The iMac G3 is a series of Macintosh personal computers designed and sold by Apple Computer, Inc. from 1998 to 2003. Noted for its innovative enclosure via the use of translucent and brightly colored plastics, it was the first consumer-facing Apple product to debut under the returned interim CEO Steve Jobs, it was updated over time with new hardware and colors, until being supplanted by the iMac G4 and eMac in 2002. The marketing and sales success of the iMac G3 contributed to Apple's turnaround from financial ruin in the late 1990s and revitalized the Apple brand as design-oriented and simple, it was criticized for abandoning then-current technological standards like the floppy drive and the Apple Desktop Bus connector in favor of the emerging USB standard. Steve Jobs reduced the company's large product lines upon becoming Apple's interim CEO in 1997. Toward the end of the year, Apple trimmed its line of desktop Macs down from ten distinct models to four models of the Power Macintosh G3, which included the iMac's immediate predecessor, an educational market exclusive called the Power Macintosh G3 All-In-One.
Having discontinued the consumer-targeted Performa series, Apple needed a replacement for the Performa's price point. The company announced the iMac on May 6, 1998 and began shipping the iMac G3 on August 15, 1998. Internally, the iMac was a combination of Common Hardware Reference Platform. Although the promise of CHRP has never been realized, the work that Apple had done on CHRP helped in the designing of the iMac. One change from CHRP for example was to boot classic Mac OS using a 4MB Mac OS ROM file stored on disk; the original iMac used a PowerPC G3 processor, which ran in Apple's high-end Power Macintosh line at the time, though at higher speeds. It sold for US$1,299, shipped with Mac OS 8.1, soon upgraded to Mac OS 8.5. The iMac was continually updated after its initial release. Aside from increasing specifications, Apple replaced Bondi Blue with new colors. Throughout its lifespan, the iMac was released in a total of thirteen colors. A hardware update created a sleeker design; this second-generation iMac featured a slot-loading optical drive, FireWire, "fanless" operation, a updated shape, the option of AirPort wireless networking.
Apple continued to sell this line of iMacs until March 2003 to customers who wanted the ability to run the older Mac OS 9 operating system. USB and FireWire support, support for dial-up, wireless networking soon became standard across Apple's entire product line; the addition of high-speed FireWire corrected the deficiencies of the earlier iMacs. The iMac CRT model, now targeted at the education market, was renamed the iMac G3, kept in production alongside its iMac G4 successor until the eMac was released; as Apple continued to release new versions of its computers, the term iMac continued to be used to refer to machines in its consumer desktop line. The thirteen'flavors' of the iMac G3; the iMac was different from any previous mainstream computer. It was made of translucent "Bondi Blue"-colored plastic, was egg-shaped around a 15-inch CRT display; the case included a handle, the peripheral connectors were hidden behind a door on the right-hand side of the machine. Dual headphone jacks in the front complemented the built-in stereo speakers.
Danny Coster was the original designer of the product, Jonathan Ive helped further the process. The iMac G3's unique shape and color options helped; the iMac was the first computer to offer USB ports as standard, including as the connector for its new keyboard and mouse, thus abandoning previous Macintosh peripheral connections, such as the ADB, SCSI and GeoPort serial ports. A further radical step was to abandon the 3½-inch floppy disk drive, present in every Macintosh since the first in 1984. Apple argued that recordable CDs, the Internet, office networks were making diskettes obsolete, Apple's omission generated controversy. At the time of iMac's introduction, third-party manufacturers offered external USB floppy disk drives in translucent plastic to match the iMac's enclosure. Apple had announced the internal modem in the iMac would operate at only 33.6 kbit/s rather than the new 56 kbit/s speed, but was forced by consumer pressure to adopt the faster standard. Components such as the front-mounted IrDA port and the tray-loading CD-ROM drive were borrowed from Apple's laptop line.
Although the iMac did not have an expansion slot, the first versions had a slot dubbed the "mezzanine slot". It was only for internal use by Apple, although a few third-party expansion cards were released for it, such as a Voodoo II video card upgrade from 3dfx and SCSI/SCSI-TV tuner cards from the German company Formac; the mezzanine slot was removed from iMacs, though according to an article in the German computer magazine c't, the socket can be retrofitted on revision C iMacs. The keyboard and mouse were redesigned for the iMac with a Bondi Blue trim; the Apple USB Keyboard was smaller than Apple's previous keyboards, with white characters on black keys – both attributes that attracted debate. The Apple USB Mouse was mechanical, of a round, "hockey puck" design, derided as being unnecessarily difficult for users with larger hands. Apple continued shipping the round mouse, adding a divot to the button in versions so that users could distinguish proper orientation by feel. At the 2000 Macworld Expo in New York, a new
A desktop computer is a personal computer designed for regular use at a single location on or near a desk or table due to its size and power requirements. The most common configuration has a case that houses the power supply, disk storage; the case may be oriented horizontally or vertically and placed either underneath, beside, or on top of a desk. Prior to the widespread use of microprocessors, a computer that could fit on a desk was considered remarkably small. Early computers took up the space of a whole room. Minicomputers fit into one or a few refrigerator-sized racks, it was not until the 1970s when programmable computers appeared that could fit on top of a desk. 1970 saw the introduction of the Datapoint 2200, a "smart" computer terminal complete with keyboard and monitor, was designed to connect with a mainframe computer but that didn't stop owners from using its built in computational abilities as a stand alone desktop computer. The HP 9800 series, which started out as programmable calculators in 1971 but was programmable in BASIC by 1972, used a smaller version of a minicomputer design based on ROM memory and had small one-line LED alphanumeric displays and displayed graphics with a plotter.
The Wang 2200 of 1973 had cassette tape storage. The IBM 5100 in 1975 had a small CRT display and could be programmed in BASIC and APL; these were expensive specialized computers sold for business or scientific uses. Apple II, TRS-80 and Commodore PET were first generation personal home computers launched in 1977, which were aimed at the consumer market – rather than businessmen or computer hobbyists. Byte magazine referred to these three as the "1977 Trinity" of personal computing. Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, desktop computers became the predominant type, the most popular being the IBM PC and its clones, followed by the Apple Macintosh, with the third-placed Commodore Amiga having some success in the mid-1980s but declining by the early 1990s. Early personal computers, like the original IBM Personal Computer, were enclosed in a "desktop case", horizontally oriented to have the display screen placed on top, thus saving space on the user's actual desk, although these cases had to be sturdy enough to support the weight of CRT displays that were widespread at the time.
Over the course of the 1990s, desktop cases became less common than the more-accessible tower cases that may be located on the floor under or beside a desk rather than on a desk. Not only do these tower cases have more room for expansion, they have freed up desk space for monitors which were becoming larger every year. Desktop cases the compact form factors, remain popular for corporate computing environments and kiosks; some computer cases can be interchangeably positioned either horizontally or upright. Influential games such as Doom and Quake during the 1990s had pushed gamers and enthusiasts to upgrade to the latest CPUs and graphics cards for their desktops in order to run these applications, though this has slowed since the late 2000s as the growing popularity of Intel integrated graphics forced game developers to scale back. Creative Technology's Sound Blaster series were a de facto standard for sound cards in desktop PCs during the 1990s until the early 2000s, when they were reduced to a niche product, as OEM desktop PCs came with sound boards integrated directly onto the motherboard.
While desktops have long been the most common configuration for PCs, by the mid-2000s the growth shifted from desktops to laptops. Notably, while desktops were produced in the United States, laptops had long been produced by contract manufacturers based in Asia, such as Foxconn; this shift led to the closure of the many desktop assembly plants in the United States by 2010. Another trend around this time was the increasing proportion of inexpensive base-configuration desktops being sold, hurting PC manufacturers such as Dell whose build-to-order customization of desktops relied on upselling added features to buyers. Battery-powered portable computers had just 2% worldwide market share in 1986. However, laptops have become popular, both for business and personal use. Around 109 million notebook PCs shipped worldwide in 2007, a growth of 33% compared to 2006. In 2008, it was estimated that 145.9 million notebooks were sold, that the number would grow in 2009 to 177.7 million. The third quarter of 2008 was the first time when worldwide notebook PC shipments exceeded desktops, with 38.6 million units versus 38.5 million units.
The sales breakdown of the Apple Macintosh have seen sales of desktop Macs staying constant while being surpassed by that of Mac notebooks whose sales rate has grown considerably. The change in sales of form factors is due to the desktop iMac moving from affordable to upscale and subsequent releases are considered premium all-in-ones. By contrast, the MSRP of the MacBook laptop lines have dropped through successive generations such that the MacBook Air and MacBook Pro constitute the lowest price of entry to a Mac, with the exception of the more inexpensive Mac Mini (albeit with
The Mac mini is a desktop computer made by Apple Inc. One of four desktop computers in the current Macintosh lineup, along with the iMac, Mac Pro, iMac Pro, it uses many components featured in laptops to achieve its small size; the current Mac mini, introduced in October 2018, is the fourth generation of the product. First released in 2005, the Mac mini is Apple's only consumer desktop computer since 1998 to ship without a display, keyboard, or mouse. Apple marketed it as BYODKM, pitching it to users switching from a traditional Windows PC. In 2010, a third-generation Mac mini became Apple's first computer with an HDMI video port to connect to a television or other display, more positioning the unit as a home theater device alternative to the Apple TV. A server version of the Mac mini, bundled with the Server edition of the OS X operating system, was offered from 2009 to 2014. A small form factor computer had been speculated and requested long before the release of the Mac mini. Rumors predicted that the "headless iMac" would be small, include no display, would be positioned as Apple's entry-level desktop computer.
On January 10, 2005, the Mac mini was announced alongside the iPod shuffle at the Macworld Conference & Expo and was described by Apple CEO Steve Jobs at the time as "the cheapest, most affordable Mac ever". Its case measured 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The Mac mini is an entry-level computer intended for budget-minded customers; until the 2011 release, the Mac mini had much less processing power than the other computers of the Macintosh lineup. Unlike regular desktop computers, which use standard-sized components such as 3.5-inch hard drives and full-size DIMM's, Apple uses lower-power laptop components in the Mac mini to fit all the necessary components into the small case and to prevent overheating. With the choice of components on the older models, the machine was considered somewhat slower than standard desktop computers, it had less storage and memory than comparable desktops. However, the 2011 upgrade addressed many of these previous complaints. In general, the Mac mini has been praised as a affordable computer with a solid range of features.
However, many agree that it is costly for a computer aimed at the lower segment of the market. It is possible to buy small computers at the same price with faster processors, better graphics card, more memory, more storage; the small size has made the Mac mini popular as a home theater solution. In addition, its size and reliability has helped keep resale values high. On October 22, 2009, Apple introduced a new server version of the Mac mini along with revisions of the computer; this model had a second hard drive instead of an optical drive, was marketed as an affordable server for small businesses and schools. On June 15, 2010, Apple introduced the third-generation Mac mini; the new model was thinner, with a unibody aluminum case designed to be opened for RAM access, incorporated upgraded hardware, such as an HDMI port and Nvidia GeForce 320M graphics. It included an internal power supply. An update announced July 20, 2011, dropped the internal CD/DVD optical drive from all versions and introduced a Thunderbolt port, Intel Core i5 processor, either Intel HD Graphics 3000 integrated graphics or AMD Radeon HD 6630M dedicated graphics.
The Server model was upgraded to a quad-core Intel Core i7 processor. Quad-core i7 CPUs were used in the late-2012 desktop Mac mini computers. In October 2014, Apple refreshed the line, adding Haswell CPUs, improving the graphics, lowering the base-model price by $100; the only change to the body was the removal of the two holes used to open the case, as the RAM was no longer upgradable because it was soldered to the logic board. On October 30, 2018, after four years, the Mac mini got a refresh. With this came major specification upgrades, new colors, a switch to all-flash storage; the RAM was increased to a baseline of 8 GB, a maximum of 64 GB of SO-DIMM DDR4. This shows Apple's trend back toward user-upgrade-ability in their desktop models; the storage was changed to a baseline 128 GB of flash storage, with a max of 2 TB. It has optional 10 Gb Ethernet, HDMI 2.0, a headphone jack, 2 USB 3.1, 4 USB-C Thunderbolt 3 ports. The Bluetooth was upgraded to the 5.0 standard, the Mac itself was made available in space gray.
The baseline retail price is $799 USD. Missing for the 2018 model is the SD card reader, SATA drive bay, IR receiver, optical S/PDIF audio out, audio in; the most notable feature of the Mac mini is its size. The original design measured only 2.0 × 6.5 × 6.5 inches. The exterior of the original Mac mini was made of aluminum capped with polycarbonate plastic on the top and bottom; the original design was not meant to be upgraded by the user. The back of the machine contains the I/O vents for the cooling system, it had an external power supply rated at 85W or 110W. The Mac mini, updated on June 15, 2010, was redesigned, being slimmer than the prior models at only 1.4 inches tall, but wider at 7.7 inches a side. The weight rose from 2.9 to 3.0 pounds. The power supply is now internal as opposed to external; the chassis no longer has the polycarbonate plastic on the bottom. The newer model, introduced July 20, 2011 has the same physical dimensions
A CPU cache is a hardware cache used by the central processing unit of a computer to reduce the average cost to access data from the main memory. A cache is a smaller, faster memory, closer to a processor core, which stores copies of the data from used main memory locations. Most CPUs have different independent caches, including instruction and data caches, where the data cache is organized as a hierarchy of more cache levels. All modern CPUs have multiple levels of CPU caches; the first CPUs that used a cache had only one level of cache. All current CPUs with caches have a split L1 cache, they have L2 caches and, for larger processors, L3 caches as well. The L2 cache is not split and acts as a common repository for the split L1 cache; every core of a multi-core processor has a dedicated L2 cache and is not shared between the cores. The L3 cache, higher-level caches, are shared between the cores and are not split. An L4 cache is uncommon, is on dynamic random-access memory, rather than on static random-access memory, on a separate die or chip.
That was the case with L1, while bigger chips have allowed integration of it and all cache levels, with the possible exception of the last level. Each extra level of cache tends to be optimized differently. Other types of caches exist, such as the translation lookaside buffer, part of the memory management unit that most CPUs have. Caches are sized in powers of two: 4, 8, 16 etc. KiB or MiB sizes; when trying to read from or write to a location in main memory, the processor checks whether the data from that location is in the cache. If so, the processor will read from or write to the cache instead of main memory, much slower. Most modern desktop and server CPUs have at least three independent caches: an instruction cache to speed up executable instruction fetch, a data cache to speed up data fetch and store, a translation lookaside buffer used to speed up virtual-to-physical address translation for both executable instructions and data. A single TLB can be provided for access to both instructions and data, or a separate Instruction TLB and data TLB can be provided.
The data cache is organized as a hierarchy of more cache levels. However, the TLB cache is part of the memory management unit and not directly related to the CPU caches. Data is transferred between memory and cache in blocks of fixed size, called cache lines or cache blocks; when a cache line is copied from memory into the cache, a cache entry is created. The cache entry will include the copied data as well as the requested memory location; when the processor needs to read or write a location in memory, it first checks for a corresponding entry in the cache. The cache checks for the contents of the requested memory location in any cache lines that might contain that address. If the processor finds that the memory location is in the cache, a cache hit has occurred. However, if the processor does not find the memory location in the cache, a cache miss. In the case of a cache hit, the processor reads or writes the data in the cache line. For a cache miss, the cache allocates a new entry and copies data from main memory the request is fulfilled from the contents of the cache.
To make room for the new entry on a cache miss, the cache may have to evict one of the existing entries. The heuristic it uses to choose the entry to evict is called the replacement policy; the fundamental problem with any replacement policy is that it must predict which existing cache entry is least to be used in the future. Predicting the future is difficult, so there is no perfect method to choose among the variety of replacement policies available. One popular replacement policy, least-recently used, replaces the least accessed entry. Marking some memory ranges as non-cacheable can improve performance, by avoiding caching of memory regions that are re-accessed; this avoids the overhead of loading something into the cache without having any reuse. Cache entries may be disabled or locked depending on the context. If data is written to the cache, at some point it must be written to main memory. In a write-through cache, every write to the cache causes a write to main memory. Alternatively, in a write-back or copy-back cache, writes are not mirrored to the main memory, the cache instead tracks which locations have been written over, marking them as dirty.
The data in these locations is written back to the main memory only when that data is evicted from the cache. For this reason, a read miss in a write-back cache may sometimes require two memory accesses to service: one to first write the dirty location to main memory, another to read the new location from memory. A write to a main memory location, not yet mapped in a write-back cache may evict an dirty location, thereby freeing that cache space for the new memory location. There are intermediate policies as well; the cache may be write-through, but the writes may be held in a store data queue temporarily so multiple stores can be processed together. Cached data from the main memory may be changed b
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
Freescale Semiconductor, Inc. was an American multinational corporation headquartered in Austin, with design and development, manufacturing and sales operations in more than 75 locations in 19 countries. The company employed 17,000 people worldwide. On December 7, 2015, NXP Semiconductors completed its merger with Freescale for about $11.8 billion in cash and stock. Freescale shareholders received $6.25 billion in cash and 0.3521 of an NXP share for each Freescale common share. Including the assumption of Freescale's debt, the purchase price is about $16.7 billion. Freescale was one of the first semiconductor companies in the world, having started as a division of Motorola in Phoenix, Arizona, in 1948 and becoming autonomous by the divestiture of the Semiconductor Products Sector of Motorola in 2004. In 1955, a Motorola transistor for car radios was the world's first commercial high-power transistor, it was Motorola's first mass-produced semiconductor device. In the 1960s, one of the U. S. space program's goals was to return him safely to Earth.
In 1968, NASA began manned Apollo flights that led to the first lunar landing in July 1969. The Apollo program was significant for hundreds of employees involved in designing and producing its electronics; the division of Motorola which would become Freescale Semiconductor, supplied thousands of semiconductor devices, ground-based tracking and checkout equipment, 12 on-board tracking and communications units. An "up-data link" in the Apollo's command module received signals from Earth to relay to other on-board systems. A transponder transmitted voice and television signals and scientific data; that year, Motorola's technologies were used to introduce the first two-way mobile radio with a transistorized power supply and receiver for cars. Motorola has continued its growth in the networking and communications sector in years, providing the tools behind the radio transponder, going on to develop the first prototype of the first analog mobile phone in 1973; the company's first microprocessor was introduced in 1974, was used in automotive and video game applications.
Motorola's next generation 32-bit microprocessor, the MC68000, led the wave of technologies that spurred the computing revolution in 1984, powering devices from companies such as Apple, Atari, Sega and Hewlett-Packard. In the 1990s, Motorola's technology was the driving force behind intelligent power switches for anti-lock brake systems, one of the first microelectromechanical systems inertial sensor for automotive airbags, Motorola's MPC5200 microprocessor deployed telematic systems for General Motors' OnStar systems. Since Freescale continued to provide the technology behind consumer, medical and automotive products from microprocessors for the world's first tubing-free wireless insulin pump, to and automotive microcontrollers for efficient engine design. Freescale's motion-sensing accelerometer powers the interactivity of the Guitar Hero video games; the number one provider of eReader processors worldwide was Freescale. In 2009, Freescale demonstrated the world's lowest startup voltage single inductor DC/DC converter for use in solar and thermoelectric energy harvesting applications.
In 2011, the company launched the industry's first multimode wireless base station processor family that scales from small to large cells – integrating DSP and communications processor technologies to realize a true "base station-on-chip". In addition, a recent ABI Research market study report states that Freescale owns 60% share of the radio frequency semiconductor device market. In 2011, Freescale announced the company's first magnetometer for location tracking in smart mobile devices. With the partnership of McLaren Electronic Systems, they helped the NASCAR Sprint Cup Series vehicles convert from carburetors to fuel injection starting in 2012. On March 8, 2014, Freescale announced that 20 of its employees were passengers aboard Malaysia Airlines Flight 370; that plane, carrying the Freescale employees, was lost, with only small part of it found over a year later. In March 2015, a merger agreement was announced through which Freescale Semiconductor would be acquired by NXP Semiconductors and that the companies would be merged to form a US$40 billion company.
The acquisition closed on December 7, 2015. On February 26, 2013, Freescale Semiconductor announced the creation of the world's physically smallest ARM-powered chip; the Kinetis KL02 measures 1.9 by 2 millimeters and is a full microcontroller unit, means that the chip supports a processor, RAM, ROM, clock and I/O control unit. The chip competes with the Atmel M0 + offerings. One application that Freescale says the chips could be used for is swallowable computers. Freescale works with a variety of health and wellness customers. Both the Fitbit and OmniPod insulin pump use Freescale chips; the new chip was on display at'Embedded World' in Nuernberg, from February 26–28, 2013. Up to now devices with leading letter codes L, E, M, W containing ARM Cortex-M0+ cores and letter code K or KW containing ARM Cortex-M4 cores are known. QorIQ is a brand of ARM-, PowerPC-, Power ISA-based communications microprocessors from NXP Semiconductors; the QorIQ brand and the P1, P2 and P4 product families were announced in June 2008.
Details of P3 and P5 products were announced in 2010. QorIQ Layerscape product families were announced in 2013, based on Cortex A7, Cortex A9, A15, A53 and A72 cores upon the ISA agnostic Layerscape architecture. In August 2014, Freescale Semiconductor