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In Inuit mythology, Negafook represents "the North Wind or, more eloquently, the spirit that likes cold and stormy weather."A mask representing Negafok is held by the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. It was created for use in ceremonies, along with masks that represented the other winds, commemorates a "weather event" in the early 20th century
An amulet known as a "good luck charm", is an object believed to confer protection upon its possessor. The word "amulet" comes from the Latin word amuletum, which Pliny's Natural History describes as "an object that protects a person from trouble". Anything can function as an amulet. Amulets which are said to derive their extraordinary properties and powers from magic or those which impart luck are part of folk religion or paganism, whereas amulets or sacred objects of formalised mainstream religion as in Christianity are believed to have no power of their own without being blessed by a clergyman, they will not provide any preternatural benefit to the bearer who does not have an appropriate disposition. Talismans and charms may differ from amulets by having alleged magical powers other than protection. Amulets are sometimes confused with small aesthetic objects that hang from necklaces. Any given pendant may indeed be an amulet but so may any other object that purportedly protects its holder from danger.
Amulets were prevalent in ancient Roman society, being the inheritor of the ancient Greek tradition, inextricably linked to Roman religion and magic. Amulets are outside of the normal sphere of religious experience, though associations between certain gemstones and gods has been suggested. For example, Jupiter is represented on milky chalcedony, Sol on heliotrope, Mars on red jasper, Ceres on green jasper, Bacchus on amethyst. Amulets are worn to imbue the wearer with the associated powers of the gods rather than for any reasons of piety; the intrinsic power of the amulet is evident from others bearing inscriptions, such as vterfexix or "good luck to the user." Amulet boxes could be used, such as the example from part of the Thetford treasure, Norfolk, UK, where a gold box intended for suspension around the neck was found to contain sulphur for its apotropaic qualities. In China, Taoist experts called fulu developed a special style of calligraphy that they said would be able to protect against evil spirits.
The equivalent type of amulet in Japan is called an ofuda. In antiquity and the Middle Ages, most Jews and Muslims in the Orient believed in the protective and healing power of amulets or blessed objects. Talismans used by these peoples can be broken down into three main categories: talismans carried or worn on the body, talismans hung upon or above the bed of an infirm person, medicinal talismans; this third category can be further divided into internal talismans. For example, an external amulet can be placed in a bath. Jews and Muslims have at times used their holy books in a talisman-like manner in grave situations. For example, a bed-ridden and ill person would have a holy book placed under part of the bed or cushion. Amulets are plentiful in the Jewish tradition, with examples of Solomon-era amulets existing in many museums. Due to the proscription of idols and other graven images in Judaism, Jewish amulets emphasize text and names; the shape and color of a Jewish amulet makes no difference.
Examples of textual amulets include the Silver Scroll, circa 630 BCE, the still contemporary mezuzah and tefillin. A counter-example, however, is the Hand of an outline of a human hand. Another non-textual amulet is the Seal of Solomon known as the hexagram or Star of David. In one form, it consists of two intertwined equilateral triangles, in this form it is worn suspended around the neck to this day. Another common amulet in contemporary use is the Chai —, worn around the neck. Other similar amulets still in use consist of one of the names of the god of Judaism, such as ה, יה, or שדי, inscribed on a piece of parchment or metal silver. During the Middle Ages and Sherira Gaon opposed the use of amulets and derided the "folly of amulet writers." Other rabbis, approved the use of amulets. Rabbi and famous kabbalist Naphtali ben Isaac Katz was said to be an expert in the magical use of amulets, he was accused of causing a fire that broke out in his house and destroyed the whole Jewish quarter of Frankfurt, of preventing the extinguishing of the fire by conventional means because he wanted to test the power of his amulets.
The Roman Catholic Church maintains that the legitimate use of sacramentals in its proper disposition is encouraged only by a firm faith and devotion to the Triune God, not by any magical or superstitious belief bestowed on the sacramental. In this regard, scapulars and other devotional religious Catholic paraphernalia derive their power, not from the symbolism displayed in the object, but rather from the blessing of the Catholic Church. Lay Catholics are not permitted to perform solemn exorcisms, but they can use holy water, blessed salt, other sacramentals, such as the Saint Benedict medal or the crucifix, for warding off evil; the crucifix, the associated sign of the cross, is one of the key sacramentals used by Catholics to ward off evil since the time of the Early Church Fathers. The imperial cross of Conrad II referred to the power of the cross against evil. A well-known amulet among Catholic Christians is the Saint Benedict medal which includes the Vade Retro Satana formula to ward off Satan.
This medal has been in use at least since the 1700s, in 1742 it received the approval of Pope Benedict XIV. It became part of the Roman Catholic ritu
Malina is a solar deity in Inuit religion. She is found most in the legends of Greenland that link her with the lunar deity Anningan, her brother. Malina is fleeing from Anningan as the result of strife between the two, their constant chase is the traditional explanation for the movement of the sun and moon through the sky. According to Inuit mythology and his sister Malina lived together in a village, they were close when young, but came to live apart as they grew older, in the lodges for women and for men. One day, as Igaluk looked at the women, he found, and so that night, as everyone slept, he crept into the women's dwelling and forced himself upon her. As it was dark, Malina was unable to tell who her attacker was, but the next night, when the same thing happened, she covered her hands with the soot from the oil lamps and smeared the Anningan's face with it. Afterwards, she looked through the skylight of the men's lodge, she was surprised to find that the man was her own brother. So Malina cut off her breasts.
She put them in a bowl and carried this to the men's lodge, presented it to Igaluk, saying "If you enjoy me so much eat these," and ran away out the door, grabbing a torch as she went. Igaluk chased after her taking a torch, was able to follow her path, as her footsteps were marked with great pools of blood. However, he tripped and dropped his torch, the flame was put out, except for a faint glow. However, Igaluk caught up to his sister, the two ran so fast that they took off into the sky and became the moon and the sun. Malina was known for her passion and beauty. Malina and Anningan the Sun and The Moon: An Inuit Sky Tale When Moon Chases Sun
Pinnipeds known as seals, are a distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals. They comprise the extant families Odobenidae and Phocidae. There are 33 extant species of pinnipeds, more than 50 extinct species have been described from fossils. While seals were thought to have descended from two ancestral lines, molecular evidence supports them as a monophyletic lineage. Pinnipeds belong to the order Carnivora and their closest living relatives are believed to be bears and the superfamily of musteloids, having diverged about 50 million years ago. Seals range in size from the 1 m and 45 kg Baikal seal to the 5 m and 3,200 kg southern elephant seal, the largest member of the order Carnivora. Several species exhibit sexual dimorphism, they have four limbs that are modified into flippers. Though not as fast in the water as dolphins, seals are more agile. Otariids use their front limbs to propel themselves through the water, while phocids and walruses use their hind limbs.
Otariids and walruses have hind limbs that can be used as legs on land. By comparison, terrestrial locomotion by phocids is more cumbersome. Otariids have visible external ears, while walruses lack these. Pinnipeds have well-developed senses—their eyesight and hearing are adapted for both air and water, they have an advanced tactile system in their whiskers or vibrissae; some species are well adapted for diving to great depths. They have a layer of fat, or blubber, under the skin to keep warm in the cold water, other than the walrus, all species are covered in fur. Although pinnipeds are widespread, most species prefer the colder waters of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, they spend most of their lives in the water, but come ashore to mate, give birth, molt or escape from predators, such as sharks and killer whales. They feed on fish and marine invertebrates. Walruses are specialized for feeding on bottom-dwelling mollusks. Male pinnipeds mate with more than one female, although the degree of polygyny varies with the species.
The males of land-breeding species tend to mate with a greater number of females than those of ice breeding species. Male pinniped strategies for reproductive success vary between defending females, defending territories that attract females and performing ritual displays or lek mating. Pups are born in the spring and summer months and females bear all the responsibility for raising them. Mothers of some species fast and nurse their young for a short period of time while others take foraging trips at sea between nursing bouts. Walruses are known to nurse their young while at sea. Seals produce a number of vocalizations, notably the barks of California sea lions, the gong-like calls of walruses and the complex songs of Weddell seals; the meat and fur coats of pinnipeds have traditionally been used by indigenous peoples of the Arctic. Seals have been depicted in various cultures worldwide, they are kept in captivity and are sometimes trained to perform tricks and tasks. Once relentlessly hunted by commercial industries for their products and walruses are now protected by international law.
The Japanese sea lion and the Caribbean monk seal have become extinct in the past century, while the Mediterranean monk seal and Hawaiian monk seal are ranked endangered by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Besides hunting, pinnipeds face threats from accidental trapping, marine pollution, conflicts with local people; the German naturalist Johann Karl Wilhelm Illiger was the first to recognize the pinnipeds as a distinct taxonomic unit. American zoologist Joel Asaph Allen reviewed the world's pinnipeds in an 1880 monograph, History of North American pinnipeds, a monograph of the walruses, sea-lions, sea-bears and seals of North America. In this publication, he traced the history of names, gave keys to families and genera, described North American species and provided synopses of species in other parts of the world. In 1989, Annalisa Berta and colleagues proposed the unranked clade Pinnipedimorpha to contain the fossil genus Enaliarctos and modern seals as a sister group. Pinnipeds belong to the suborder Caniformia.
Pinnipedia was considered its own suborder under Carnivora. Of the three extant families, the Otariidae and Odobenidae are grouped in the superfamily Otarioidea, while the Phocidae belong to the superfamily Phocoidea. Otariids are known as eared seals due to the presence of pinnae; these animals rely on their well-developed fore-flippers to propel themselves through the water. They can turn their hind-flippers forward and "walk" on land; the anterior end of an otariid's frontal bones extends between the nasal bones, the supraorbital foramen is large and flat horizontally. The supraspinatous fossas are divided by a "secondary spine" and the bronchi are divided anteriorly. Otariids consist of two types: fur seals. Sea lions are distinguished by their rounder snouts and shorter, rougher pelage, while fur seals have more pointed snouts, longer fore-flippers and thicker fur coats that include an undercoat and guard hairs; the former tend to be larger than the latter. Five genera and seven species of
Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans and sirenians. Lipid-rich, collagen fiber-laced blubber comprises the hypodermis and covers the whole body, except for parts of the appendages, it is attached to the musculature and skeleton by organized, fan-shaped networks of tendons and ligaments, can comprise up to 50% of the body mass of some marine mammals during some points in their lives, can range from 2 inches thick in dolphins and smaller whales, to more than 12 inches thick in some bigger whales, such as right and bowhead whales. However, this is not indicative of larger whales' ability to retain heat better, as the thickness of a whale's blubber does not affect heat loss. More indicative of a whale's ability to retain heat is the water and lipid concentration in blubber, as water reduces heat-retaining capacities, lipid increases them. Blubber is the primary fat storage on some mammals those that live in water, it is important for species that feed and breed in different parts of the ocean.
During these periods, the animals metabolize fat. Blubber may save energy for marine mammals, such as dolphins, in that it adds buoyancy while swimming. Blubber differs from other forms of adipose tissue in its extra thickness, which provides an efficient thermal insulator, making blubber essential for thermoregulation. Blubber is more vascularized—rich in blood vessels—than other adipose tissue. Blubber has advantages over fur in that, though fur retains heat by holding pockets of air, the air expels under pressure. Blubber, does not compress under pressure, it is effective enough that some whales can dwell in temperatures as low as 40 °F. While diving in cold water, blood vessels covering the blubber constrict and decrease blood flow, thus increasing blubber's efficiency as an insulator. Blubber aids buoyancy and streamlines the body, because the organized, complex collagenous network supports the noncircular cross sections characteristic of cetaceans; the buoyancy of blubber could be problematic for bottom-feeding marine mammals such as sirenians and the extinct marine sloths, both of which do or did have limited amounts of it for that reason.
Research into the thermal conductivity of the common bottlenose dolphin's blubber reveals its thickness and lipid content vary amongst individuals and across life history categories. Blubber from emaciated dolphins is a poorer insulator than that from nonpregnant adults, which in turn have a higher heat conductivity than blubber from pregnant females and adolescents. Uqhuq or uqsuq, is an important part of the traditional diets of the Inuit and of other northern peoples, because of its high energy value and availability. Whale blubber, which tastes like arrowroot biscuits, has similar properties. Whaling targeted the collection of blubber: whalers rendered it into oil in try pots, or in vats on factory ships; the oil could serve in the manufacture of soap and cosmetics. Whale oil was used in candles as wax, in oil lamps as fuel. A single blue whale can yield a blubber harvest of up to 50 tons. Blubber from whales and seals contains omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin D. Without the vitamin D, for example, the Inuit and other natives of the Arctic would suffer from rickets.
There is evidence blubber and other fats in the arctic diet provide the calories needed to replace the lack of carbohydrates which are found in the diets of cultures in the rest of the world. Blubber contains polychlorinated biphenyl, carcinogens that damage human nervous and reproductive systems; the source of PCB concentrations is unknown. Since toothed whales are high on the food chain, they consume large amounts of industrial pollutants. Additionally, there are high levels of mercury in the blubber of seals of the Canadian arctic. Globster Greenlandic cuisine Muktuk Whale meat Whale oil "Education Resources for Teachers--Blubber Experiment". Archived from the original on 17 April 2008. "Arctic Facts-Blubber"
In Inuit mythology, Igaluk is one of the most powerful gods of the pantheon. He is a lunar deity. In Greenland, he is known as Aningan. According to Inuit mythology and his sister Malina lived together in a village, they were close when young, but came to live apart as they grew older, in the lodges for women and for men. One day, as Igaluk looked at the women, he found, and so that night, as everyone slept, he crept into the women's dwelling and forced himself upon her. As it was dark, Malina was unable to tell who her attacker was, but the next night, when the same thing happened, she covered her hands with the soot from the lamps and smeared the Anningan's face with it. Afterwards, she looked through the skylight of the men's lodge, she was surprised to find that the man was her own brother. So Malina cut off her breasts, she put them in a bowl and carried this to the men's lodge, presented it to Igaluk, saying "If you enjoy me so much eat these," and ran away out the door, grabbing a torch as she went.
Igaluk chased after her taking a torch, was able to follow her path, as her footsteps were marked with great pools of blood. However, he tripped and dropped his torch, the flame was put out, except for a faint glow. However, Igaluk caught up to his sister, the two ran so fast that they took off into the sky and became the moon and the sun. Tulok, according to Inuit mythology, is the nemesis of Aningan. A true warrior, after hearing of the incest of Aningan decided to challenge him to battle; as by this time Aningan had become the sun he devised a plan to run so fast he could reach into the sky and pour a bucket of mythical water over the sun to put out its flames. But upon hearing this, realising the devastating effect of the loss of the sun, banded together with Aningan and became an eclipse, so that when Tulok reached the sky he would become trapped, it is said after this he split to a thousand pieces, became the stars. Malina and Anningan the Sun and The Moon: An Inuit Sky Tale When Moon Chases Sun
In Greenlandic Inuit religion, a tupilaq was an avenging monster fabricated by a practitioner of witchcraft or shamanism by using various objects such as animal parts and parts taken from the corpses of children. The creature was given life by ritualistic chants, it was placed into the sea to seek and destroy a specific enemy. The use of a tupilaq was risky, because if it was sent to destroy someone who had greater magical powers than the one who had formed it, it could be sent back to kill its maker instead, although the maker of tupilaq could escape by public confession of her or his own deed; because tupilaqs were made in secret, in isolated places and from perishable materials, none have been preserved. Early European visitors to Greenland, fascinated by the native legend, were eager to see what tupilaqs looked like so the Inuit began to carve representations of them out of sperm whale teeth. Today, tupilaqs of many different shapes and sizes are carved from various materials such as narwhal and walrus tusk and caribou antler.
They are an important part of Greenlandic Inuit art and are prized as collectibles. The making of a tupilaq started most at night, in secrecy; the shaman would don the anorak backwards, with the hood over his face, engage in sexual contact with the bones used to make a tupilaq and chanting during the entire process, which could take several days. The making of a tupilaq was risky to its own maker if the attacked person made it rebound: in this case, public confession was the only rescue; the magic consequences of situations of concealment, the neutralizing effect of public confession was believed in several other areas of life, this is an example of the more general topic of secrecy versus publicity. Concealment or secrecy could raise magic consequences in several areas of life: Concealed miscarriage or infanticide could give birth to a monster called anngiaq, it could make harm for the community. Secrecy was preliminary for the functioning of so-called formulae. Thus, concealment was a preliminary for several magical effects.
If this was broken, unintentionally or intentionally, the effect could lose its power. Angakkuit in some groups resolved the consequence of taboo breach by achieving public confession of the breacher. Hunting means killing, animals were believed to have souls as well. Efforts were made to please the game symbolically; such would be the danger inherent in the first kill of a boy and it was "neutralized" by a public ritual, in which each adult member of the community had to make an incision into the head of the game, or eat a piece from it. Thus, the belief was, that public partaking in a dangerous thing reduced the danger, that it has a neutralizing effect. Inuit cultures were far from being alike; the tupilaq concept had variants. It might be a ghost-like being or a haunting soul. In some cultures it was the shaman who had to deal with it; such distant groups like the Caribou Inuit, Greenlandic Inuit, Iglulingmiut Inuit and Copper Inuit knew the concept of tupilaq, but the details differed: Igloolik The tupilaq was an invisible ghost.
Only the shaman could notice it. It was the soul of a dead person, it scared game away from the vicinity. Thus, the shaman had to help by scaring it away with a knife. Caribou Inuit The tupilaq was an invisible being. Like a tupilaq of the Iglulik the shaman was the only one who could see it, it was a chimera-like creature, with human head and parts from different species of animals. It was dangerous, it could attack the settlement; the shaman had to combat it and devour it with his/her helping spirits. Greenland The tupilaq was manifested in the human-made object, it was made by people to the detriment of their enemies. It was thought of have magical power onto the victim, it might be made from mixed parts of dead children. Copper Inuit To the Copper Inuit the tupilaq was similar to the Devil of Christianity. Anchimayen Tikoloshe Burch, Ernest S.. The Eskimos. Norman, Oklahoma 73018, USA: University of Oklahoma Press. ISBN 0-8061-2126-2. Kleivan, Inge. Sonne. Eskimos: Greenland and Canada. Iconography of religions, section VIII, "Arctic Peoples", fascicle 2.
Leiden, The Netherlands: Institute of Religious Iconography • State University Groningen. E. J. Brill. ISBN 90-04-07160-1. Rasmussen, Knud. Across Arctic America. New York • London: G. P. Putnams sons. Rasmussen, Knud. Eskimo Folk-Tales. Edited and rendered into English by W. Worster, with illustrations by native Eskimo artists. London • Copenhagen: Gyldendal. Rasmussen, Knud. Across Arctic America. New York • London: G. P. Putnams sons