Zvonnitsa

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Zvonnitsa of the Transfiguration Cathedral in Vyazemy, Moscow Oblast.

Zvonnitsa (error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help); error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help), dzvinytsia; Polish: dzwonnica parawanowa; Romanian: zvoniţă) is a large rectangular structure containing multiple arches or beams that carry bells, where bell ringers stand on its base level and perform the ringing using long ropes, like playing on a kind of giant musical instrument[citation needed]. It was an alternative to bell tower in Russian, Polish and Romanian medieval architectural tradition.

Zvonnitsa was an architectural form especially widespread in architecture of Pskov; in general, it was used in the Russian architecture of the 14th-17th centuries.

Sometimes zvonnitsa was mounted right atop the church building, resulting in the special type of church called pod zvonom (error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help), "under ringing") or izhe pod kolokoly (error: {{lang-xx}}: text has italic markup (help), "under bells"). The most famous example of such kind of a church is the Church of St. Ivan of the Ladder adjacent to Ivan the Great Bell Tower in the Moscow Kremlin.

Polish word Dzwonnica (pl:Dzwonnica) means any type of a bell tower, while the rectangular architectural construction with apertures for bells is referred to as dzwonnica parawanowa.

Zvonnica of Nikola Church in Pskovo-Pechersky Monastery 
Pskov. Church of St. Georg "so Vzvoza" with zvonnitsa 
Zvonnitsa in Rostov Kremlin 
Dzwonnica parawanowa in Wołkowyja 
Dzwonnica parawanowa in Przemyśl 

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