its nadir port accessible for docking by Soyuz or Progress spacecraft; because of the proximity of the Nodal Module to the planned attachment point of MRM-1 on the nadir docking port of Zarya FGB to facilitate docking of Soyuz and Progress spacecraft, the module's forward-facing port will be unusable.
As of January 2010, neither Roskosmos nor NASA have provided further details