Portland State University
Portland State University is a public research university located in the southwest University District of downtown Portland, United States. It was founded in 1946 as a post-secondary educational institution for World War II veterans, it evolved into a four-year college over the following two decades, was granted university status in 1969. It is the only public urban university in the state of Oregon, located in a major metropolitan city, is governed by a board of trustees. Portland State is composed of seven constituent colleges, offering undergraduate degrees in one hundred twenty-three fields, postgraduate degrees in one hundred seventeen fields. Schools at Portland State include the School of Business Administration, Graduate School of Education, School of Social Work, College of Urban and Public Affairs, College of the Arts, Maseeh College of Engineering and Computer Science, the College of Liberal Arts and Sciences; the athletic teams are known as the Portland State Vikings with school colors of white.
Teams compete at the NCAA Division I Level in the Big Sky Conference. The university was ranked among the top fifteen percentile of American universities in The Best 376 Colleges by The Princeton Review in 2012 for undergraduate education, its graduate programs in Health Care Management, Social Work, Public Affairs, Rehabilitation Counseling were ranked among the top 50 in the United States by the U. S. News and World Report in 2017. Portland State has community partnerships with Intel, Oregon Health & Science University, the Portland Public School system, the City of Portland, Portland General Electric; the university has been nationally recognized for its unique University Studies curriculum, which culminates in a community-based senior capstone project which all undergraduates are required to complete for graduation. The university is categorized as an R2: Doctoral University – Higher Research Activity in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. Portland State University was established as the Vanport Extension Center in June 1946, founded by Stephen Edward Epler, a native of Iowa.
Epler graduated from Cotner College in Lincoln and Columbia University in New York City, before joining the army to fight in World War II. After returning to the United States after serving, Epler became a veterans' counselor in Oregon's General Extension Division in Portland; the Vanport Extension Center was conceived by Epler in order to satisfy the demand for higher education in Portland for returning World War II veterans, taking advantage of the G. I. Bill; the G. I. Bill was passed in 1944 to provide college, high school or vocational education for returning World War II veterans, as well as one year of unemployment compensation; the first classes were held in the Vanport Junior High School. This first summer session had 221 students, tuition and fees were $50. Over 1,410 students registered for the 1946 fall term, delayed until October 7, 1946 due to a lack of space. Since the population in Vanport was decreasing after World War II, the extension center was able to use buildings created for other purposes: two childcare centers, a recreation building with three classrooms, a shopping center, which required substantial modification to house a library and six classrooms.
In addition to Vanport Junior High School and Jefferson high schools were used after school hours, as well as the University of Oregon's dental and medical schools, located in Portland. Following the May 30 Vanport Flood of 1948, the college became known as "the college that wouldn't die" for refusing to close after the flood; the term was coined by Lois Hennessy, a student who wrote about the college and the flood in the Christian Science Monitor, though students nicknamed the school "The college without a future." The school occupied Grant High School in the summer of 1948 to hastily converted buildings at the Oregon Shipyard, known as the Oregon Ship. In 1953, the school moved to downtown Portland and occupied the vacated buildings of Lincoln High School on SW Broadway Street, including Lincoln Hall known as "Old Main."The school changed its name to the Portland State Extension Center between December 1951 and February 1952, earned a colloquial title, "The U by the Slough." In 1955, the Center changed its name to Portland State College to mark its maturation into a four-year degree-granting institution, although severe restrictions were placed on the college's curriculum and growth.
Epler, who had campaigned for a presidency role at the college, was not elected by the State Board. Without an administrative stake in the college, Epler left and accepted presidency at Reedley College in California. By 1956, the veteran population at the college had subsided, baby food was no longer stocked in the bookstore. Portland State's entry in the 1965 General Electric College Bowl Team won the nationally televised quiz show that pitted teams of college students from across the country against each other; the team knocked off its competitors for five consecutive weeks, retiring as champions, setting a new record for total points scored. The university's Smith Memorial Student Union building was named after team member Michael J. Smith, who competed in the tournament while suffering from cystic fibrosis and died in 1968. Architecture at the university was a topic of controversy in its early stages. In 1968, incoming university president Gregory Wolfe commented that the buildings were distressing evidence of Stalinist cubism on campus, although urban renewal chairman Ira Keller found them to be "perfectly lovely."
Portland State University's growth for the next couple of decades was restricted under the Oregon University Syste
In computing, a desktop environment is an implementation of the desktop metaphor made of a bundle of programs running on top of a computer operating system, which share a common graphical user interface, sometimes described as a graphical shell. The desktop environment was seen on personal computers until the rise of mobile computing. Desktop GUIs help the user to access and edit files, while they do not provide access to all of the features found in the underlying operating system. Instead, the traditional command-line interface is still used when full control over the operating system is required. A desktop environment consists of icons, toolbars, folders and desktop widgets. A GUI might provide drag and drop functionality and other features that make the desktop metaphor more complete. A desktop environment aims to be an intuitive way for the user to interact with the computer using concepts which are similar to those used when interacting with the physical world, such as buttons and windows.
While the term desktop environment described a style of user interfaces following the desktop metaphor, it has come to describe the programs that realize the metaphor itself. This usage has been popularized by projects such as the Common Desktop Environment, K Desktop Environment, GNOME. On a system that offers a desktop environment, a window manager in conjunction with applications written using a widget toolkit are responsible for most of what the user sees; the window manager supports the user interactions with the environment, while the toolkit provides developers a software library for applications with a unified look and behavior. A windowing system of some sort interfaces directly with the underlying operating system and libraries; this provides support for graphical hardware, pointing devices, keyboards. The window manager runs on top of this windowing system. While the windowing system may provide some window management functionality, this functionality is still considered to be part of the window manager, which happens to have been provided by the windowing system.
Applications that are created with a particular window manager in mind make use of a windowing toolkit provided with the operating system or window manager. A windowing toolkit gives applications access to widgets that allow the user to interact graphically with the application in a consistent way; the first desktop environment was sold with the Xerox Alto in the 1970s. The Alto was considered by Xerox to be a personal office computer. With the Lisa, Apple introduced a desktop environment on an affordable personal computer, which failed in the market; the desktop metaphor was popularized on commercial personal computers by the original Macintosh from Apple in 1984, was popularized further by Windows from Microsoft since the 1990s. As of 2014, the most popular desktop environments are descendants of these earlier environments, including the Aero environment used in Windows Vista and Windows 7, the Aqua environment used in macOS; when compared with the X-based desktop environments available for Unix-like operating systems such as Linux and FreeBSD, the proprietary desktop environments included with Windows and macOS have fixed layouts and static features, with integrated "seamless" designs that aim to provide consistent customer experiences across installations.
Microsoft Windows dominates in marketshare among personal computers with a desktop environment. Computers using Unix-like operating systems such as macOS, Chrome OS, Linux, BSD or Solaris are much less common. Among the more popular of these are Google's Chromebooks and Chromeboxes, Intel's NUC, the Raspberry Pi, etc. On tablets and smartphones, the situation is the opposite, with Unix-like operating systems dominating the market, including the iOS, Tizen and Ubuntu. Microsoft's Windows phone, Windows RT and Windows 10 are used on a much smaller number of tablets and smartphones. However, the majority of Unix-like operating systems dominant on handheld devices do not use the X11 desktop environments used by other Unix-like operating systems, relying instead on interfaces based on other technologies. On systems running the X Window System, desktop environments are much more dynamic and customizable to meet user needs. In this context, a desktop environment consists of several separate components, including a window manager, a file manager, a set of graphical themes, together with toolkits and libraries for managing the desktop.
All these individual modules can be exchanged and independently configured to suit users, but most desktop environments provide a default configuration that works with minimal user setup. Some window managers—such as IceWM, Openbox, ROX Desktop and Window Maker—contain sparse desktop environment elements, such as an integrated spatial file manager, while others like evilwm and wmii do not provide such elements. Not all of the program code, part of a desktop environment has effects which are directly visible to the user; some of it may be low-level code. KDE, for example, provides so-called KIO slaves which give the user access to a wide range of virtual devices; these I/O slaves are not av
Screen tearing is a visual artifact in video display where a display device shows information from multiple frames in a single screen draw. The artifact occurs when the video feed to the device is not in sync with the display's refresh rate; this can be due to non-matching refresh rates—in which case the tear line moves as the phase difference changes. It can occur from lack of sync between two equal frame rates, in which case the tear line is at a fixed location that corresponds to the phase difference. During video motion, screen tearing creates a torn look. Tearing can occur with most common display technologies and video cards, is most noticeable in horizontally-moving visuals, such as in slow camera pans in a movie, or classic side-scrolling video games. Screen tearing is less noticeable when more than two frames finish rendering during the same refresh interval, since this means the screen has several narrower tears instead of a single wider one. Ways to prevent video tearing depend on the display device and video card technology, software in use, the nature of the video material.
The most common solution is to use multiple buffering. Most systems use multiple buffering and some means of synchronization of display and video memory refresh cycles. Vertical synchronization is an option in most systems, wherein the video card is prevented from doing anything visible to the display memory until after the monitor finishes its current refresh cycle. During the vertical blanking interval, the driver orders the video card to either copy the off-screen graphics area into the active display area, or treat both memory areas as displayable, switch back and forth between them. Nvidia and AMD video adapters provide an'Adaptive Vsync' option; this will only turn on vertical synchronization when the frame rate of the software exceeds the display's refresh rate, disabling it otherwise. This eliminates the stutter that occurs as the rendering engine frame rate drops below the display's refresh rate. Alternatively, technologies like FreeSync and G-Sync reverse the concept, adapting the display's refresh rate to the content coming from the computer.
These technologies require specific support from both the display. When vertical synchronization is used, the frame rate of the rendering engine gets limited to the video signal frame rate. Though this feature improves video quality, it involves trade-offs in some cases. Vertical synchronization can cause artifacts in video and movie presentations, as they are recorded at frame rates lower than the typical monitor frame rates; when such a movie is played on a monitor set for a typical 60 Hz refresh rate, the video player misses the monitor's deadline frequently, in addition to the interceding frames being displayed at a higher rate than intended for, resulting in an effect similar to judder. Video games, which use a wide variety of rendering engines, tend to benefit visually from vertical synchronization, as a rendering engine is expected to build each frame in real time, based on whatever the engine's variables specify at the moment a frame is requested. However, because vertical synchronization causes input lag, it interferes with the interactive nature of games, interferes with games that require precise timing or fast reaction times.
Lastly, benchmarking a video card or rendering engine implies that the hardware and software render the display as fast as possible, without regard to monitor capabilities or resultant video tearing. Otherwise, the monitor and video card throttle the benchmarking program; some graphics systems let the software perform its memory accesses so that they stay at the same time point relative to the display hardware's refresh cycle, known as raster interrupt or racing the beam. In this case, the software writes to the areas of the display that have just been updated, staying just behind the monitor's active refresh point; this allows for copy routines or rendering engines with less predictable throughput, as long as the rendering engine can "catch up" with the monitor's active refresh point when it falls behind. Alternatively, software can instead stay just ahead of the active refresh point. Depending on how far ahead one chooses to stay, this method may demand code that copies or renders the display at a fixed, constant speed.
Too much latency causes the monitor to overtake the software on occasion, leading to rendering artifacts, etc. Demo software on classic systems such as the Commodore 64 and ZX Spectrum exploited these techniques, owing to the predictable nature of their respective video systems, to achieve effects that might otherwise be impossible
Xfce or XFCE is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix and Unix-like operating systems, such as Linux, BSD. Xfce aims to be light-weight, while still being visually appealing and easy to use. Xfce embodies the traditional Unix philosophy of re-usability, it consists of separately packaged parts that together provide all functions of the desktop environment, but can be selected in subsets to suit user needs and preference. Another priority of Xfce is adherence to standards those defined at freedesktop.org. Like GNOME, Xfce is based on the GTK toolkit, it uses the Xfwm window manager, described below. Its configuration is mouse-driven, with the configuration files hidden from the casual user. Xfce does not feature any desktop animations. Olivier Fourdan started the project in 1996 as a Linux version of the Common Desktop Environment, a Unix desktop environment, proprietary and released as free software. However, over time, Xfce now stands on its own; the name "XFCE" was an acronym for "XForms Common Environment", but since that time it has been rewritten twice and no longer uses the XForms toolkit.
The name survived, but it is no longer capitalized as "XFCE", but rather as "Xfce". The developers' current stance is. After noting this, the FAQ on the Xfce Wiki comments ""; the Slackware Linux distribution has nicknamed Xfce the "Cholesterol Free Desktop Environment", a loose interpretation of the initialism. Per the FAQ, the logo of Xfce is "a mouse for all kinds of reasons like world domination and monsters and such". In the SuperTuxKart game, in which various open source mascots race against each other, the mouse is said to be a female named "Xue". Xfce began as a simple project created with XForms. Olivier Fourdan released the program, just a simple taskbar, on SunSITE. Fourdan continued developing the project and in 1998, Xfce 2 was released with the first version of Xfce's window manager, Xfwm, he was refused due to its XForms basis. Red Hat only accepted software, open source and released under either a GPL or BSD compatible license, whereas, at the time, XForms was closed source and free only for personal use.
For the same reason, Xfce was not in Debian before version 3, Xfce 2 was only distributed in Debian's contrib repository. In March 1999, Fourdan began a complete rewrite of the project based on GTK+, a non-proprietary toolkit rising in popularity; the result was Xfce 3.0, licensed under the GPL. Along with being based on free software, the project gained GTK+ drag-and-drop support, native language support, improved configurability. Xfce was uploaded to SourceForge.net in February 2001, starting with version 3.8.1. In version 4.0.0, released 25 September 2003, Xfce was upgraded to use the GTK+ 2 libraries. Changes in 4.2.0 included a compositing manager for Xfwm which added built-in support for transparency and drop shadows, as well as a new default SVG icon set. In January 2007, Xfce 4.4.0 was released. This included a replacement for Xffm. Support for desktop icons was added. Various improvements were made to the panel to prevent buggy plugins from crashing the whole panel. In February 2009, Xfce 4.6.0 was released.
This version had a new configuration backend, a new settings manager and a new sound mixer, as well as several significant improvements to the session manager and the rest of Xfce's core components. In January 2011, Xfce 4.8.0 was released. This version included changes such as the replacement of ThunarVFS and HAL with GIO, ConsoleKit and PolicyKit, new utilities for browsing remote network shares using several protocols including SFTP, SMB, FTP. Window clutter was reduced by merging all Thunar file progress dialog boxes into a single dialog; the panel application was rewritten for better positioning and item and launcher management. 4.8 introduced a new menu plugin to view directories. The 4.8 plugin framework remains compatible with 4.6 plugins. The display configuration dialog in 4.8 supports RandR 1.2, detecting screens automatically and allowing users to pick their preferred display resolution, refresh rate, display rotation. Multiple displays can be placed next to each other. Keyboard selection was revamped to be more user-friendly.
The manual settings editor was updated to be more functional. The 4.8 development cycle was the first to use the new release strategy formed after the "Xfce Release and Development Model" developed at the Ubuntu Desktop Summit in May 2009. A new web application was employed to make release management easier, a dedicated Transifex server was set up for Xfce translators; the project's server and mirroring infrastructure was upgraded to cope with anticipated demand following the release announcement for 4.8. Xfce 4.10, released April 28, 2012, introduced a vertical display mode for the panel and moved much of the documentation to an online wiki. The main focus of this release was on improving the user experience. Xfce 4.12 was released on February 28, 2015, two years and ten months contrary to mass Internet speculation about the project being "dead". The target of 4.12 was to improve user experience and take advantage of technologies introduced in the interim. New window manager features include an Alt+Tab dialog, smart multi-monitor handling.
A new power management plugin for the panel's notification area was introduced, as wel
GNOME is a free and open-source desktop environment for Unix-like operating systems. GNOME was an acronym for GNU Network Object Model Environment, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. GNOME is part of the GNU Project and developed by The GNOME Project, composed of both volunteers and paid contributors, the largest corporate contributor being Red Hat, it is an international project that aims to develop software frameworks for the development of software, to program end-user applications based on these frameworks, to coordinate efforts for internationalization and localization and accessibility of that software. GNOME 3 is the default desktop environment on many major Linux distributions including Fedora, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux Enterprise, Red Hat Enterprise Linux, CentOS, Oracle Linux, Scientific Linux, SteamOS, Kali Linux and Endless OS; the continued fork of the last GNOME 2 release that goes under the name MATE is default on many distributions that targets low usage of system resources.
GNOME was started on August 15 1997 by Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena as a free software project to develop a desktop environment and applications for it. It was founded in part because K Desktop Environment, growing in popularity, relied on the Qt widget toolkit which used a proprietary software license until version 2.0. In place of Qt, the GTK toolkit was chosen as the base of GNOME. GTK uses the GNU Lesser General Public License, a free software license that allows software linking to it to use a much wider set of licenses, including proprietary software licenses. GNOME itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, the GNU General Public License for its applications; the name "GNOME" was an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment, referring to the original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft's OLE, but the acronym was dropped because it no longer reflected the vision of the GNOME project. The California startup Eazel developed the Nautilus file manager from 1999 to 2001.
De Icaza and Nat Friedman founded Helix Code in 1999 in Massachusetts. During the transition to GNOME 2 around the year 2001 and shortly thereafter there were brief talks about creating a GNOME Office suite. On September 15, 2003 GNOME-Office 1.0, consisting of AbiWord 2.0, GNOME-DB 1.0 and Gnumeric 1.2.0 was released. Although some release planning for GNOME Office 1.2 was happening on gnome-office mailing list, Gnumeric 1.4 was announced as a part of it, the 1.2 release of the suite itself never materialized. As of May 4, 2014 GNOME wiki only mentions "GNOME/Gtk applications that are useful in an office environment". GNOME 2 was similar to a conventional desktop interface, featuring a simple desktop in which users could interact with virtual objects, such as windows and files. GNOME 2 started out with Sawfish, but switched to Metacity as its default window manager; the handling of windows and files in GNOME 2 is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In the default configuration of GNOME 2, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations.
However, these features can be moved to any position or orientation the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether. As of 2009, GNOME 2 was the default desktop for OpenSolaris. GNOME 1 and 2 followed the traditional desktop metaphor. GNOME 3, released in 2011, changed this with GNOME Shell, a more abstract metaphor where switching between different tasks and virtual desktops takes place in a separate area called "Overview". Since Mutter replaced Metacity as the default window manager, the minimize and maximize buttons no longer appear by default, the title bar, menu bar and tool bar combinated in one horizontal bar called "header bar" via Client-Side Decoration mechanism. Adwaita replaced Clearlooks as the default theme. Many GNOME Core Applications went through redesigns to provide a more consistent user experience; the release of GNOME 3, notable for its move away from the traditional menu bar and taskbar, has caused considerable controversy in the GNU and Linux community.
Many users and developers have expressed concerns about usability. A few projects have been initiated to continue development of GNOME 2.x or to modify GNOME 3.x to be more like the 2.x releases. GNOME 3 aims to provide a single interface for desktop computers and tablet computers; this means using only input techniques that work on all those devices, requiring abandonment of certain concepts to which desktop users were accustomed, such as right-clicking, or saving files on the desktop. These major changes evoked widespread criticism; the MATE desktop environment was forked from the GNOME 2 code-base with the intent of retaining the traditional GNOME 2 interface, whilst keeping compatibility with modern Linux technology, such as GTK 3. The Linux Mint team addressed the issue in another way by developing the "Mint GNOME Shell Extensions" that ran on top of GNOME Shell and allowed it to be used via the traditional desktop metaphor; this led to the creation of the Cinnamon user interface, forked from the GNOME 3 codebase.
Among those critical of the early releases of GNOME 3 is Linus Torvalds, the creator of the Linux kernel. Torvalds abandoned GNOME for a wh
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
The Hewlett-Packard Company or Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. It developed and provided a wide variety of hardware components as well as software and related services to consumers, small- and medium-sized businesses and large enterprises, including customers in the government and education sectors; the company was founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto by Bill Hewlett and David Packard, produced a line of electronic test equipment. HP was the world's leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q2 2013, at which time Lenovo ranked ahead of HP. HP specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. Major product lines included personal computing devices and industry standard servers, related storage devices, networking products, software and a diverse range of printers and other imaging products. HP directly marketed its products to households, small- to medium-sized businesses and enterprises as well as via online distribution, consumer-electronics and office-supply retailers, software partners and major technology vendors.
HP had services and consulting business around its products and partner products. Hewlett-Packard company events included the spin-off of its electronic and bio-analytical measurement instruments part of its business as Agilent Technologies in 1999, its merger with Compaq in 2002, the acquisition of EDS in 2008, which led to combined revenues of $118.4 billion in 2008 and a Fortune 500 ranking of 9 in 2009. In November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12, 2010. On April 28, 2010, HP announced the buyout of Inc. for $1.2 billion. On September 2, 2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. Hewlett-Packard spun off its enterprise products and services business as Hewlett Packard Enterprise on November 1, 2015. Hewlett-Packard held onto the PC and printer businesses, was renamed to HP Inc. Bill Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in electrical engineering from Stanford University in 1935; the company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Frederick Terman at Stanford during the Great Depression.
They considered Terman a mentor in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1938, Packard and Hewlett begin part-time work in a rented garage with an initial capital investment of US$538. In 1939 Hewlett and Packard decided to formalize their partnership, they tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett. HP incorporated on August 18, 1947, went public on November 6, 1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their first financially successful product, was a precision audio oscillator, the Model HP200A, their innovation was the use of a small incandescent light bulb as a temperature dependent resistor in a critical portion of the circuit, the negative feedback loop which stabilized the amplitude of the output sinusoidal waveform. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $89.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200. The Model 200 series of generators continued production until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years.
One of the company's earliest customers was Walt Disney Productions, which bought eight Model 200B oscillators for use in certifying the Fantasound surround sound systems installed in theaters for the movie Fantasia. They worked on counter-radar technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II, which allowed Packard to be exempt from the draft. HP is recognized as the symbolic founder of Silicon Valley, although it did not investigate semiconductor devices until a few years after the "traitorous eight" had abandoned William Shockley to create Fairchild Semiconductor in 1957. Hewlett-Packard's HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices for internal use. Instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices. During the 1960s, HP partnered with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products; the products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan.
HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture in 1963 to market HP products in Japan. HP bought Yokogawa Electric's share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment; the name was picked so that the HP logo "hp" could be turned upside down to be a reverse reflect image of the logo "dy" of the new company. Dynac changed to Dymec, was folded back into HP in 1959. HP experimented with using Digital Equipment Corporation minicomputers with its instruments, but after deciding that it would be easier to build another small design team than deal with DEC, HP entered the computer market in 1966 with the HP 2100 / HP 1000 series of minicomputers; these had a simple accumulator-based design, with two accumulator registers and, in the HP 1000 models, two index registers. The series was produced for 20 years, in spite of several attempts to replace it, was a forerunner of the HP 9800 and HP 250 series of desktop and business computers; the HP 3000 was an advanced stack-based design for a business computing server redesigned with RISC technology.
The HP 2640 series of smart and intelligent terminals introduced forms-based interfaces to ASCII terminals, introduced screen labeled functio