Mixi is an online Japanese social networking service. It was founded in 1999 and is owned by Mixi, Inc.. As of September 2012, Mixi had about 14 million monthly active users, with about 8.6 million of those on smartphones. Mixi, Inc. was founded by Kenji Kasahara in 1999 as a limited liability company and became a Japanese corporation in 2000. The company changed its name to Mixi, Inc. from E-Mercury, Inc. in February 2006 to align its name with the social networking service. Its headquarters are in Tokyo, they publish the popular mobile freemium game Monster Strike. The focus of Mixi is community entertainment. Users can send and receive messages, write in a diary and comment on others' diaries and join communities, invite their friends. Research indicates that some users young women, are more to use Mixi to connect in more private ways with close friends in contrast to perceptions of Facebook as a more public social network. Registration requires a valid Japanese cellphone number, which bars anyone, not or has not been a resident of Japan.
Since 2012, both Android and iPhone users can apply for a new Mixi account via specific apps made for their devices. A community is a place for people to share their opinions through an online forum and a way to express tastes and hobbies. MyMixi, or Maimiku for short, means friend; this is similar to a contact in flickr, or friend on Myspace, involves an approval process. The maximum possible number of myMixi a user allowed to have is 1,000. Accounts that are marked as tarento or celebrities don't have this limitation; the word Mixi is a combination of Mix and I, referring to the idea that the user, "I", "mixes" with other users through the service. "Mixi Station" is an application that detects songs being played in iTunes and Windows Media Player and uploads them automatically to a communally accessible list in the "Music" section, was implemented late in June 2006. By July 2006, support for Winamp was implemented via a Winamp plugin, made official by Mixi. Batara Eto was the only developer at the start of the social networking site.
Mixi uses open source: Linux, Apache, MySQL, Perl. It uses several hundred MySQL servers. Mixi uses Tokyo Cabinet NoSQL database. A term "Mixi Fatigue " has been coined to describe the feeling of becoming tired of Mixi, voicing a desire to discontinue using the service, deciding to terminate an account. Mixi added the feature to upload your own video content, along with the ability to post content from YouTube; the corporate headquarters are on the seventh floor of the Sumitomo Fudosan Shibuya First Tower in Shibuya, Tokyo. Mixi has enjoyed a steady growth in its userbase. In 2005, the website had more than one million users, less than a year it had more than five million users; the site had more than 10 million users in February 2007, as of July 2010, more than 30 million. This number includes multiple accounts. In 2008, Mixi began "Celebrity Accounts" in which celebrities who are on the social networking site are allowed to surpass the 1000-friend limit and have an unlimited number of followers.
In December 2008, Mixi discouraged use of the site for dating, prohibiting users from "using Mixi to meet with strangers of the other sex". List of social networking websites Official website Mixi corporate website English content - Overview, About Mixi, IR Library Interview with Mixi Spokesman Japan Today, 9/28/2011
Goodreads is a "social cataloging" website that allows individuals to search its database of books and reviews. Users can register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists, they can create their own groups of book suggestions, polls and discussions. The website's offices are located in San Francisco; the company is owned by the online retailer Amazon. Goodreads was founded in December 2006 and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer and entrepreneur, Elizabeth Khuri; the website grew in popularity after being launched. In December 2007, the site over 10,000,000 books had been added. By July 2012, the site reported 10 million members, 20 million monthly visits, 30 employees. On July 23, 2013, it was announced on their website that the user base had grown to 20 million members, having doubled in close to 11 months. On March 28, 2013, Amazon announced its acquisition of Goodreads; the Chandlers created Goodreads in 2006. Goodreads' stated mission is "to help people find and share books they love... to improve the process of reading and learning throughout the world."
Goodreads addressed "what publishers call the'discoverability' problem" by guiding consumers in the digital age to find books they might want to read. During its first year of business, the company was run without any formal funding. In December 2007, the site received; this funding lasted Goodreads until 2009, when Goodreads received two million dollars from True Ventures. In October 2010 the company opened its application programming interface, which enabled developers to access its ratings and titles. Goodreads received a small commission when a user clicks over from its site to an online bookseller and makes a purchase. In 2011, Goodreads acquired Discovereads, a book recommendation engine that employs "machine learning algorithms to analyze which books people might like, based on books they've liked in the past and books that people with similar tastes have liked." After a user has rated 20 books on its five-star scale, the site will begin making recommendations. Otis Chandler believed this rating system would be superior to Amazon's, as Amazon's includes books a user has browsed or purchased as gifts when determining its recommendations.
That year, Goodreads introduced an algorithm to suggest books to registered users and had over five million members. The New Yorker's Macy Halford noted that the algorithm wasn't perfect, as the number of books needed to create a perfect recommendation system is so large that "by the time I'd got halfway there, my reading preferences would have changed and I'd have to start over again."In October 2012, Goodreads announced it had grown to 11 million members with 395 million books catalogued and over 20,000 book clubs created by its users. A month in November 2012, Goodreads had surpassed 12 million members, with the member base having doubled in one year. In March 2013, Amazon made an agreement to acquire Goodreads in the second quarter of 2013 for an undisclosed sum. In September 2013, Goodreads announced it would delete, without warning, reviews that mention the behavior of an author or threats against an author. In January 2016, Amazon announced that it would shut down Shelfari in favor of Goodreads effective March 16, 2016.
Users were offered the ability to migrate accounts. In April 2016, Goodreads announced. On the Goodreads website, users can add books to their personal bookshelves and review books, see what their friends and authors are reading, participate in discussion boards and groups on a variety of topics, get suggestions for future reading choices based on their reviews of read books. Once users have added friends to their profile, they will see their friends' shelves and reviews and can comment on friends' pages. Goodreads features a rating system of one to five stars, with the option of accompanying the rating with a written review; the site provides default bookshelves—read, currently-reading, to-read—and the opportunity to create customized shelves to categorize a user's books. Goodreads users can read or listen to a preview of a book on the website using Kindle Cloud Reader and Audible. Goodreads offers quizzes and trivia, book lists, free giveaways. Members can receive the regular newsletter featuring new books, author interviews, poetry.
If a user has written a work, the work can be linked on the author's profile page, which includes an author's blog. Goodreads organizes offline opportunities as well, such as IRL book exchanges and "literary pub crawls"; the website facilitates reader interactions with authors through the interviews, authors' blogs, profile information. There is a special section for authors with suggestions for promoting their works on Goodreads.com, aimed at helping them reach their target audience. By 2011, "seventeen thousand authors, including James Patterson and Margaret Atwood" used Goodreads to advertise. Additionally, Goodreads has a presence on Facebook, Pinterest and other social networking sites. Linking a Goodreads account with a social networking account like Facebook enables the ability to import contacts from the social networking account to Goodreads, expanding one's Goodreads "Friends" list. There are settings available, as well, to allow Goodreads to post straight to a social networking account, which informs, e.g. Facebook friends, what one is reading or how one rated a book.
This constant linkage from Goodreads to other social networking sites keeps information flowing and connectivity continuous. The Amazon Kindle Paperw
HarperCollins Publishers L. L. C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Penguin Random House, Simon & Schuster. The company is a subsidiary of News Corp.. The name is a combination of several publishing firm names: Harper & Row, an American publishing company acquired in 1987, together with UK publishing company William Collins, acquired in 1990; the worldwide CEO of HarperCollins is Brian Murray. HarperCollins has publishing groups in the United States, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and China; the company publishes many different imprints, both former independent publishing houses and new imprints. In 1989, Collins was bought by Rupert Murdoch's News Corporation, the publisher was combined with Harper & Row, which NewsCorp had acquired two years earlier. In addition to the simplified and merged name, the logo for HarperCollins was derived from the torch logo for Harper and Row, the fountain logo for Collins, which were combined into a stylized set of flames atop waves.
In 1999, News Corporation purchased the Hearst Book Group, consisting of William Morrow & Company and Avon Books. These imprints are now published under the rubric of HarperCollins. HarperCollins bought educational publisher Letts and Lonsdale in March 2010. In 2011, HarperCollins announced; the purchase was completed on July 11, 2012, with an announcement that Thomas Nelson would operate independently given the position it has in Christian book publishing. Both Thomas Nelson and Zondervan were organized as imprints, or "keystone publishing programs," under a new division, HarperCollins Christian Publishing. Key roles in the reorganization were awarded to former Thomas Nelson executives. In 2012, HarperCollins acquired part of the trade operations of John Son in Canada. In 2014, HarperCollins acquired Canadian romance publisher Harlequin Enterprises for C$455 million. Brian Murray, the current CEO of HarperCollins, succeeded Jane Friedman, CEO from 1997 to 2008. Notable management figures include Lisa Sharkey, current senior vice president and director of creative development and Barry Winkleman from 1989 to 1994.
In April 2012, the United States Department of Justice filed United States v. Apple Inc. naming Apple, HarperCollins, four other major publishers as defendants. The suit alleged that they conspired to fix prices for e-books, weaken Amazon.com's position in the market, in violation of antitrust law. In December 2013, a federal judge approved a settlement of the antitrust claims, in which HarperCollins and the other publishers paid into a fund that provided credits to customers who had overpaid for books due to the price-fixing, it was announced to employees and later in the day on November 5, 2012, that HarperCollins was closing its remaining two U. S. warehouses, in order to merge shipping and warehousing operations with R. R. Donnelley in Indiana; the Scranton, PA warehouse closed in September 2013 and a Nashville, TN warehouse, under the name Thomas Nelson, in the winter of 2013. Several office positions and departments continued to work for HarperCollins in Scranton, but in a new location.
The Scranton warehouse closing eliminated 200 jobs, the Nashville warehouse closing eliminated up to 500 jobs. HarperCollins closed 2 U. S. warehouses, one in Williamsport, PA in 2011 and another in Grand Rapids, MI in 2012. “We have taken a long-term, global view of our print distribution and are committed to offering the broadest possible reach for our authors," said HarperCollins Chief Executive Brian Murray, according to Publishers Weekly."We are retooling the traditional distribution model to ensure we can competitively offer the entire HarperCollins catalog to customers regardless of location.” Company officials attribute the closings and mergers to the growing demand for e-book formats and the decline in print purchasing. HarperCollins maintains the backlist of many of the books published by their many merged imprints, in addition to having picked up new authors since the merger. Authors published by Harper include Mark Twain, the Brontë sisters and William Makepeace Thackeray. Authors published by Collins include H. G. Wells and Agatha Christie.
HarperCollins acquired the publishing rights to J. R. R. Tolkien's work in 1990 when Unwin Hymen was bought; this is a list of some of the more noted books, series, published by HarperCollins and their various imprints and merged publishing houses. The Hobbit, J. R. R. Tolkien The Lord of the Rings, J. R. R. Tolkien The Art of Loving, Erich Fromm Master and Commander, Patrick O'Brian the Leaphorn and Chee books, Tony Hillerman The Silmarillion, J. R. R. Tolkien Collins English Dictionary, a major dictionary Sharpe series, Bernard Cornwell Frida: A Biography of Frida Kahlo, Hayden Herrera, adapted into the 2002 film Frida The History of Middle-earth series, J. R. R. Tolkien Weaveworld, Clive Barker the Paladin Poetry Series Of Gravity & Angels, Jane Hirshfield The
Facebook, Inc. is an American online social media and social networking service company. It is based in California, it was founded by Mark Zuckerberg, along with fellow Harvard College students and roommates Eduardo Saverin, Andrew McCollum, Dustin Moskovitz and Chris Hughes. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Amazon and Google; the founders limited the website's membership to Harvard students and subsequently Columbia and Yale students. Membership was expanded to the remaining Ivy League schools, MIT, higher education institutions in the Boston area. Facebook added support for students at various other universities, to high school students. Since 2006, anyone who claims to be at least 13 years old has been allowed to become a registered user of Facebook, though variations exist in this requirement, depending on local laws; the name comes from the face book directories given to American university students. Facebook held its initial public offering in February 2012, valuing the company at $104 billion, the largest valuation to date for a newly listed public company.
It began selling stock to the public three months later. Facebook makes most of its revenue from advertisements; the Facebook service can be accessed from devices with Internet connectivity, such as personal computers and smartphones. After registering, users can create a customized profile revealing information about themselves. Users can post text and multimedia of their own devising and share it with other users as "friends". Users can use various embedded apps, receive notifications of their friends' activities. Users may join common-interest groups. Facebook had more than 2.3 billion monthly active users as of December 2018. It receives prominent media coverage, including many controversies such as user privacy and psychological effects; the company has faced intense pressure over censorship and over content that some users find objectionable. Facebook offers other services, it independently developed Facebook Messenger. Zuckerberg built; the site was comparable to Hot or Not and used "photos compiled from the online facebooks of nine Houses, placing two next to each other at a time and asking users to choose the "hotter" person".
Facemash attracted 22,000 photo-views in its first four hours. The site was sent to several campus group list-servers, but was shut down a few days by Harvard administration. Zuckerberg faced expulsion and was charged with breaching security, violating copyrights and violating individual privacy; the charges were dropped. Zuckerberg expanded on this project that semester by creating a social study tool ahead of an art history final exam, he uploaded all art images to a website, each of, accompanied by a comments section shared the site with his classmates. A "face book" is a student directory featuring personal information. In 2003, Harvard had only a paper version along with private online directories. Zuckerberg told the Crimson, "Everyone's been talking a lot about a universal face book within Harvard.... I think. I can do it better than they can, I can do it in a week." In January 2004, Zuckerberg coded a new website, known as "TheFacebook", inspired by a Crimson editorial about Facemash, stating, "It is clear that the technology needed to create a centralized Website is available... the benefits are many."
Zuckerberg met with Harvard student Eduardo Saverin, each of them agreed to invest $1,000 in the site. On February 4, 2004, Zuckerberg launched "TheFacebook" located at thefacebook.com. Six days after the site launched, Harvard seniors Cameron Winklevoss, Tyler Winklevoss, Divya Narendra accused Zuckerberg of intentionally misleading them into believing that he would help them build a social network called HarvardConnection.com. They claimed; the three complained to the Crimson and the newspaper began an investigation. They sued Zuckerberg, settling in 2008 for 1.2 million shares. Membership was restricted to students of Harvard College. Within a month, more than half the undergraduates had registered. Dustin Moskovitz, Andrew McCollum, Chris Hughes joined Zuckerberg to help manage the growth of the website. In March 2004, Facebook expanded to Columbia and Yale. and to all Ivy League colleges, Boston University, New York University, MIT, Washington and successively most universities in the United States and Canada.
In mid-2004, Napster co-founder and entrepreneur Sean Parker—an informal advisor to Zuckerberg—became company president. In June 2004, the company moved to California, it received its first investment that month from PayPal co-founder Peter Thiel. In 2005, the company dropped "the" from its name after purchasing the domain name facebook.com for US$200,000. The domain had belonged to AboutFace Corporation. In May 2005, Accel Partners invested $12.7 million in Facebook, Jim Breyer added $1 million of his own money. A high-school version of the site launched in September 2005. Eligibility expanded to include employees including Apple Inc. and Microsoft. On September 26, 2006, Facebook opened to everyone at least 13 years old with a valid email address. By late 2007, Facebook had 100,000 pages. Organization pages began rolling out in May 2009. On October 24, 2007, Microsoft announced th
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
Foursquare City Guide
Foursquare City Guide known as Foursquare, is a local search-and-discovery mobile app which provides search results for its users. The app provides personalized recommendations of places to go near a user's current location based on users' previous browsing history and check-in history; the service was created in late 2008 by Dennis Crowley and Naveen Selvadurai and launched in 2009. Crowley had founded the similar project Dodgeball as his graduate thesis project in the Interactive Telecommunications Program at New York University. Google shut it down in 2009, replacing it with Google Latitude. Dodgeball user interactions were based on SMS technology, rather than an application. Foursquare was the second iteration of that same idea, that people can use mobile devices to interact with their environment. Foursquare was Dodgeball reimagined to take advantage of new smartphones like the iPhone, which had built-in GPS to better detect a user's location; until late July 2014, Foursquare featured a social networking layer that enabled a user to share their location with friends, via the "check in" - a user would manually tell the application when they were at a particular location using a mobile website, text messaging, or a device-specific application by selecting from a list of venues the application locates nearby.
In May 2014, the company launched Swarm, a companion app to Foursquare City Guide, that reimagined the social networking and location sharing aspects of the service as a separate application. On August 7, 2014, the company launched Foursquare 8.0, the new version of the service which removed the check-in and location sharing to focus on local search. As of 2016, Foursquare had 50 million monthly active users; as of 2011, male and female users are represented and 50 percent of users are outside the US. Foursquare lets users search for restaurants, nightlife spots and other places of interest in their surrounding area, it is possible to search other areas by entering the name of a remote location. The app displays personalized recommendations based on the time of day, displaying breakfast places in the morning, dinner places in the evening etc. Recommendations are personalized based on factors that include a user's check-in history, their "Tastes" and their venue ratings. Foursquare eschews the traditional concept of letting users leave long-form reviews, instead encourages the writing of "Tips" - short messages about a location that let other users know what is good there.
Tips are limited to 200 characters in length, but can include a URL to link to an external site with more information, can include a photo. As a reward for leaving quality tips, a user can earn "expertise" in a particular location or category. Foursquare has a defined list of "tastes" in particular food items, styles of cuisine or environmental aspects, which users may add to their profiles to let the app know what they like; the app uses natural language processing to match a user's tastes with the tips at nearby venues that mention them. Foursquare uses Pilgrim, to detect a user's location; when users opt in to always-on location sharing, Pilgrim is able to understand a user's current location by comparing historical check-in data with the user‘s current GPS signal, cell tower triangulation, cellular signal strength and surrounding wifi signals. The app uses the location service to track a user's location in the background, enabling push notifications of things the user might find interesting in their vicinity.
It uses this ability to learn about the kinds of places a user likes, based on when and how they visit different venues. It uses this data to improve a user's recommendations and gauge the popularity of a venue. In addition to leaving Tips, Foursquare lets users rate venues by answering questions; the questions help Foursquare understand how people feel about a place, including whether or not a user likes the place, how trendy it is, its cleanliness, its noise level. It uses these questions to fill in missing venue information such as asking whether the venue takes credit cards, or whether it has outdoor seating. Foursquare gives each venue a numeric score between 0.1 and 10 to indicate its general popularity when compared to other venues. Scores are calculated automatically factoring in check-in data, explicit user ratings, tip sentiment, foot traffic behavior and other signals. Users can add venues to a personal "to do" list and curated lists to track neighborhood hot-spots or things to do while traveling.
The service provides ten levels of Superuser. Superuser status is awarded to users after they apply and perform a special test where users should meet quality and quantity criteria. Only Superusers have the ability to edit venue information. Superusers can attain different levels. In the past, Foursquare has allowed companies to create pages of tips and users to "follow" the company and receive tips from them when they check-in at certain locations. On July 25, 2012, Foursquare revealed Promoted Updates, an app update expected to create a new revenue generation stream for the company; the new program allowed companies to issue messages to Foursquare users about deals or available products. Foursquares underlying technology is used by apps such and Uber and Twitter for location information and that data is available to foursquare Earlier versions of Foursquare supported check-ins and location sharing, but as of Foursquare 8.0, these were moved to the service's sibling app, Foursquare Swarm. Foursquare 8.0 never shares a user's location with their followers.
In previous versions of Foursquare, if a user had checked into
HMV is a UK based music and film retailer. The first HMV-branded store was opened by the Gramophone Company on Oxford Street in 1921, the HMV name was used for television and radio sets manufactured from the 1930s onwards; the retail side of the business began to expand in the 1960s, in 1998 was divested from EMI, the successor to the Gramophone Company, to form what would become HMV Group. HMV stands for His Master's Voice, the title of a painting by Francis Barraud of the dog Nipper listening to a cylinder phonograph, bought by the Gramophone Company in 1899. For advertising purposes this was changed to a wind-up gramophone, used as a silhouette. HMV owned the Waterstone's bookshop chain from 1998 until 2011, has owned the music retailer Fopp since August 2007, it purchased a number of former Zavvi stores in February 2009, branched into live music venue management that year by purchasing MAMA Group. It sold the group in December 2012. On 15 January 2013, HMV Group plc entered administration.
Deloitte were appointed to deal with the administration of the company. On 16 January 2013, HMV Ireland declared receivership, all Irish stores were closed. A week on 22 January 2013, it was reported that Hilco UK would buy the debt of HMV, a step towards taking control of the company; the sale of HMV's Hong Kong and Singapore business to private equity firm Aid Partners was completed on 28 February 2013. On 5 April 2013, HMV was bought out of administration by Hilco UK for an estimated £50 million to form the current company. HMV Group plc, listed on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE Fledgling Index, was liquidated in July 2014. HMV Canada is a former subsidiary, sold to Hilco by the HMV Group in 2011. HMV Canada went into receivership in 2017 after being sued by Huk 10 Ltd. a shell company owned by Hilco. Sunrise Records announced that it had negotiated to purchase the leases for 70 of HMV's locations from landlords to convert them to Sunrise stores as well as plans to retain as many former HMV staff as possible.
After announcing its intent to enter administration again in December 2018, the company was bought from Hilco by Sunrise Records on 5 February 2019. The antecedents of HMV began in the 1890s at the dawn of the disc gramophone. By 1902 it had become the beginnings of the Gramophone Company. In February 1907 they commenced the building of a new dedicated record factory at Middlesex. Disc records were sold in independent retailers at this time. In 1921 the Gramophone Company opened the first dedicated HMV shop in Oxford Street, London, in a former men's clothing shop. In March 1931 the Gramophone Company merged with Columbia Graphophone Company to form Electric and Musical Industries Ltd. From the 1930s onwards, HMV manufactured radio and television sets and radiograms under the HMV and Marconiphone brand names in their factory in Hayes, Middlesex. In 1966 HMV began expanding its retail operations in London. Throughout the 1970s, the company continued to expand, doubling in size, in six years became the country's leading specialist music retailers.
It faced new competition, from Virgin Megastores, established in 1976, Our Price, established in 1972. Subsequently, HMV overtook Our Price in popularity and threatened their existence, having established a chain of newer, larger stores; the company opened its flagship store at a new location on Oxford Street in 1986, announcing it was the largest record store in the world at the time, the official opening was attended by Bob Geldof and Michael Hutchence. Growth continued for a third decade into the 1990s, with the company reaching over 320 stores including in 1990 their first store in the U. S. located at 86th and Lexington in New York City, the largest music retailer in North America. HMV celebrated its 75-year anniversary in 1996. In February 1998, EMI entered into a joint venture with Advent International to form HMV Media Group led by Alan Giles, which acquired HMV's stores and Dillons, leaving EMI with a holding of around 45%; the new joint venture bought the Waterstone's chain of bookshops to merge with Dillons.
By 2002, EMI's holding in HMV Media was 43%, with Advent International owning 40% and management the remainder. The company floated on the London Stock Exchange in the year as HMV Group plc, leaving EMI with only a token holding; the group became susceptible to a takeover following a poor period of trading up to Christmas 2005. Private equity firm Permira made a £762 million conditional bid for the group on 7 February 2006, rejected by HMV as an insufficient valuation of the company. Permira made a second offer which increased the value, although HMV declined it on 13 March 2006, subsequently issuing a statement that the offer undervalued the medium and long term prospects for the company, resulting in Permira withdrawing from bidding. In 2006 the HMV Group merged it into Waterstone's; the merger tied into HMV's strategy for growth, as many of the Ottakar's branches were in smaller towns and outposts. The Competition Commission provisionally cleared HMV Group, through Waterstone's, for takeover of the Ottakar's group on 30 March 2006, stating that the takeover would "not result in a substantial lessening of competition".
Waterstone's announced that it had negotiated a takeover of Ottakar's on 31 May 2006. All 130 Ottakar's stores were rebranded as Waterstone's prior to Christmas 2006. In March 2007, new Group CEO Simon Fox announced a 10% reduction over three years in the enlarged Waterstone's total store space, compr