The iPad is a 9.7-inch tablet computer designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It was announced on March 27, 2018, during an education-focused event at Lane Tech High School in Chicago and is the successor to the 2017 model, upgraded with the Apple A10 Fusion SoC and support for styluses such as Apple Pencil; the iPad is marketed towards schools. The iPad is priced starting at US$329 for consumers, $309 for educators/students and $299 for schools; the iPad shipped with the latest release of iOS 11, with the iWork suite of apps preinstalled and included Apple Pencil stylus support. The iPad's hardware is nearly identical to the previous generation, except for a few upgrades, such as Apple Pencil and stylus support and an upgraded processor, the Apple A10 Fusion, it is available in three colors: Silver and Space Gray. The iPad has 2 gigabytes of RAM, it is 7.5mm thick. The iPad is available in 128 GB storage options. Unlike the iPad Pro, the iPad does not feature a laminated display. Gareth Beavis of TechRadar praised the addition of the Apple Pencil and the powerful A10 chip, but noted that it was as costly as the previous generation iPad.
Scott Stein of CNET praised the addition of support for Apple Pencil and the upgrade to the A10 chip, but criticized it for lacking the Smart Connector as well as not having the same display technology as the iPad Pro, writing "the 2018 entry-level iPad doesn't add much, but it makes an excellent tablet a better buy than ever." Official website
The iPhone SE is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is part of the ninth generation of the iPhone alongside the iPhone 6S, it was announced on March 21, 2016 at the Town Hall auditorium in the Apple Campus by Apple executive Greg Joswiak, with pre-orders beginning on March 24, official release on March 31, 2016. It was re-released a year on March 24, 2017 with larger storage capacities; the iPhone SE shares the same physical design and dimensions as the iPhone 5S, but has upgraded internal hardware, including the newer Apple A9 system-on-chip, greater battery capacity, a 12-megapixel rear camera that can record 4K video. Along with the iPhone 6S and the iPhone X, the iPhone SE was discontinued by Apple on September 12, 2018. No affordable successor to the iPhone SE was announced, Business Insider stated that "Apple made a big mistake by removing its smallest and most affordable iPhone from its lineup", suggesting that the company was disregarding a significant number of customers, worried over the loss of the smaller design.
This was affirmed by Computerworld, who claimed that "the harsh reality is that across some of Apple’s biggest markets, wage growth has stagnated, people are feeling the pinch", further stating that there will always exist consumers in the mid-tier smartphone markets. In relation with the discontinuation of the iPhone SE, Quartz mentioned that women and other smartphone users with smaller hands have reported "pain from holding and swiping on phones, a review of research on the ergonomics of handheld devices concludes that bigger products, like large phones and tablets result in overextension of the thumb and wrist", hinting to repetitive strain injury and that oversized iPhones and smartphones in general can be physically unusable for several users; the technology website Gizmodo shared the same concern, hoping that "there will be a return to smaller phones", expressed a desire "to hold one's phone in a single hand, be able to use it fully." The previous major redesign of the iPhone, the 4.7-inch iPhone 6 and the 5.5-inch iPhone 6 Plus, resulted in larger screen sizes.
However, a significant number of customers still preferred the smaller 4-inch screen size of the iPhone 5 and the iPhone 5S. Apple stated in the "Let us loop you in" event on March 21, 2016 that they sold over 30 million 4-inch iPhones in 2015, further explaining that some people love smaller compact phones. In the event they presented the iPhone SE, describing it as "the most powerful 4-inch phone ever."With a total mass of 113 grams, the iPhone SE is one of the lightest iPhone models released, only surpassed by the iPhone 5S and the iPhone 5. The iPhone SE, iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus were the last iPhone models to feature a standard 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack. On January 19, 2019 the iPhone SE was back on sale as a clearance item for $249. However, by January 20, stock was sold out. On February 20, TechRadar announced that the iPhone SE once again was on sale as a clearance item with a $100 price reduction; the price for the 32 GB version was $249, while the price for the 128 GB version was $299.
The iPhones were unlocked, with T-Mobile, or Verizon as optional SIM card carriers. It was available in all original colors, including Space Gray, Silver and Rose Gold. On March 25, Gizmodo reported that the iPhone SE was back in Apple's clearance shop, added that "it’s the last of Apple’s stock that the company has put on clearance." The exterior design of the iPhone SE is nearly identical to that of the iPhone 5 and the iPhone 5S, with the exception of matte-chamfered edges and an inset stainless steel rear Apple logo. Cases designed to fit the 5 and the 5S will fit an iPhone SE; the iPhone SE was available in the colors Space Gray, Silver and Rose Gold. The iPhone SE incorporates the Apple A9 system-on-chip with an M9 motion coprocessor and supports near field communication for Apple Pay, it was released with 16 GB or 64 GB of internal storage. It features a 12 megapixel rear-facing camera with the ability to record 4K video at 30 frames per second. Unlike the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, the SE does not include 3D Touch, nor the updated faster second-generation Touch ID sensor from the 6S and 6S Plus, or its barometer.
On March 21, 2017 Apple announced that it would double the storage for these models at the same launch prices. The upgraded models were released on 128 GB of internal storage; the iPhone SE shipped with iOS 9.3, supporting iPhone 6- and 6S-exclusive features such as Apple Pay, Live Photos, Retina Flash, always-on Siri voice activation. The SE is compatible with iOS 12. CNET was positive, considering the iPhone SE to be a "great choice at the small end, with no compromises". CNET lauded Apple for accomplishing the task of adapting the 6S's hardware to three different form factors. In a article, CNET summarized the iPhone SE to be “the smaller, more pocketable member of the iPhone family, it was Apple's compact, budget option, its 4-inch screen and tinier overall size were total throwback stuff. Consumers loved the battery life and that it still had a headphone jack.”The Verge considered the iPhone SE to be "a much-improved, well-designed, small phone with great battery life" and a "great upgrade" for existing owners of the 4S or 5S models, noting the device's familiar form factor, high performance, improved battery life.
Giving the device an 8.7 out of 10, Goode argued that "the iPhone SE is not a tiny little engine
IPhone 7 and iPhone 7 Plus are smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the tenth generation of the iPhone, they were announced on September 7, 2016, at the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium in San Francisco by Apple CEO Tim Cook, were released on September 16, 2016, succeeding the iPhone 6S and iPhone 6S Plus as the flagship devices in the iPhone series. Apple released the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus in numerous countries worldwide throughout September and October 2016, they were succeeded as flagship devices by the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus on September 22, 2017, the iPhone X on November 3, 2017. The iPhone 7's overall design is similar to the iPhone 6S, but introduces new color options and dust resistance, a new capacitive, static home button, removes the 3.5 mm headphone jack. The device's internal hardware received upgrades, including a heterogeneous quad-core system-on-chip with improved system and graphics performance, upgraded 12 megapixel rear-facing cameras with optical image stabilization on all models and an additional telephoto lens on the iPhone 7 Plus model to provide enhanced zoom capabilities.
Reception of the iPhone 7 was mixed. Although reviewers noted the improvements to the camera the dual rear camera on the Plus model, they stated that the iPhone 7 did not make significant changes to the display or build quality, where competing flagship smartphones surpassed the quality of the iPhone 7. Many reviews highlighted the controversial removal of the 3.5 mm headphone jack. Apple was mocked by critics for Phil Schiller's statement that such a drastic change required "courage"; the iPhone 7 has been the subject of several reported issues, most notably a hissing noise during heavy usage of the phones and significant differences in performance between device variants. Apple has not released sales numbers for iPhone 7, but multiple U. S. carriers reported. Subsequent reports at the end of 2016 stated that Apple had reduced production of the models due to "sluggish" sales and decreasing demand, though sales research after the first quarter of 2017 placed the devices as the best-selling smartphones in the world.
Prior to its official announcement, multiple aspects of the iPhone 7 were rumored. Apple's plans to remove the 3.5 mm headphone jack received significant media attention. Other rumors included a flush camera, stereo speakers, a 256 gigabyte storage option, a larger 3,100 mAh battery. On August 29, 2016, invitations to a press event at the Bill Graham Civic Auditorium in San Francisco, California on September 7, 2016 were sent out to members of the media, prompting immediate speculation of the iPhone 7's upcoming announcement; the iPhone 7 was announced at that event, with pre-orders beginning September 9, general availability on September 16. The iPhone 7 launched in 30 new countries in September, with further international rollouts throughout October and November 2016. Indonesia was the last country to release the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, with availability starting on March 31, 2017, following Apple's research and development investment in the country. On March 21, 2017, Apple announced an iPhone 7 with a red color finish, as part of its partnership with Product Red to highlight its AIDS fundraising campaign.
It launched on March 24, 2017, but it was discontinued after the announcement of the iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus and iPhone X in September 2017. In September 2017, Apple announced the iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus as direct successors to the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, alongside the iPhone X; the iPhone 7's exterior is similar in shape and volume to the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6S. Alongside the existing silver and rose gold colors, the device is offered in new colors of matte black, glossy "jet black", for a limited time, red; the "jet black" color is high-gloss black finish. It is created through a multi-step process, beginning with an anodization phase to make the surface of the casing a porous aluminum oxide, using a machine to sweep the casing through a powdered compound, absorbed by aluminum oxide; the process is concluded with an "ultrafine particle bath" for additional finishing. The warranty does not cover any water damage to the phone.iPhone 7's home button uses a capacitive mechanism for input rather than a physical push-button, as on previous models, meaning direct skin contact is required to operate the device.
Physical feedback is provided via a Taptic Engine vibrator, the button is pressure-sensitive. IPhone 7 retains the 3D Touch display system introduced on the iPhone 6S, providing pressure-sensitive touchscreen input; the iPhone 7 does not feature a 3.5 mm headphone jack. A Lightning-to-3.5-mm-connector adapter, as well as in-ear headphones that use the Lightning connector, were bundled with the device, the adapter is sold separately as an accessory. The adapter is compatible with other iPhone, iPad, iPod Touch devices running iOS 10 and newer.iPhone 7 uses the Apple A10 Fusion 64-bit system-on-chip, which consists of two low-power cores and two high-power cores. The A10 chip features a hexa-core graphics chip capable of "console-level gaming"; as with
Lightning is a proprietary computer bus and power connector created by Apple Inc. Introduced on September 12, 2012, to replace its predecessor, the 30-pin dock connector, the Lightning connector is used to connect Apple mobile devices like iPhones, iPads, iPods to host computers, external monitors, cameras, USB battery chargers, other peripherals. Using 8 pins instead of 30, Lightning is more compact than the 30-pin dock connector and can be inserted with either side facing up. However, unless used with an adapter, it is incompatible with cables and peripherals designed for its predecessor; the Lightning connector was introduced on September 12, 2012, as a replacement for the 30-pin dock connector, to be used for all new hardware, announced at the same event. The first compatible devices were the iPhone 5, the iPod Touch, the iPod Nano; the iPad and the iPad Mini were added as Lightning devices in October 2012. On November 25, 2012, Apple acquired the "Lightning" trademark in Europe from Harley-Davidson.
Apple was given a partial transfer of the Lightning trademark, suggesting that Harley-Davidson retained the rights to use the name for motorcycle-related products. Apple is the sole proprietor of the trademark and copyrights for the designs and specifications of the Lightning connector; the iPad Pro, released in 2015, features the first Lightning connector supporting USB 3.0 host. However, the only accessory, that supports USB 3.0 is the new camera adapter. Normal USB-A - Lightning cables are still USB 2.0. On October 30, 2018, Apple announced that their new range of iPads will replace Lightning with USB-C. Lightning is an 8-pin connector. Unlike the Apple 30 pin connector it replaces, the Lightning connector can be inserted either face up or face down. Apple offers various adapters which allow the Lightning connector to be used with other interfaces, such as 30-pin, USB, HDMI, VGA, SD cards; the Lightning to 30-pin adapter supports only a limited subset of the available 30-pin signals: USB data, USB charging, analog audio output.
Official Lightning connectors contain an authentication chip, intended to make it difficult for third-party manufacturers to produce compatible accessories without being approved by Apple. The pin out is detailed in the info box. However, each pin on the reverse side of the connector is connected to its directly opposite twin on the other side. Part of the processor's job is to route the power and data signals whichever way up the connector is inserted; the plug measures 6.7 mm by 1.5 mm. Apple has not publicly discussed microUSB, but various tech news websites state that Lightning might have been used instead of microUSB because of its compatibility with docks and speaker systems; the optional supplemental standard USB On-The-Go allows USB devices to do this. On April 10, 2015, Apple announced a new line of MacBooks that featured USB-C, which has similarities with Lightning, advantages over microUSB. USB-C, like Lightning, but unlike its predecessor microUSB, can be plugged in either direction.
USB-C and Lightning are not interchangeable. The following Apple-made devices use Lightning connectors: iPod Nano iPod Touch iPod Touch Lightning to USB Type C Dock connector Smart Connector Thunderbolt Wingfield, Nick & Chen, Brian X.. "Accessories No Longer Tethered to Apple". The New York Times
Open-source software is a type of computer software in which source code is released under a license in which the copyright holder grants users the rights to study and distribute the software to anyone and for any purpose. Open-source software may be developed in a collaborative public manner. Open-source software is a prominent example of open collaboration. Open-source software development generates an more diverse scope of design perspective than any company is capable of developing and sustaining long term. A 2008 report by the Standish Group stated that adoption of open-source software models have resulted in savings of about $60 billion per year for consumers. In the early days of computing and developers shared software in order to learn from each other and evolve the field of computing; the open-source notion moved to the way side of commercialization of software in the years 1970-1980. However, academics still developed software collaboratively. For example Donald Knuth in 1979 with the TeX typesetting system or Richard Stallman in 1983 with the GNU operating system.
In 1997, Eric Raymond published The Cathedral and the Bazaar, a reflective analysis of the hacker community and free-software principles. The paper received significant attention in early 1998, was one factor in motivating Netscape Communications Corporation to release their popular Netscape Communicator Internet suite as free software; this source code subsequently became the basis behind SeaMonkey, Mozilla Firefox and KompoZer. Netscape's act prompted Raymond and others to look into how to bring the Free Software Foundation's free software ideas and perceived benefits to the commercial software industry, they concluded that FSF's social activism was not appealing to companies like Netscape, looked for a way to rebrand the free software movement to emphasize the business potential of sharing and collaborating on software source code. The new term they chose was "open source", soon adopted by Bruce Perens, publisher Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, others; the Open Source Initiative was founded in February 1998 to encourage use of the new term and evangelize open-source principles.
While the Open Source Initiative sought to encourage the use of the new term and evangelize the principles it adhered to, commercial software vendors found themselves threatened by the concept of distributed software and universal access to an application's source code. A Microsoft executive publicly stated in 2001 that "open source is an intellectual property destroyer. I can't imagine something that could be worse than this for the software business and the intellectual-property business." However, while Free and open-source software has played a role outside of the mainstream of private software development, companies as large as Microsoft have begun to develop official open-source presences on the Internet. IBM, Oracle and State Farm are just a few of the companies with a serious public stake in today's competitive open-source market. There has been a significant shift in the corporate philosophy concerning the development of FOSS; the free-software movement was launched in 1983. In 1998, a group of individuals advocated that the term free software should be replaced by open-source software as an expression, less ambiguous and more comfortable for the corporate world.
Software licenses grant rights to users which would otherwise be reserved by copyright law to the copyright holder. Several open-source software licenses have qualified within the boundaries of the Open Source Definition; the most prominent and popular example is the GNU General Public License, which "allows free distribution under the condition that further developments and applications are put under the same licence", thus free. The open source label came out of a strategy session held on April 7, 1998 in Palo Alto in reaction to Netscape's January 1998 announcement of a source code release for Navigator. A group of individuals at the session included Tim O'Reilly, Linus Torvalds, Tom Paquin, Jamie Zawinski, Larry Wall, Brian Behlendorf, Sameer Parekh, Eric Allman, Greg Olson, Paul Vixie, John Ousterhout, Guido van Rossum, Philip Zimmermann, John Gilmore and Eric S. Raymond, they used the opportunity before the release of Navigator's source code to clarify a potential confusion caused by the ambiguity of the word "free" in English.
Many people claimed that the birth of the Internet, since 1969, started the open-source movement, while others do not distinguish between open-source and free software movements. The Free Software Foun
IPhone is a line of smartphones designed and marketed by Apple Inc. All generations of the iPhone use Apple's iOS mobile operating system software; the first-generation iPhone was released on June 29, 2007, multiple new hardware iterations with new iOS releases have been released since. The user interface is built around the device's multi-touch screen, including a virtual keyboard; the iPhone can connect to cellular networks. An iPhone can shoot video, take photos, play music and receive email, browse the web and receive text messages, follow GPS navigation, record notes, perform mathematical calculations, receive visual voicemail. Other functionality, such as video games, reference works, social networking, can be enabled by downloading mobile apps; as of January 2017, Apple's App Store contained more than 2.2 million applications available for the iPhone. Apple has released twelve generations of iPhone models, each accompanied by one of the twelve major releases of the iOS operating system.
The original first-generation iPhone was a GSM phone and established design precedents, such as a button placement that has persisted throughout all releases and a screen size maintained for the next four iterations. The iPhone 3G added 3G network support, was followed by the 3GS with improved hardware, the 4 with a metal chassis, higher display resolution and front-facing camera, the 4S with improved hardware and the voice assistant Siri; the iPhone 5 featured Apple's newly introduced Lightning connector. In 2013, Apple released the 5S with improved hardware and a fingerprint reader, the lower-cost 5C, a version of the 5 with colored plastic casings instead of metal, they were followed by the larger iPhone 6, with models featuring 4.7-and-5.5-inch displays. The iPhone 6S was introduced the following year, which featured hardware upgrades and support for pressure-sensitive touch inputs, as well as the SE—which featured hardware from the 6S but the smaller form factor of the 5S. In 2016, Apple unveiled the iPhone 7 and 7 Plus, which add water resistance, improved system and graphics performance, a new rear dual-camera setup on the Plus model, new color options, while removing the 3.5 mm headphone jack found on previous models.
The iPhone 8 and 8 Plus were released in 2017, adding a glass back and an improved screen and camera. The iPhone X was released alongside the 8 and 8 Plus, with its highlights being a near bezel-less design, an improved camera and a new facial recognition system, named Face ID, but having no home button, therefore, no Touch ID. In September 2018, Apple again released 3 new iPhones, which are the iPhone XS, an upgraded version of the since discontinued iPhone X, iPhone XS Max, a larger variant with the series' biggest display as of 2018 and iPhone XR, a lower end version of the iPhone X; the original iPhone was described as "revolutionary" and a "game-changer" for the mobile phone industry. Subsequent iterations of the iPhone have garnered praise; the iPhone is one of the most used smartphones in the world, its success has been credited with helping Apple become one of the world's most valuable publicly traded companies. Development of what was to become the iPhone began in 2004, when Apple started to gather a team of 1,000 employees to work on the confidential "Project Purple."
Apple CEO Steve Jobs steered the original focus away from a tablet towards a phone. Apple created the device during a secretive collaboration with Cingular Wireless at the time—at an estimated development cost of US$150 million over thirty months. According to Steve Jobs, the "i" word in "iMac" stands for internet, instruct and inspire. Apple rejected the "design by committee" approach that had yielded the Motorola ROKR E1, a unsuccessful collaboration with Motorola. Among other deficiencies, the ROKR E1's firmware limited storage to only 100 iTunes songs to avoid competing with Apple's iPod nano. Cingular gave Apple the liberty to develop the iPhone's hardware and software in-house and paid Apple a fraction of its monthly service revenue, in exchange for four years of exclusive US sales, until 2011. Jobs unveiled the iPhone to the public on January 9, 2007, at the Macworld 2007 convention at the Moscone Center in San Francisco; the two initial models, a 4 GB model priced at US$499 and an 8 GB model at US$599, went on sale in the United States on June 29, 2007, at 6:00 pm local time, while hundreds of customers lined up outside the stores nationwide.
The passionate reaction to the launch of the iPhone resulted in sections of the media dubbing it the'Jesus phone'. Following this successful release in the US, the first generation iPhone was made available in the UK, Germany in November 2007, Ireland and Austria in the spring of 2008. On July 11, 2008, Apple released the iPhone 3G including the original six. Apple released the iPhone 3G in upwards of eighty territories. Apple announced the iPhone 3GS on June 8, 2009, along with plans to release it in June and August, starting with the US, Canada and major European countries on June 19. Many would-be users objected to the iPhone's cost, 40% of users had household incomes over US$100,000; the back of the original first generation iPhone was made of aluminum with a black plastic accent. The iPhone 3G and 3GS feature a full plastic back to increase the strength of the GSM signal; the iPhone 3G was available in
Force Touch is a technology developed by Apple Inc. that enables trackpads and touchscreens to distinguish between various levels of force being applied to their surfaces. It uses pressure sensors to add another method of input to Apple’s devices; the technology was first unveiled on September 2014, during the introduction of Apple Watch. Starting with the Apple Watch, Force Touch has been incorporated into many products within Apple’s lineup; this includes notable MacBooks and the Magic Trackpad 2. The technology is known as 3D Touch on the iPhone models; the technology brings usability enhancements to the software by offering a third dimension to accept input. Accessing shortcuts, previewing details, drawing art and system wide features enable users to additionally interact with the displayed content by applying force on the input surface. 3D Touch has 3 levels of input based on the pressure sensitivity. This enables users to customize a preference of light, firm press on the iPhone's screen.
Force Touch on the other hand, has two layers of interaction. Apple's haptic engine called the Taptic Engine resides in these devices, which houses a linear actuator producing vibratory effects as feedback. Apple allows application developers to leverage the pressure sensitivity of trackpads and touchscreens into their own apps. Force touch on Macs bring a variety of features. A few notable ones are: Look up text to show more information from Dictionary, etc. Show a Apple Maps preview of an address location. Add dates and events to Calendar. Preview details of flight numbers, tracking events. Accelerate fast-forwarding and rewinding on QuickTime and iMovie using variable pressure.3D Touch on iPhones bring the following features, but are not limited to: Quick Actions allow users to access shortcuts, many right from the Home screen. Peek and Pop take actions on it, without having to open it. Pressing further deeper, the user can pop into the content in the app. Pressure Sensitivity allows creative apps to take advantage of the pressure-sensing display, for varying line thickness or giving a brush a changing style.
Holding down to preview Live Photos, enable multitasking, etc. Force Touch on Apple Watch brings some significant features, such as: See alternate watch faces from the current watch face. Change emoji colours: yellow smiley face to red, red heart to blue or purple. Get the analog, digital and hybrid modes on the stopwatch app. Toggle between day, list, or today view on the calendar app. See weather, rain predictions and temperature on the weather app. Apple allows application developers to integrate the force touch functionality into their applications; the APIs facilitate the following interactions: Apps respond to a press of stronger pressure, providing a shortcut as an additional functionality. Pressure sensitivity for drawing and creative apps to make lines thicker or give brushes a changing style. Accelerators allow to give users greater control. Say, fast-forward in media playback can speed up as pressure increases. Drag and drop to allow users react to a force gesture amidst the hold, to open a new target for the drop.
On iPhones, the capacitive sensors are directly integrated into the display. When a press is detected, these capacitive sensors measure microscopic changes in the distance between the back light and the cover glass. On the Apple Watch, a series of electrodes line the curvature of the screen; when a press is detected, these electrodes determine. The trackpads deploy a similar mechanism, although sensory information is determined by a series of four sensors that align with the corners of the trackpad; the detected pressure is relayed to the Taptic Engine, Apple's haptic feedback engine. The electromagnetic linear actuator within the Taptic engine is capable of reaching its peak output in just one cycle and producing vibrations that last 10 milliseconds. Unlike typical motors, the linear actuator oscillates back and forth; the Taptic Engine produces immediate haptic feedback, without the need to offset the balance of mass. The haptic feedback produced may be accompanied by an audible tone; this helps in gaining the user’s attention in order to convey an important information such as a success, warning or a failure.
Each haptic type is defined for a specific purpose. The touch sensitive interface could either be a touch screen. Multiple actuators are mechanically connected to the back of the input surface; the actuators are distributed along the surface, each at a separate contact location, to provide localised haptic feedback to the user. Piezoelectricity is used by actuators to convert the physically-induced vibration or the input displacement into an electrical signal. A controller is configured to activate the actuators around the point of contact; the actuators at the point of contact induces waveforms to produce vibration. However, since there are multiple actuators around the point of contact, the vibration can propagate to other locations, thus limiting the localisation effect; this is why a second set of actuators induce waveforms to suppress the vibratory crosstalk produced by the first set of actuators. This maybe achieved by producing waveforms that provides interference in terms of amplitude, frequency or both.
The masking waveforms could alter the vibration at contact locations by providing a user experience other than just suppressing the propagated vibrations. Following are the devices on which Force Touch or 3D Touch technology is featured: MacBook, MacBook Pro from early 2015 onwards, MacBook Air 2018 iPhone 6s, iPhone 6s Plus, iPhone 7, iPhone 7 Plus, iPhone 8, iPhone 8 Plus, iPhone X, iPhone Xs, iPhone Xs Max Appl