MacOS is a series of graphical operating systems developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac family of computers. Within the market of desktop and home computers, by web usage, it is the second most used desktop OS, after Microsoft Windows.macOS is the second major series of Macintosh operating systems. The first is colloquially called the "classic" Mac OS, introduced in 1984, the final release of, Mac OS 9 in 1999; the first desktop version, Mac OS X 10.0, was released in March 2001, with its first update, 10.1, arriving that year. After this, Apple began naming its releases after big cats, which lasted until OS X 10.8 Mountain Lion. Since OS X 10.9 Mavericks, releases have been named after locations in California. Apple shortened the name to "OS X" in 2012 and changed it to "macOS" in 2016, adopting the nomenclature that they were using for their other operating systems, iOS, watchOS, tvOS; the latest version is macOS Mojave, publicly released in September 2018.
Between 1999 and 2009, Apple sold. The initial version, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was released in 1999 with a user interface similar to Mac OS 8.5. After this, new versions were introduced concurrently with the desktop version of Mac OS X. Beginning with Mac OS X 10.7 Lion, the server functions were made available as a separate package on the Mac App Store.macOS is based on technologies developed between 1985 and 1997 at NeXT, a company that Apple co-founder Steve Jobs created after leaving the company. The "X" in Mac OS X and OS X is pronounced as such; the X was a prominent part of the operating system's brand identity and marketing in its early years, but receded in prominence since the release of Snow Leopard in 2009. UNIX 03 certification was achieved for the Intel version of Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard and all releases from Mac OS X 10.6 Snow Leopard up to the current version have UNIX 03 certification. MacOS shares its Unix-based core, named Darwin, many of its frameworks with iOS, tvOS and watchOS.
A modified version of Mac OS X 10.4 Tiger was used for the first-generation Apple TV. Releases of Mac OS X from 1999 to 2005 ran on the PowerPC-based Macs of that period. After Apple announced that they were switching to Intel CPUs from 2006 onwards, versions were released for 32-bit and 64-bit Intel-based Macs. Versions from Mac OS X 10.7 Lion run on 64-bit Intel CPUs, in contrast to the ARM architecture used on iOS and watchOS devices, do not support PowerPC applications. The heritage of what would become macOS had originated at NeXT, a company founded by Steve Jobs following his departure from Apple in 1985. There, the Unix-like NeXTSTEP operating system was developed, launched in 1989; the kernel of NeXTSTEP is based upon the Mach kernel, developed at Carnegie Mellon University, with additional kernel layers and low-level user space code derived from parts of BSD. Its graphical user interface was built on top of an object-oriented GUI toolkit using the Objective-C programming language. Throughout the early 1990s, Apple had tried to create a "next-generation" OS to succeed its classic Mac OS through the Taligent and Gershwin projects, but all of them were abandoned.
This led Apple to purchase NeXT in 1996, allowing NeXTSTEP called OPENSTEP, to serve as the basis for Apple's next generation operating system. This purchase led to Steve Jobs returning to Apple as an interim, the permanent CEO, shepherding the transformation of the programmer-friendly OPENSTEP into a system that would be adopted by Apple's primary market of home users and creative professionals; the project was first code named "Rhapsody" and officially named Mac OS X. Mac OS X was presented as the tenth major version of Apple's operating system for Macintosh computers. Previous Macintosh operating systems were named using Arabic numerals, as with Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9; the letter "X" in Mac OS X's name refers to a Roman numeral. It is therefore pronounced "ten" in this context. However, it is commonly pronounced like the letter "X"; the first version of Mac OS X, Mac OS X Server 1.0, was a transitional product, featuring an interface resembling the classic Mac OS, though it was not compatible with software designed for the older system.
Consumer releases of Mac OS X included more backward compatibility. Mac OS applications could be rewritten to run natively via the Carbon API; the consumer version of Mac OS X was launched in 2001 with Mac OS X 10.0. Reviews were variable, with extensive praise for its sophisticated, glossy Aqua interface but criticizing it for sluggish performance. With Apple's popularity at a low, the makers of several classic Mac applications such as FrameMaker and PageMaker declined to develop new versions of their software for Mac OS X. Ars Technica columnist John Siracusa, who reviewed every major OS X release up to 10.10, described the early releases in retrospect as'dog-slow, feature poor' and Aqua as'unbearably slow and a huge resource hog'. Apple developed several new releases of Mac OS X. Siracusa's review of version 10.3, noted "It's strange to have gone from years of uncertainty and vaporware to a steady annual supply of major new operating system releases." Version 10.4, Tiger shocked executives at Microsoft by offering a number of features, such as fast file s
The iPhone 5C is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the sixth generation of the iPhone; the device was part of the iPhone series and was unveiled on September 10, 2013, released on September 20, 2013, along with its higher-end counterpart, the iPhone 5S. The iPhone 5C is a variant of the iPhone 5, with similar hardware specifications but a hard-coated polycarbonate shell instead of the aluminium of the original iPhone 5; the iPhone 5C was available in several color options, shipped with iOS 7. The iPhone 5C was sold at a discounted price point in comparison to the 5S: unlike Apple's usual practice of lowering the price of the previous model upon release of a new version, the iPhone 5 was explicitly discontinued and replaced by the 5C. On September 9, 2014, the 16 and 32 GB iPhone 5C models were replaced by the 8 GB model with the announcement of the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. On September 9, 2015, the 8 GB version was discontinued; the iPhone 5C was redesigned using polycarbonate housing, strengthened by a steel band.
However, due to the material of design changes, the phone weighs 132 grams, 20 grams heavier than both the 5 and the 5S, but still lighter than older iPhone models. The design of the iPhone 5C is considerably thicker but similar to the design of the iPod Touch models, available in a variety of colors, but in a different coating finish. Other minor changes include the design of the mute/ringer switch; this iPhone received positive reviews for its design claiming that it was the most durable iPhone ever. Unlike subsequent models excluding the iPhone XR, the iPhone 5C was offered in several colours; the iPhone 5C features Apple's mobile operating system. The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation using multi-touch gestures. Interlock control elements consist of sliders and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface.
Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device or rotating it vertically. The iPhone 5C was supplied with iOS 7, released on September 20, 2013. Jony Ive, the designer of iOS 7's new elements, described the update as "bringing order to complexity", highlighting features such as refined typography, new icons, layering and gyroscope-driven parallaxing as some of the major changes to the design; the design of both iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks noticeably depart from skeuomorphic elements such as green felt in Game Center, wood in Newsstand, leather in Calendar, in favor of flatter graphic design. The phone can act as a hotspot, sharing its Internet connection over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or USB, accesses the App Store, an online application distribution platform for iOS developed and maintained by Apple; the service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with Xcode and the iOS SDK and were published through Apple.iOS 7 adds AirDrop, an ad-hoc Wi-Fi sharing platform.
Users can share files with the iPod Touch, iPad, or iPad Mini. The operating system adds Control Center, which gives iOS users access to used controls and apps. By swiping up from any screen–including the Lock screen–users can do such things as switch to Airplane mode, turn Wi-Fi on or off, adjust the display brightness and similar basic functions of the device, it includes a new integrated flashlight function to operate the reverse camera's flash LED as a flashlight. The iPhone 5C functions as a media player, includes Apple Maps and Passbook; the mapping application includes turn-by-turn navigation spoken directions, 3D views in some major cities and real-time traffic. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access a collage of album covers; the 5C includes an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge navigator. The application uses a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Web services.
Apple claims that the software adapts to the user's individual preferences over time and personalizes results. IOS 7 adds new male and female voices, new system setting functionalities, a redesign to match the rest of the operating system, integration with Twitter, Wikipedia and Photos; the highest operating system it supports is iOS 10 in 2016. IOS 11 will not support this iPhone, as the phone ceased production in September 2015 and it is a 32-bit iPhone. Facebook comes integrated through Apple's native apps. Facebook features can be directly accessed from within native apps such as Calendar which can sync Facebook events, or use Facebook's like button from within the Apple App Store. ITunes Radio, an internet radio service, is included on the iPhone 5C, it is a free, ad-supported service available to all iTunes users, featuring Siri integration on iOS. Users are able to skip tracks, customize stations, purchase the station's songs from the iTunes Store. Users can search through their history of previous songs.
The iPhone 5C uses most of the same hardware as the iPhone 5, with some minor changes. The iPhone 5C uses a system on chip, called the Apple A6, the same chip that powered the iPhone 5; the SoC comprises a 1.3 GHz dual-core processor, 1 GB of RAM and a tri-core PowerVR
The iPhone SE is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is part of the ninth generation of the iPhone alongside the iPhone 6S, it was announced on March 21, 2016 at the Town Hall auditorium in the Apple Campus by Apple executive Greg Joswiak, with pre-orders beginning on March 24, official release on March 31, 2016. It was re-released a year on March 24, 2017 with larger storage capacities; the iPhone SE shares the same physical design and dimensions as the iPhone 5S, but has upgraded internal hardware, including the newer Apple A9 system-on-chip, greater battery capacity, a 12-megapixel rear camera that can record 4K video. Along with the iPhone 6S and the iPhone X, the iPhone SE was discontinued by Apple on September 12, 2018. No affordable successor to the iPhone SE was announced, Business Insider stated that "Apple made a big mistake by removing its smallest and most affordable iPhone from its lineup", suggesting that the company was disregarding a significant number of customers, worried over the loss of the smaller design.
This was affirmed by Computerworld, who claimed that "the harsh reality is that across some of Apple’s biggest markets, wage growth has stagnated, people are feeling the pinch", further stating that there will always exist consumers in the mid-tier smartphone markets. In relation with the discontinuation of the iPhone SE, Quartz mentioned that women and other smartphone users with smaller hands have reported "pain from holding and swiping on phones, a review of research on the ergonomics of handheld devices concludes that bigger products, like large phones and tablets result in overextension of the thumb and wrist", hinting to repetitive strain injury and that oversized iPhones and smartphones in general can be physically unusable for several users; the technology website Gizmodo shared the same concern, hoping that "there will be a return to smaller phones", expressed a desire "to hold one's phone in a single hand, be able to use it fully." The previous major redesign of the iPhone, the 4.7-inch iPhone 6 and the 5.5-inch iPhone 6 Plus, resulted in larger screen sizes.
However, a significant number of customers still preferred the smaller 4-inch screen size of the iPhone 5 and the iPhone 5S. Apple stated in the "Let us loop you in" event on March 21, 2016 that they sold over 30 million 4-inch iPhones in 2015, further explaining that some people love smaller compact phones. In the event they presented the iPhone SE, describing it as "the most powerful 4-inch phone ever."With a total mass of 113 grams, the iPhone SE is one of the lightest iPhone models released, only surpassed by the iPhone 5S and the iPhone 5. The iPhone SE, iPhone 6S, iPhone 6S Plus were the last iPhone models to feature a standard 3.5 mm stereo headphone jack. On January 19, 2019 the iPhone SE was back on sale as a clearance item for $249. However, by January 20, stock was sold out. On February 20, TechRadar announced that the iPhone SE once again was on sale as a clearance item with a $100 price reduction; the price for the 32 GB version was $249, while the price for the 128 GB version was $299.
The iPhones were unlocked, with T-Mobile, or Verizon as optional SIM card carriers. It was available in all original colors, including Space Gray, Silver and Rose Gold. On March 25, Gizmodo reported that the iPhone SE was back in Apple's clearance shop, added that "it’s the last of Apple’s stock that the company has put on clearance." The exterior design of the iPhone SE is nearly identical to that of the iPhone 5 and the iPhone 5S, with the exception of matte-chamfered edges and an inset stainless steel rear Apple logo. Cases designed to fit the 5 and the 5S will fit an iPhone SE; the iPhone SE was available in the colors Space Gray, Silver and Rose Gold. The iPhone SE incorporates the Apple A9 system-on-chip with an M9 motion coprocessor and supports near field communication for Apple Pay, it was released with 16 GB or 64 GB of internal storage. It features a 12 megapixel rear-facing camera with the ability to record 4K video at 30 frames per second. Unlike the iPhone 6S and 6S Plus, the SE does not include 3D Touch, nor the updated faster second-generation Touch ID sensor from the 6S and 6S Plus, or its barometer.
On March 21, 2017 Apple announced that it would double the storage for these models at the same launch prices. The upgraded models were released on 128 GB of internal storage; the iPhone SE shipped with iOS 9.3, supporting iPhone 6- and 6S-exclusive features such as Apple Pay, Live Photos, Retina Flash, always-on Siri voice activation. The SE is compatible with iOS 12. CNET was positive, considering the iPhone SE to be a "great choice at the small end, with no compromises". CNET lauded Apple for accomplishing the task of adapting the 6S's hardware to three different form factors. In a article, CNET summarized the iPhone SE to be “the smaller, more pocketable member of the iPhone family, it was Apple's compact, budget option, its 4-inch screen and tinier overall size were total throwback stuff. Consumers loved the battery life and that it still had a headphone jack.”The Verge considered the iPhone SE to be "a much-improved, well-designed, small phone with great battery life" and a "great upgrade" for existing owners of the 4S or 5S models, noting the device's familiar form factor, high performance, improved battery life.
Giving the device an 8.7 out of 10, Goode argued that "the iPhone SE is not a tiny little engine
The iPhone 4S is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the fifth generation of the iPhone, succeeding the iPhone 4 and preceding the iPhone 5. Announced on October 4, 2011 at Apple's Cupertino campus, its media coverage was accompanied by news of the death of former Apple CEO and co-founder Steve Jobs on the following day. Orders could be placed on October 7, 2011 and mainstream availability in retail stores began on October 14, 2011 in the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, France and Japan. Sales peaked over its predecessor with more than a million sales in the first twenty-four hours of order availability and more than four million sales in the first four days of retail availability. Further worldwide rollout, including 22 additional countries on October 28, came over the next several months; this iPhone was named "4S" where "S" stood for Siri an iPhone 4S-exclusive intelligent personal assistant, included in future generations of mobile Apple products. Retaining most of the external design of the iPhone 4, the 4S hosted major internal upgrades, including an upgrade to the Apple A5 chipset, an 8-megapixel camera with 1080p video recording.
It debuted with iOS 5, the fifth major version of iOS, Apple's mobile operating system, that introduced features including iCloud, iMessage, Notification Center and Twitter integration. Reception to the iPhone 4S was favorable. Reviewers noted Siri, the new camera, processing speeds as significant advantages over the prior model, it was succeeded by the iPhone 5 as Apple's flagship phone on September 12, 2012. The iPhone 4S remained on sale; the 4S was discontinued on September 9, 2014 following the announcement of the iPhone 6, although production did continue for developing markets until February 17, 2016. During the course of its lifetime, the iPhone 4S was the best-selling iPhone produced and it is the first iPhone to support five major versions of iOS: iOS 5, iOS 6, iOS 7, iOS 8, iOS 9; the 4S is the last iPhone to have the original 30 pin connector as the succeeding iPhone 5 replaced it with the all digital Lightning Connector. As early as May 2011, some leaks had a accurate description of the iPhone 4S including the name "iPhone 4S", the Apple A5 chip, HSDPA, new camera, Sprint carrying.
The iPhone 4S was unveiled at Apple's "Let's Talk iPhone" event on October 4, 2011, on the Apple Campus in Cupertino, California. The keynote was the first, it was Cook's first launch without Apple co-founder Steve Jobs, whose health was deteriorating, he died the day after the announcement of the iPhone 4S. Tim Carmody of Wired praised Cook for focusing on company achievements, calling him a "global business thinker" and a "taskmaster". At the "Let's Talk iPhone" event held by Apple on October 4, 2011, Mike Capps demonstrated Epic Games' Infinity Blade II, the sequel to Infinity Blade, on an iPhone 4S. Capps boasted that the game uses Epic Games' Unreal Engine 3 and features the same graphic techniques used in the Xbox 360 game Gears of War 3. Speculation about Apple's next generation phone, including various specifications and a predicted name "iPhone 5", had been widespread in the time preceding its debut. After the iPhone 4S was announced, it was considered by some media to be a disappointment, due to the expected release of an iPhone 5.
There were no external differences between the iPhone 4 CDMA model and the iPhone 4S, with the exception of a SIM card slot on the iPhone 4S. All changes were internal. On September 10, 2013, the iPhone 4S name was re-stylised as iPhone 4s, using a lower case's' to reflect the names of the newly announced iPhone 5s and iPhone 5c; this was unusual for Apple as an upper case'S' had been used since the introduction of the iPhone 3GS in 2009. On September 9, 2014, the iPhone 4S was discontinued following the reveal of the iPhone 6 and the iPhone 6 Plus. However, 4S production did continue for developing markets until February 17, 2016. On June 13, 2016, following the release of iOS 10, Apple dropped support on the iPhone 4S, making iOS 9.3.5 the last version available for the device. The iPhone 4S runs Apple's mobile operating system; the user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation, using multi-touch gestures. Interface control elements consist of sliders and buttons; the response to user input provides a fluid interface.
Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface. Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device or rotating it in three dimensions; the iPhone 4S was first shipped with iOS 5, released on October 12, 2011, 2 days before the release of the device. The 4S uses iOS 5.1.1, released on May 7, 2012. As of September 2015, the device can be updated to iOS 9, it can act as a hotspot, sharing its internet connection over WiFi, Bluetooth, or USB, accesses the App Store, a digital application distribution platform for iOS developed and maintained by Apple. The service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with Xcode and t
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California. Three former PayPal employees—Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim—created the service in February 2005. Google bought the site in November 2006 for US$1.65 billion. YouTube allows users to upload, rate, add to playlists, comment on videos, subscribe to other users, it offers a wide variety of corporate media videos. Available content includes video clips, TV show clips, music videos and documentary films, audio recordings, movie trailers, live streams, other content such as video blogging, short original videos, educational videos. Most of the content on YouTube is uploaded by individuals, but media corporations including CBS, the BBC, Hulu offer some of their material via YouTube as part of the YouTube partnership program. Unregistered users can only watch videos on the site, while registered users are permitted to upload an unlimited number of videos and add comments to videos. Videos deemed inappropriate are available only to registered users affirming themselves to be at least 18 years old.
YouTube and its creators earn advertising revenue from Google AdSense, a program which targets ads according to site content and audience. The vast majority of its videos are free to view, but there are exceptions, including subscription-based premium channels, film rentals, as well as YouTube Music and YouTube Premium, subscription services offering premium and ad-free music streaming, ad-free access to all content, including exclusive content commissioned from notable personalities; as of February 2017, there were more than 400 hours of content uploaded to YouTube each minute, one billion hours of content being watched on YouTube every day. As of August 2018, the website is ranked as the second-most popular site in the world, according to Alexa Internet. YouTube has faced criticism over aspects of its operations, including its handling of copyrighted content contained within uploaded videos, its recommendation algorithms perpetuating videos that promote conspiracy theories and falsehoods, hosting videos ostensibly targeting children but containing violent and/or sexually suggestive content involving popular characters, videos of minors attracting pedophilic activities in their comment sections, fluctuating policies on the types of content, eligible to be monetized with advertising.
YouTube was founded by Chad Hurley, Steve Chen, Jawed Karim, who were all early employees of PayPal. Hurley had studied design at Indiana University of Pennsylvania, Chen and Karim studied computer science together at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign. According to a story, repeated in the media and Chen developed the idea for YouTube during the early months of 2005, after they had experienced difficulty sharing videos, shot at a dinner party at Chen's apartment in San Francisco. Karim did not attend the party and denied that it had occurred, but Chen commented that the idea that YouTube was founded after a dinner party "was very strengthened by marketing ideas around creating a story, digestible". Karim said the inspiration for YouTube first came from Janet Jackson's role in the 2004 Super Bowl incident, when her breast was exposed during her performance, from the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Karim could not find video clips of either event online, which led to the idea of a video sharing site.
Hurley and Chen said that the original idea for YouTube was a video version of an online dating service, had been influenced by the website Hot or Not. Difficulty in finding enough dating videos led to a change of plans, with the site's founders deciding to accept uploads of any type of video. YouTube began as a venture capital-funded technology startup from an $11.5 million investment by Sequoia Capital and an $8 million investment from Artis Capital Management between November 2005 and April 2006. YouTube's early headquarters were situated above a pizzeria and Japanese restaurant in San Mateo, California; the domain name www.youtube.com was activated on February 14, 2005, the website was developed over the subsequent months. The first YouTube video, titled Me at the zoo, shows co-founder Jawed Karim at the San Diego Zoo; the video was uploaded on April 23, 2005, can still be viewed on the site. YouTube offered the public a beta test of the site in May 2005; the first video to reach one million views was a Nike advertisement featuring Ronaldinho in November 2005.
Following a $3.5 million investment from Sequoia Capital in November, the site launched on December 15, 2005, by which time the site was receiving 8 million views a day. The site grew and, in July 2006, the company announced that more than 65,000 new videos were being uploaded every day, that the site was receiving 100 million video views per day. According to data published by market research company comScore, YouTube is the dominant provider of online video in the United States, with a market share of around 43% and more than 14 billion views of videos in May 2010. In May 2011, 48 hours of new videos were uploaded to the site every minute, which increased to 60 hours every minute in January 2012, 100 hours every minute in May 2013, 300 hours every minute in November 2014, 400 hours every minute in February 2017; as of January 2012, the site had 800 million unique users a month. It is estimated that in 2007 YouTube consumed as much bandwidth as the entire Internet in 2000. According to third-party web analytics providers and SimilarWeb, YouTube is the second-most visited website in the world, as of December 2016.
A camera is an optical instrument to capture still images or to record moving images, which are stored in a physical medium such as in a digital system or on photographic film. A camera consists of a lens which focuses light from the scene, a camera body which holds the image capture mechanism; the still image camera is the main instrument in the art of photography and captured images may be reproduced as a part of the process of photography, digital imaging, photographic printing. The similar artistic fields in the moving image camera domain are film and cinematography; the word camera comes from camera obscura, which means "dark chamber" and is the Latin name of the original device for projecting an image of external reality onto a flat surface. The modern photographic camera evolved from the camera obscura; the functioning of the camera is similar to the functioning of the human eye. The first permanent photograph was made in 1825 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. A camera works with the light of the visible spectrum or with other portions of the electromagnetic spectrum.
A still camera is an optical device which creates a single image of an object or scene and records it on an electronic sensor or photographic film. All cameras use the same basic design: light enters an enclosed box through a converging/convex lens and an image is recorded on a light-sensitive medium. A shutter mechanism controls the length of time. Most photographic cameras have functions that allow a person to view the scene to be recorded, allow for a desired part of the scene to be in focus, to control the exposure so that it is not too bright or too dim. On most digital cameras a display a liquid crystal display, permits the user to view the scene to be recorded and settings such as ISO speed and shutter speed. A movie camera or a video camera operates to a still camera, except it records a series of static images in rapid succession at a rate of 24 frames per second; when the images are combined and displayed in order, the illusion of motion is achieved. Traditional cameras capture light onto photographic film.
Video and digital cameras use an electronic image sensor a charge coupled device or a CMOS sensor to capture images which can be transferred or stored in a memory card or other storage inside the camera for playback or processing. Cameras that capture many images in sequence are known as movie cameras or as ciné cameras in Europe; however these categories overlap as still cameras are used to capture moving images in special effects work and many modern cameras can switch between still and motion recording modes. A wide range of film and plate formats have been used by cameras. In the early history plate sizes were specific for the make and model of camera although there developed some standardisation for the more popular cameras; the introduction of roll film drove the standardization process still further so that by the 1950s only a few standard roll films were in use. These included 120 film providing 8, 12 or 16 exposures, 220 film providing 16 or 24 exposures, 127 film providing 8 or 12 exposures and 135 providing 12, 20 or 36 exposures – or up to 72 exposures in the half-frame format or in bulk cassettes for the Leica Camera range.
For cine cameras, film 35 mm wide and perforated with sprocket holes was established as the standard format in the 1890s. It was used for nearly all film-based professional motion picture production. For amateur use, several smaller and therefore less expensive formats were introduced. 17.5 mm film, created by splitting 35 mm film, was one early amateur format, but 9.5 mm film, introduced in Europe in 1922, 16 mm film, introduced in the US in 1923, soon became the standards for "home movies" in their respective hemispheres. In 1932, the more economical 8 mm format was created by doubling the number of perforations in 16 mm film splitting it after exposure and processing; the Super 8 format, still 8 mm wide but with smaller perforations to make room for larger film frames, was introduced in 1965. Traditionally used to "tell the camera" the film speed of the selected film on film cameras, film speed numbers are employed on modern digital cameras as an indication of the system's gain from light to numerical output and to control the automatic exposure system.
Film speed is measured via the ISO system. The higher the film speed number the greater the film sensitivity to light, whereas with a lower number, the film is less sensitive to light. On digital cameras, electronic compensation for the color temperature associated with a given set of lighting conditions, ensuring that white light is registered as such on the imaging chip and therefore that the colors in the frame will appear natural. On mechanical, film-based cameras, this function is served by the operator's choice of film stock or with color correction filters. In addition to using white balance to register natural coloration of the image, photographers may employ white balance to aesthetic end, for example, white balancing to a blue object in order to obtain a warm color temperature; the lens of a camera brings it to a focus on the sensor. The design and manufacture of the lens is critical to the quality of the photograph being taken; the technological revolution in camera design in the 19th century revolutionized optical glass manufacture and lens design with great benefits for modern lens manufacture in a wide range of optical instruments from reading glasses to microscopes.
Pioneers included Leitz. Camera lenses are
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c