Metadata is "data that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as identification, it can include elements such as title, abstract and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters, it describes the types, versions and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, who can access it. Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data Statistical metadata may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data. Metadata was traditionally used in the card catalogs of libraries until the 1980s, when libraries converted their catalog data to digital databases.
In the 2000s, as digital formats were becoming the prevalent way of storing data and information, metadata was used to describe digital data using metadata standards. The first description of "meta data" for computer systems is purportedly noted by MIT's Center for International Studies experts David Griffel and Stuart McIntosh in 1967: "In summary we have statements in an object language about subject descriptions of data and token codes for the data. We have statements in a meta language describing the data relationships and transformations, ought/is relations between norm and data."There are different metadata standards for each different discipline. Describing the contents and context of data or data files increases its usefulness. For example, a web page may include metadata specifying what software language the page is written in, what tools were used to create it, what subjects the page is about, where to find more information about the subject; this metadata can automatically improve the reader's experience and make it easier for users to find the web page online.
A CD may include metadata providing information about the musicians and songwriters whose work appears on the disc. A principal purpose of metadata is to help users discover resources. Metadata helps to organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, support the archiving and preservation of resources. Metadata assists users in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, giving location information." Metadata of telecommunication activities including Internet traffic is widely collected by various national governmental organizations. This data can be used for mass surveillance. In many countries, the metadata relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations are stored by government organizations. Metadata means "data about data". Although the "meta" prefix means "after" or "beyond", it is used to mean "about" in epistemology.
Metadata is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data. Some examples include:Means of creation of the data Purpose of the data Time and date of creation Creator or author of the data Location on a computer network where the data was created Standards used File size Data quality Source of the data Process used to create the dataFor example, a digital image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, the shutter speed, other data. A text document's metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, a short summary of the document. Metadata within web pages can contain descriptions of page content, as well as key words linked to the content; these links are called "Metatags", which were used as the primary factor in determining order for a web search until the late 1990s. The reliance of metatags in web searches was decreased in the late 1990s because of "keyword stuffing".
Metatags were being misused to trick search engines into thinking some websites had more relevance in the search than they did. Metadata can be stored and managed in a database called a metadata registry or metadata repository. However, without context and a point of reference, it might be impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it. For example: by itself, a database containing several numbers, all 13 digits long could be the results of calculations or a list of numbers to plug into an equation - without any other context, the numbers themselves can be perceived as the data, but if given the context that this database is a log of a book collection, those 13-digit numbers may now be identified as ISBNs - information that refers to the book, but is not itself the information within the book. The term "metadata" was coined in 1968 by Philip Bagley, in his book "Extension of Programming Language Concepts" where it is clear that he uses the term in the ISO 11179 "traditional" sense, "structural metadata" i.e. "data about the containers of data".
MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
Media player (software)
A media player is a computer program/software for playing multimedia files like audios, videos and music. Media players display standard media control icons known from physical devices such as tape recorders and CD players, such as play, fastforward and stop buttons. In addition, they have progress bars to locate the current position in the duration of the media file. Mainstream operating systems have at least one built-in media player. For example, Windows comes with Windows Media Player while macOS comes with QuickTime Player and iTunes. Linux distributions may come with a media player, such as SMPlayer, Audacious, Banshee, MPlayer, Rhythmbox, Totem, VLC Media Player, xine. Android OS comes with Google Play Music as default media player and many apps like Poweramp, Beautiful Music Player, VLC Media Player. Different media players may have different goals and feature sets. Video players are a group of media players that have their features geared more towards playing digital video. For example, Windows DVD Player plays DVD-Video discs and nothing else.
Media Player Classic can play individual audio and video files but many of its features such as color correction, picture sharpening, set of hotkeys, DVB support and subtitle support are only useful for video material such as films and cartoons. Audio players, on the other hand, specialize in digital audio. For example, AIMP plays audio formats. MediaMonkey can play both audio and video format but many of its features including media library, lyric discovery, music visualization, online radio, audiobook indexing and tag editing are geared toward consumption of audio material. In addition, watching video files on it can be a trying feat. General-purpose media players do exist. For example, Windows Media Player has exclusive features for both audio and video material, although it cannot match the feature set of Media Player Classic and MediaMonkey combined. 3D video players are used to play 2D video in 3D format. A high-quality three-dimensional video presentation requires that each frame of a motion picture be embedded with information on the depth of objects present in the scene.
This process involves shooting the video with special equipment from two distinct perspectives or modelling and rendering each frame as a collection of objects composed of 3D vertices and textures, much like in any modern video game, to achieve special effects. Tedious and costly, this method is only used in a small fraction of movies produced worldwide, while most movies remain in the form of traditional 2D images, it is, possible to give an otherwise two-dimensional picture the appearance of depth. Using a technique known as anaglyph processing a "flat" picture can be transformed so as to give an illusion of depth when viewed through anaglyph glasses. An image viewed through anaglyph glasses appears to have both protruding and embedded objects in it, at the expense of somewhat distorted colours; the method itself is old enough, dating back to mid-19th century, but it is only with recent advances in computer technology that it has become possible to apply this kind of transformation to a series of frames in a motion picture reasonably fast or in real time, i.e. as the video is being played back.
Several implementations exist in the form of 3D video players that render conventional 2D video in anaglyph 3D, as well as in the form of 3D video converters that transform video into stereoscopic anaglyph and transcode it for playback with regular software or hardware video players. A home theater PC or media center computer is a convergence device that combines some or all the capabilities of a personal computer with a software application that supports video, audio playback, sometimes video recording functionality. Although computers with some of these capabilities were available from the late 1980s, the "Home Theater PC" term first appeared in mainstream press in 1996. Since 2007, other types of consumer electronics, including gaming systems and dedicated media devices have crossed over to manage video and music content; the term "media center" refers to specialized computer programs designed to run on standard personal computers. Comparison of video player software Comparison of audio player software
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
A command-line interface or command language interpreter known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface, is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text. A program which handles the interface is called shell; the CLI was the primary means of interaction with most computer systems on computer terminals in the mid-1960s, continued to be used throughout the 1970s and 1980s on OpenVMS, Unix systems and personal computer systems including MS-DOS, CP/M and Apple DOS. The interface is implemented with a command line shell, a program that accepts commands as text input and converts commands into appropriate operating system functions. Today, many end users if use command-line interfaces and instead rely upon graphical user interfaces and menu-driven interactions. However, many software developers, system administrators and advanced users still rely on command-line interfaces to perform tasks more efficiently, configure their machine, or access programs and program features that are not available through a graphical interface.
Alternatives to the command line include, but are not limited to text user interface menus, keyboard shortcuts, various other desktop metaphors centered on the pointer. Examples of this include the Windows versions 1, 2, 3, 3.1, 3.11, DosShell, Mouse Systems PowerPanel. Programs with command-line interfaces are easier to automate via scripting. Command-line interfaces for software other than operating systems include a number of programming languages such as Tcl/Tk, PHP, others, as well as utilities such as the compression utility WinZip, some FTP and SSH/Telnet clients. Compared with a graphical user interface, a command line requires fewer system resources to implement. Since options to commands are given in a few characters in each command line, an experienced user finds the options easier to access. Automation of repetitive tasks is simplified - most operating systems using a command line interface support some mechanism for storing used sequences in a disk file, for re-use. A command-line history can be kept, allowing repetition of commands.
A command-line system may require paper or online manuals for the user's reference, although a "help" option provides a concise review of the options of a command. The command-line environment may not provide the graphical enhancements such as different fonts or extended edit windows found in a GUI, it may be difficult for a new user to become familiar with all the commands and options available, compared with the drop-down menus of a graphical user interface, without repeated reference to manuals. Operating system command line interfaces are distinct programs supplied with the operating system. A program that implements such a text interface is called a command-line interpreter, command processor or shell. Examples of command-line interpreters include DEC's DIGITAL Command Language in OpenVMS and RSX-11, the various Unix shells, CP/M's CCP, DOS's COMMAND. COM, as well as the OS/2 and the Windows CMD. EXE programs, the latter groups being based on DEC's RSX-11 and RSTS CLIs. Under most operating systems, it is possible to replace the default shell program with alternatives.
Although the term'shell' is used to describe a command-line interpreter speaking a'shell' can be any program that constitutes the user-interface, including graphically oriented ones. For example, the default Windows GUI is a shell program named EXPLORER. EXE, as defined in the SHELL=EXPLORER. EXE line in the WIN. INI configuration file; these programs are shells, but not CLIs. Application programs may have command line interfaces. An application program may support none, any, or all of these three major types of command line interface mechanisms: Parameters: Most operating systems support a means to pass additional information to a program when it is launched; when a program is launched from an OS command line shell, additional text provided along with the program name is passed to the launched program. Interactive command line sessions: After launch, a program may provide an operator with an independent means to enter commands in the form of text. OS inter-process communication: Most operating systems support means of inter-process communication.
Command lines from client processes may be redirected to a CLI program by one of these methods. Some applications support only a CLI, presenting a CLI prompt to the user and acting upon command lines as they are entered. Other programs support both a CLI and a GUI. In some cases, a GUI is a wrapper around a separate CLI executable file. In other cases, a program may provide a CLI as an optional alternative to its GUI. CLIs and GUIs support different functionality. For example, all features of MATLAB, a numerical analysis computer program, are available via the CLI, whereas the MATLAB GUI exposes only a subset of features; the early Sierra games, such as the first three King's Quest games, used commands from an internal command line to move the character around in the graphic window. The command-line interface evolved from a form of dialog once conducted by humans over teleprinter machines, in which human operators remotely exchanged inf
A spectrogram is a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies of a signal as it varies with time. When applied to an audio signal, spectrograms are sometimes called sonographs, voiceprints, or voicegrams; when the data is represented in a 3D plot they may be called waterfalls. Spectrograms are used extensively in the fields of music, sonar and speech processing and others. Spectrograms of audio can be used to identify spoken words phonetically, to analyse the various calls of animals. A spectrogram can be generated by an optical spectrometer, a bank of band-pass filters, by Fourier transform or by a wavelet transform. A spectrogram is depicted as a heat map, i.e. as an image with the intensity shown by varying the colour or brightness. A common format is a graph with two geometric dimensions: one axis represents time or RPM, the other axis is frequency. There are many variations of format: sometimes the vertical and horizontal axes are switched, so time runs up and down; the frequency and amplitude axes can be either linear or logarithmic, depending on what the graph is being used for.
Audio would be represented with a logarithmic amplitude axis, frequency would be linear to emphasize harmonic relationships, or logarithmic to emphasize musical, tonal relationships. Spectrograms of light may be created directly using an optical spectrometer over time. Spectrograms may be created from a time-domain signal in one of two ways: approximated as a filterbank that results from a series of band-pass filters, or calculated from the time signal using the Fourier transform; these two methods form two different time–frequency representations, but are equivalent under some conditions. The bandpass filters method uses analog processing to divide the input signal into frequency bands. Creating a spectrogram using the FFT is a digital process. Digitally sampled data, in the time domain, is broken up into chunks, which overlap, Fourier transformed to calculate the magnitude of the frequency spectrum for each chunk; each chunk corresponds to a vertical line in the image. These spectrums or time plots are "laid side by side" to form the image or a three-dimensional surface, or overlapped in various ways, i.e. windowing.
This process corresponds to computing the squared magnitude of the short-time Fourier transform of the signal s — that is, for a window width ω, s p e c t r o g r a m = | S T F T | 2. From the formula above, it appears that a spectrogram contains no information about the exact, or approximate, phase of the signal that it represents. For this reason, it is not possible to reverse the process and generate a copy of the original signal from a spectrogram, though in situations where the exact initial phase is unimportant it may be possible to generate a useful approximation of the original signal; the Analysis & Resynthesis Sound Spectrograph is an example of a computer program that attempts to do this. The Pattern Playback was an early speech synthesizer, designed at Haskins Laboratories in the late 1940s, that converted pictures of the acoustic patterns of speech back into sound. In fact, there is some phase information in the spectrogram, but it appears in another form, as time delay, the dual of the Instantaneous Frequency.
The size and shape of the analysis window can be varied. A smaller window will produce more accurate results in timing, at the expense of precision of frequency representation. A larger window will provide a more precise frequency representation, at the expense of precision in timing representation; this is an instance of the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, that the product of the precision in two conjugate variables is less than or equal to a constant. Early analog spectrograms were applied to a wide range of areas including the study of bird calls, with current research continuing using modern digital equipment and applied to all animal sounds. Contemporary use of the digital spectrogram is useful for studying frequency modulation in animal calls; the distinguishing characteristics of FM chirps, broadband clicks, social harmonizing are most visualized with the spectrogram. Spectrograms are useful in assisting in overcoming speech deficits and in speech training for the portion of the population, profoundly deaf The studies of phonetics and speech synthesis are facilitated through the use of spectrograms.
By reversing the process of producing a spectrogram, it is possible to create a
Wine is a free and open-source compatibility layer that aims to allow computer programs developed for Microsoft Windows to run on Unix-like operating systems. Wine provides a software library, known as Winelib, against which developers can compile Windows applications to help port them to Unix-like systems. Wine provides its own Windows runtime environment which translates Windows system calls into POSIX-compliant system calls, recreating the directory structure of Windows systems, providing alternative implementations of Windows system libraries, system services through wineserver and various other components. Wine is predominantly written using black-box testing reverse-engineering, to avoid copyright issues. Wine Project name being Wine is Not an Emulator was set as of August 1993 in the Naming discussion and credited to David Niemi this is a recursive backronym. There is some confusion caused by an early FAQ using Windows Emulator and other invalid sources that appear after the Wine Project name being set.
No code emulation or virtualization occurs. "Emulation" would refer to execution of compiled code intended for one processor by interpreting/recompiling software running on a different processor. While the name sometimes appears in the forms WINE and wine, the project developers have agreed to standardize on the form Wine. Wine is developed for Linux and macOS, there are well-maintained packages available for both platforms. In a 2007 survey by desktoplinux.com of 38,500 Linux desktop users, 31.5% of respondents reported using Wine to run Windows applications. This plurality was larger than all x86 virtualization programs combined, as well as larger than the 27.9% who reported not running Windows applications. Bob Amstadt, the initial project leader, Eric Youngdale started the Wine project in 1993 as a way to run Windows applications on Linux, it was inspired by two Sun Microsystems' products, the Wabi for the Solaris operating system, the Public Windows Initiative, an attempt to get the Windows API reimplemented in the public domain as an ISO standard but rejected due to pressure from Microsoft in 1996.
Wine targeted 16-bit applications for Windows 3.x, but as of 2010 focuses on 32-bit and 64-bit versions which have become the standard on newer operating systems. The project originated in discussions on Usenet in comp.os.linux in June 1993. Alexandre Julliard has led the project since 1994; the project has proven time-consuming and difficult for the developers because of incomplete and incorrect documentation of the Windows API. While Microsoft extensively documents most Win32 functions, some areas such as file formats and protocols have no publicly available specification from Microsoft, Windows includes undocumented low-level functions, undocumented behavior and obscure bugs that Wine must duplicate in order to allow some applications to work properly; the Wine team has reverse-engineered many function calls and file formats in such areas as thunking. The Wine project released Wine under the same MIT License as the X Window System, but owing to concern about proprietary versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project, work as of March 2002 has used the LGPL for its licensing.
Wine entered beta with version 0.9 on 25 October 2005. Version 1.0 was released on 17 June 2008, after 15 years of development. Version 1.2 was released on 16 July 2010, version 1.4 on 7 March 2012, version 1.6 on 18 July 2013. and version 1.8 on 19 December 2015. Development versions are released every two weeks; the main corporate sponsor of Wine is CodeWeavers, which employs Julliard and many other Wine developers to work on Wine and on CrossOver, CodeWeavers' supported version of Wine. CrossOver includes some application-specific tweaks not considered suitable for the WineHQ version, as well as some additional proprietary components; the involvement of Corel for a time assisted the project, chiefly by employing Julliard and others to work on it. Corel had an interest in porting its office suite, to Linux. Corel cancelled all Linux-related projects after Microsoft made major investments in Corel, stopping their Wine effort. Other corporate sponsors include Google, which hired CodeWeavers to fix Wine so Picasa ran well enough to be ported directly to Linux using the same binary as on Windows.
Wine is a regular beneficiary of Google's Summer of Code program. The goal of Wine is to implement the Windows APIs or that are required by programs that the users of Wine wish to run on top of a Unix-like system; the Win32 function calls are collectively called the Win32 API. DirectX is a collection of APIs for rendering and input. While most office software does not make use of these, computer games do; as of 2017, Wine contains a DirectX 9.0c implementation. In February 2019, a re-implemenation of the XAudio2 audio API was merged into Wine and was released as part of Wine 4.3. Many games which use a Direct3D 9 rendering path can run on top of Wine; the Gallium3D driver model creates. A free and open-source Gallium3D State Tracker was written for Microsoft Direct3D 9 in C. After some modification to Wine, it is now possible to use Direct3D 9 games without the requirement to translate Direct3