Apple Books is an e-book reading and store application by Apple Inc. for its iOS and macOS operating systems and devices. It was announced, under the name iBooks, in conjunction with the iPad on January 27, 2010, was released for the iPhone and iPod Touch in mid-2010, as part of the iOS 4 update. IBooks was not pre-loaded onto iOS devices, but users could install it free of charge from the iTunes App Store. With the release of iOS 8, it became an integrated app. On June 10, 2013, at the Apple Worldwide Developers Conference, Craig Federighi announced that iBooks would be provided with OS X Mavericks in fall 2013. Prior to iOS 12 and macOS Mojave, the application was named iBooks, it receives EPUB content from the iBooks Store, but users can add their own EPUB and PDF files via data synchronization with iTunes. Additionally, the files can be downloaded to iBooks through Apple Mail, it is capable of displaying e-books that incorporate multimedia. According to product information as of March 2010, iBooks will be able to "read the contents of any page " using VoiceOver.
On January 19, 2012 at an education-focused special event in New York City, Apple announced the free release of iBooks 2, which can operate in landscape mode and allows for interactive reading. In addition, a new application, iBooks Author, was announced for the Mac App Store, allowing anyone to create interactive textbooks for reading in iBooks; the iBooks Author Conference, the annual gathering of digital content creators around Apple's iBooks Author, has convened since 2015.iBooks was renamed to Apple Books alongside the release of iOS 12 and macOS Mojave in September 2018. It features a new variation of the San Francisco typeface known as "SF Serif." IBooks was announced alongside the iPad at a press conference in January 2010. The store itself, was released in America three days before the iPad with the introduction of iTunes 9.1. This was to prevent too much traffic on Apple's servers, as they have been overloaded with previous releases of the iPhone. On the day of its launch, on March 31, 2010, the iBooks Store collection comprised some 60,000 titles.
On April 8, 2010, Apple announced that iBooks would be updated to support the iPhone and iPod Touch with iOS 4. As a result, iBooks was not supported on iPod Touches. On June 8, 2010 at the WWDC Keynote it was announced that iBooks would be updated that month to read PDF files as well as have the ability to annotate both PDFs and eBooks; as of July 1, Apple expanded iBooks availability to Canada. Upon its release for older devices running iOS 4, such as the iPhone 3GS and iPod Touch, iBooks received criticism for its slow performance. However, a July 19 update from Apple offered several improvements. On September 27, 2011, Apple expanded the premium store to the Republic of Ireland. On January 19, 2012, Apple announced the release of the iBooks 2 app, allowing users to purchase and download textbooks to the iPad; the new app will support digital textbooks that can display interactive diagrams and video on the iPad. Apple released a free tool called iBooks Author; the software allows users to create these interactive textbooks themselves.
On October 23, 2012, Apple announced iBooks 3. On June 10, 2013, Apple announced iBooks for OS X Mavericks. Books are now available for purchase in the following countries. On November 15, 2013, Apple pushed version 3.2 of iBooks for iOS with a redesigned interface to match the "flat" style of iOS 7, which dropped support for iOS 6 and earlier versions. On the annual WWDC in 2014, Apple unveiled that iBooks will be a pre-installed app in the next version of the operating system, iOS 8, along with the Podcasts app. On September 17, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.0 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.0. This includes slight changes with the bookstore button, grouping of books by series in the bookshelf, Auto-night mode theme, as well as small changes to the underlying rendering engine. On October 20, 2014, Apple bundled version 4.1 of iBooks for iOS with iOS 8.1. On January 24, 2018, Apple renamed iBooks to Books in the iOS 11.3 beta. As well as in macOS 10.13.4 beta iBooks to Books on March 5, 2018. It was renamed back to iBooks in a next intermittent 10.13.4 macOS beta, showing some uncertainty about the marketing decision.
The supported e-book formats by iBooks are EPUB and PDF. As of version 2.0, iBooks supports a proprietary iBook format, generated with the iBooks Author tool. This format is based upon the EPUB format but depends upon custom widget code in the iBooks app to function; as of version 3, iBooks renders text written in 18 different languages. Users of the application are able to change the text size displayed. Available English fonts are Baskerville, Georgia, Times New Roman, Athelas, Iowan Old Style and Seravek. Users can adjust screen brightness from within the application. Words searched throughout the book. Definitions of words can be found upon clicking on the word and selecting'define' which will give the reader a brief description of what the word means and if there isn't a definition available, the reader can opt t
Facial recognition system
A facial recognition system is a technology capable of identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. There are multiple methods in which facial recognition systems work, but in general, they work by comparing selected facial features from given image with faces within a database, it is described as a Biometric Artificial Intelligence based application that can uniquely identify a person by analysing patterns based on the person's facial textures and shape. While a form of computer application, it has seen wider uses in recent times on mobile platforms and in other forms of technology, such as robotics, it is used as access control in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. Although the accuracy of facial recognition system as a biometric technology is lower than iris recognition and fingerprint recognition, it is adopted due to its contactless and non-invasive process, it has become popular as a commercial identification and marketing tool.
Other applications include advanced human-computer interaction, video surveillance, automatic indexing of images, video database, among others. Pioneers of automated face recognition include Woody Bledsoe, Helen Chan Wolf, Charles Bisson. During 1964 and 1965, along with Helen Chan and Charles Bisson, worked on using the computer to recognize human faces, he was proud of this work, but because the funding was provided by an unnamed intelligence agency that did not allow much publicity, little of the work was published. Based on the available references, it was revealed that the Bledsoe's initial approach involved the manual marketing of various landmarks on the face such as the eye centers, etc. and these were mathematically rotated by computer to compensate for pose variation. The distances between landmarks were automatically computed and compared between images to determine identity. Given a large database of images and a photograph, the problem was to select from the database a small set of records such that one of the image records matched the photograph.
The success of the method could be measured in terms of the ratio of the answer list to the number of records in the database. Bledsoe described the following difficulties: This project was labeled man-machine because the human extracted the coordinates of a set of features from the photographs, which were used by the computer for recognition. Using a graphics tablet, the operator would extract the coordinates of features such as the center of pupils, the inside corner of eyes, the outside corner of eyes, point of widows peak, so on. From these coordinates, a list of 20 distances, such as the width of mouth and width of eyes, pupil to pupil, were computed; these operators could process about 40 pictures an hour. When building the database, the name of the person in the photograph was associated with the list of computed distances and stored in the computer. In the recognition phase, the set of distances was compared with the corresponding distance for each photograph, yielding a distance between the photograph and the database record.
The closest records are returned. Because it is unlikely that any two pictures would match in head rotation, lean and scale, each set of distances is normalized to represent the face in a frontal orientation. To accomplish this normalization, the program first tries to determine the tilt, the lean, the rotation. Using these angles, the computer undoes the effect of these transformations on the computed distances. To compute these angles, the computer must know the three-dimensional geometry of the head; because the actual heads were unavailable, Bledsoe used a standard head derived from measurements on seven heads. After Bledsoe left PRI in 1966, this work was continued at the Stanford Research Institute by Peter Hart. In experiments performed on a database of over 2000 photographs, the computer outperformed humans when presented with the same recognition tasks. Peter Hart enthusiastically recalled the project with the exclamation, "It worked!" By about 1997, the system developed by Christoph von der Malsburg and graduate students of the University of Bochum in Germany and the University of Southern California in the United States outperformed most systems with those of Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the University of Maryland rated next.
The Bochum system was developed through funding by the United States Army Research Laboratory. The software was sold as ZN-Face and used by customers such as Deutsche Bank and operators of airports and other busy locations; the software was "robust enough to make identifications from less-than-perfect face views. It can often see through such impediments to identification as mustaches, changed hairstyles and glasses—even sunglasses". In 2006, the performance of the latest face recognition algorithms was evaluated in the Face Recognition Grand Challenge. High-resolution face images, 3-D face scans, iris images were used in the tests; the results indicated that the new algorithms are 10 times more accurate than the face recognition algorithms of 2002 and 100 times more accurate than those of 1995. Some of the algorithms were able to outperform human participants in recognizing faces and could uniquely identify identical twins. U. S. Government-sponsored evaluations and challenge problems have helped spur over two orders-of-magnitude in face-recognition system performance.
Since 1993, the error rate of automatic face-recognition systems has decreased by a factor of 272. The reduction applies
The iPhone 5C is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the sixth generation of the iPhone; the device was part of the iPhone series and was unveiled on September 10, 2013, released on September 20, 2013, along with its higher-end counterpart, the iPhone 5S. The iPhone 5C is a variant of the iPhone 5, with similar hardware specifications but a hard-coated polycarbonate shell instead of the aluminium of the original iPhone 5; the iPhone 5C was available in several color options, shipped with iOS 7. The iPhone 5C was sold at a discounted price point in comparison to the 5S: unlike Apple's usual practice of lowering the price of the previous model upon release of a new version, the iPhone 5 was explicitly discontinued and replaced by the 5C. On September 9, 2014, the 16 and 32 GB iPhone 5C models were replaced by the 8 GB model with the announcement of the iPhone 6 and iPhone 6 Plus. On September 9, 2015, the 8 GB version was discontinued; the iPhone 5C was redesigned using polycarbonate housing, strengthened by a steel band.
However, due to the material of design changes, the phone weighs 132 grams, 20 grams heavier than both the 5 and the 5S, but still lighter than older iPhone models. The design of the iPhone 5C is considerably thicker but similar to the design of the iPod Touch models, available in a variety of colors, but in a different coating finish. Other minor changes include the design of the mute/ringer switch; this iPhone received positive reviews for its design claiming that it was the most durable iPhone ever. Unlike subsequent models excluding the iPhone XR, the iPhone 5C was offered in several colours; the iPhone 5C features Apple's mobile operating system. The user interface of iOS is based on the concept of direct manipulation using multi-touch gestures. Interlock control elements consist of sliders and buttons. Interaction with the OS includes gestures such as swipe, tap and reverse pinch, all of which have specific definitions within the context of the iOS operating system and its multi-touch interface.
Internal accelerometers are used by some applications to respond to shaking the device or rotating it vertically. The iPhone 5C was supplied with iOS 7, released on September 20, 2013. Jony Ive, the designer of iOS 7's new elements, described the update as "bringing order to complexity", highlighting features such as refined typography, new icons, layering and gyroscope-driven parallaxing as some of the major changes to the design; the design of both iOS 7 and OS X Mavericks noticeably depart from skeuomorphic elements such as green felt in Game Center, wood in Newsstand, leather in Calendar, in favor of flatter graphic design. The phone can act as a hotspot, sharing its Internet connection over Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, or USB, accesses the App Store, an online application distribution platform for iOS developed and maintained by Apple; the service allows users to browse and download applications from the iTunes Store that were developed with Xcode and the iOS SDK and were published through Apple.iOS 7 adds AirDrop, an ad-hoc Wi-Fi sharing platform.
Users can share files with the iPod Touch, iPad, or iPad Mini. The operating system adds Control Center, which gives iOS users access to used controls and apps. By swiping up from any screen–including the Lock screen–users can do such things as switch to Airplane mode, turn Wi-Fi on or off, adjust the display brightness and similar basic functions of the device, it includes a new integrated flashlight function to operate the reverse camera's flash LED as a flashlight. The iPhone 5C functions as a media player, includes Apple Maps and Passbook; the mapping application includes turn-by-turn navigation spoken directions, 3D views in some major cities and real-time traffic. Users can rotate their device horizontally to landscape mode to access a collage of album covers; the 5C includes an intelligent personal assistant and knowledge navigator. The application uses a natural language user interface to answer questions, make recommendations, perform actions by delegating requests to a set of Web services.
Apple claims that the software adapts to the user's individual preferences over time and personalizes results. IOS 7 adds new male and female voices, new system setting functionalities, a redesign to match the rest of the operating system, integration with Twitter, Wikipedia and Photos; the highest operating system it supports is iOS 10 in 2016. IOS 11 will not support this iPhone, as the phone ceased production in September 2015 and it is a 32-bit iPhone. Facebook comes integrated through Apple's native apps. Facebook features can be directly accessed from within native apps such as Calendar which can sync Facebook events, or use Facebook's like button from within the Apple App Store. ITunes Radio, an internet radio service, is included on the iPhone 5C, it is a free, ad-supported service available to all iTunes users, featuring Siri integration on iOS. Users are able to skip tracks, customize stations, purchase the station's songs from the iTunes Store. Users can search through their history of previous songs.
The iPhone 5C uses most of the same hardware as the iPhone 5, with some minor changes. The iPhone 5C uses a system on chip, called the Apple A6, the same chip that powered the iPhone 5; the SoC comprises a 1.3 GHz dual-core processor, 1 GB of RAM and a tri-core PowerVR
The iPhone 5 is a smartphone, designed and marketed by Apple Inc. It is the sixth generation of the iPhone succeeding the iPhone 4S and preceding the iPhone 5S and iPhone 5C. Formally unveiled as part of a press event on September 12, 2012, it was released on September 21, 2012; the iPhone 5 is the first iPhone to be announced in September and, setting a trend for subsequent iPhone releases, the first iPhone to be developed under the guidance of Tim Cook and the last iPhone to be overseen by Steve Jobs. The iPhone 5 featured major design changes in comparison to its predecessor; these included an aluminum-based body, thinner and lighter than previous models, a taller screen with a nearly 16:9 aspect ratio, the Apple A6 system-on-chip, LTE support, Lightning, a new compact dock connector which replaced the 30-pin design used by previous iPhone models. This was the second Apple phone to include its new Sony-made 8 MP camera, first introduced on the iPhone 4S. Apple began taking pre-orders on September 14, 2012, over two million were received within 24 hours.
Initial demand for the iPhone 5 exceeded the supply available at launch on September 21, 2012, was described by Apple as "extraordinary", with pre-orders having sold twenty times faster than its predecessors. While reception to the iPhone 5 was positive and reviewers noted hardware issues, such as an unintended purple hue in photos taken, the phone's coating being prone to chipping. Reception was mixed over Apple's decision to switch to a different dock connector design, as the change affected iPhone 5's compatibility with accessories that were otherwise compatible with previous iterations of the line; the iPhone 5 was discontinued by Apple on September 10, 2013 with the announcement of its successors, the iPhone 5S and the iPhone 5C. The iPhone 5 has the second-shortest lifespan of any iPhone produced with only twelve months in production, breaking with Apple's standard practice of selling an existing iPhone model at a reduced price upon the release of a new model; this was broken by the iPhone X which only had ten-months in production from November 2017 to September 2018.
It was replaced as a midrange and an entry-level device by the iPhone 5C. The iPhone 5 supports iOS 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10; the iPhone 5 is the second iPhone to support five major versions of iOS after the iPhone 4S. Rumors about the iPhone 5 began shortly after the announcement of the iPhone 4S, though detailed leaks did not emerge until June 2012. On July 30, 2012, reports pinpointed the dates on which the iPhone 5 would be unveiled and released, along with some accurate predictions of its features. On September 4, 2012, Apple announced they would be hosting an event at the Yerba Buena Center for the Arts in San Francisco on September 12, 2012. A shadow of the numeral 5 was featured in the invitations sent to the media, suggesting that the next iPhone would be unveiled at the event. At the unveiling, Apple announced the iPhone 5 and introduced new iPod Nano and iPod Touch models, they stated that pre-orders would be accepted starting September 14, 2012. Over two million pre-orders were received within 24 hours.
Initial demand for the new phone exceeded the record set by its predecessor, the iPhone 4S, by selling over 5 million units in the first three days. On November 30, 2012, Apple added an unlocked version of the iPhone 5 to their online US store, with the 16 GB model starting at US$649; the iPhone 5 was discontinued by Apple on September 10, 2013 with the announcement of its successors, the iPhone 5s and the iPhone 5C. While the 5C shared the same internal hardware as the iPhone 5, the 5C used a lower-cost poly-carbonate plastic case in place of the original 5's aluminum form; the introduction of the 5C deviated from Apple's previous market strategy, where the previous iPhone model would remain in production, but sold at a lower price point below the new model. On April 28, 2014, Apple initiated an out of warranty recall program to replace any failing power buttons of iPhone 5 models which were manufactured prior to March 2013 at no cost. On August 23, 2014, Apple announced a program to replace batteries of iPhone 5 models that "may experience shorter battery life or need to be charged more frequently" which were sold between September 2012 and January 2013.
Following the release of the iPhone 5, Samsung announced that it was filing a lawsuit against Apple for infringing eight of its patents. The case was scheduled to begin in 2014. In a statement, Samsung said it had "little choice but to take the steps necessary to protect our innovations and intellectual property rights". Litigation between the two involving patent infringement has been ongoing and is being fought in several court cases around the world; the components and labor required to construct the most basic iPhone 5 are estimated to cost US$207, US$19 more than the cost of components for the corresponding iPhone 4S model. The LTE module in the iPhone 5 alone costs $34, $10 more than the cellular module in the iPhone 4S. Screens used in the iPhone 5 cost $44, $7 more than the screen of its predecessor. Mashable noted that the profit margin of selling each device is "huge" as the iPhone 5 retails for US$649. After the announcement of the device, a lack of supply was evident; this was due to a shortage of components such as the screen.
Reports emerged, stating that Sharp was unable to ship the screen before the debut of the iPhone 5, other manufacturers reported that it was difficult to keep up with demand. As a result, the number of pre-orders rose due to the uncertainty of stock at retail stores, the delivery dat
System on a chip
A system on a chip or system on chip is an integrated circuit that integrates all components of a computer or other electronic system. These components include a central processing unit, input/output ports and secondary storage – all on a single substrate or microchip, the size of a coin, it may contain digital, mixed-signal, radio frequency signal processing functions, depending on the application. As they are integrated on a single substrate, SoCs consume much less power and take up much less area than multi-chip designs with equivalent functionality; because of this, SoCs are common in the mobile computing and edge computing markets. Systems on chip are used in embedded systems and the Internet of Things. Systems on Chip are in contrast to the common traditional motherboard-based PC architecture, which separates components based on function and connects them through a central interfacing circuit board. Whereas a motherboard houses and connects detachable or replaceable components, SoCs integrate all of these components into a single integrated circuit, as if all these functions were built into the motherboard.
An SoC will integrate a CPU, graphics and memory interfaces, hard-disk and USB connectivity, random-access and read-only memories and secondary storage on a single circuit die, whereas a motherboard would connect these modules as discrete components or expansion cards. More integrated computer system designs improve performance and reduce power consumption as well as semiconductor die area needed for an equivalent design composed of discrete modules, at the cost of reduced replaceability of components. By definition, SoC designs are or nearly integrated across different component modules. For these reasons, there has been a general trend towards tighter integration of components in the computer hardware industry, in part due to the influence of SoCs and lessons learned from the mobile and embedded computing markets. Systems-on-Chip can be viewed as part of a larger trend towards embedded computing and hardware acceleration. An SoC integrates a microcontroller or microprocessor with advanced peripherals like graphics processing unit, Wi-Fi module, or one or more coprocessors.
Similar to how a microcontroller integrates a microprocessor with peripheral circuits and memory, an SoC can be seen as integrating a microcontroller with more advanced peripherals. For an overview of integrating system components, see system integration. In general, there are four distinguishable types of SoCs: SoCs built around a microcontroller, SoCs built around a microprocessor found in mobile phones. Systems-on-chip can be applied to any computing task. However, they are used in mobile computing such as tablets, smartphones and netbooks as well as embedded systems and in applications where microcontrollers would be used. Where only microcontrollers could be used, SoCs are rising to prominence in the embedded systems market. Tighter system integration offers better reliability and mean time between failure, SoCs offer more advanced functionality and computing power than microcontrollers. Applications include AI acceleration, embedded machine vision, data collection, vector processing and ambient intelligence.
Embedded systems-on-chip target the internet of things, industrial internet of things and edge computing markets. Mobile computing based SoCs bundle processors, memories, on-chip caches, wireless networking capabilities and digital camera hardware and firmware. With increasing memory sizes, high end SoCs will have no memory and flash storage and instead, the memory and flash memory will be placed right next to, or above, the SoC; some examples of mobile computing SoCs include: Apple: Apple-designed processors A12 Bionic and other A series, used in iPhones and iPads S series and W series, in Apple Watches. Apple T series, used in the 2016 and 2017 MacBook Pro touch bars and fingerprint scanners. Samsung Electronics: list based on ARM7 and ARM9 Exynos, used by Samsung's Galaxy series of smartphones Qualcomm: Snapdragon, used in many LG, Google Pixel, HTC and Samsung Galaxy smartphones. In 2018, Snapdragon SoCs are being used as the backbone of laptop computers running Windows 10, marketed as "Always Connected PCs".
As long ago as 1992, Acorn Computers produced the A3010, A3020 and A4000 range of personal computers with the ARM250 system-on-chip. It combined the original Acorn ARM2 processor with a memory controller, video controller, I/O controller. In previous Acorn ARM-powered computers, these were four discreet chips; the ARM7500 chip was their second-generation system-on-chip, based on the ARM700, VIDC20 and IOMD controllers, was licensed in embedded devices such as set-top-boxes, as well as Acorn personal computers. Systems-on-chip are being applied to mainstream personal computers as of 2018, they are applied to laptops and tablet PCs. Tablet and laptop manufacturers have learned lessons from embedded systems and smartphone markets about reduced power consumption, better performance and reliability from tighter integration of hardware and firmware modules, LTE and other wireless network communications integrated on chip. ARM based: Qualcomm S
A fingerprint in its narrow sense is an impression left by the friction ridges of a human finger. The recovery of fingerprints from a crime scene is an important method of forensic science. Fingerprints are deposited on suitable surfaces by the natural secretions of sweat from the eccrine glands that are present in epidermal ridges; these are sometimes referred to as "Chanced Impressions". In a wider use of the term, fingerprints are the traces of an impression from the friction ridges of any part of a human or other primate hand. A print from the sole of the foot can leave an impression of friction ridges. Deliberate impressions of fingerprints may be formed by ink or other substances transferred from the peaks of friction ridges on the skin to a smooth surface such as a fingerprint card. Fingerprint records contain impressions from the pad on the last joint of fingers and thumbs, although fingerprint cards typically record portions of lower joint areas of the fingers. Human fingerprints are detailed, nearly unique, difficult to alter, durable over the life of an individual, making them suitable as long-term markers of human identity.
They may be employed by police or other authorities to identify individuals who wish to conceal their identity, or to identify people who are incapacitated or deceased and thus unable to identify themselves, as in the aftermath of a natural disaster. Fingerprint analysis, in use since the early 20th century, has led to many crimes being solved; this means. In 2015, the identification of sex by testing the fingerprint biochemical content has been reported. A friction ridge is a raised portion of the epidermis on the digits, the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot, consisting of one or more connected ridge units of friction ridge skin; these are sometimes known as "epidermal ridges" which are caused by the underlying interface between the dermal papillae of the dermis and the interpapillary pegs of the epidermis. These epidermal ridges serve to amplify vibrations triggered, for example, when fingertips brush across an uneven surface, better transmitting the signals to sensory nerves involved in fine texture perception.
These ridges may assist in gripping rough surfaces and may improve surface contact in wet conditions. Before computerization, manual filing systems were used in large fingerprint repositories. Manual classification systems were based on the general ridge patterns of all fingers; this allowed the filing and retrieval of paper records in large collections based on friction ridge patterns alone. The most popular systems used the pattern class of each finger to form a key to assist lookup in a filing system. Classification systems include the Roscher system, the Juan Vucetich system, the Henry Classification System; the Roscher system was developed in Germany and implemented in both Germany and Japan, the Vucetich system was developed in Argentina and implemented throughout South America, the Henry system was developed in India and implemented in most English-speaking countries. In the Henry system of classification, there are three basic fingerprint patterns: loop and arch, which constitute 60–65%, 30–35%, 5% of all fingerprints respectively.
There are more complex classification systems that break down patterns further, into plain arches or tented arches, into loops that may be radial or ulnar, depending on the side of the hand toward which the tail points. Ulnar loops start on the pinky-side of the finger, the side closer to the lower arm bone. Radial loops start on the thumb-side of the finger, the side closer to the radius. Whorls may have sub-group classifications including plain whorls, accidental whorls, double loop whorls, peacock's eye and central pocket loop whorls. Other common fingerprint patterns include the tented arch, the plain arch, the central pocket loop; the system used by most experts, is similar to the Henry System of Classification. It consists of five fractions, in which R stands for right, L for left, i for index finger, m for middle finger, t for thumb, r for ring finger and p for little finger; the fractions are as follows: Ri/Rt + Rr/Rm + Lt/Rp + Lm/Li + Lp/Lr. The numbers assigned to each print are based on.
A whorl in the first fraction is given a 16, the second an 8, the third a 4, the fourth a 2, 0 to the last fraction. Arches and loops are assigned values of 0. Lastly, the numbers in the numerator and denominator are added up, using the scheme: /and a 1 is added to both top and bottom, to exclude any possibility of division by zero. For example, if the right ring finger and the left index finger have whorls, the fractions would look like this: 0/0 + 8/0 + 0/0 + 0/2 + 0/0 + 1/1, the calculation: / = 9/3 = 3. Using this system reduces the number of prints that the print in question needs to be compared to. For example, the above set of prints would only need to be compared to other sets of fingerprints with a value of 3. Fingerprint identification, known as dactyloscopy, or hand print identification, is the process of comparing two instances of friction ridge skin impressions, from human fingers or toes, or the palm of the hand or sole of the foot, to determine whether these impressions could have come from the same individual.
The flexibility of friction ridge skin means that no two finger or palm prints are exactly alike in every detail.
The iPod Nano is a portable media player designed and marketed by Apple Inc. The first generation model was introduced on September 7, 2005, as a replacement for the iPod Mini, using flash memory for storage; the iPod Nano went since its introduction. Apple discontinued the iPod Nano on July 27, 2017. Development work on the design of the iPod Nano started only nine months before its launch date; the Nano was launched in two colors with two available sizes: 2 GB and 4 GB. On February 7, 2006, Apple updated the lineup with the 1 GB model. Apple released some accessories, including armbands and silicone "tubes" designed to bring color to the Nano and protect it from scratches, as well as a combination lanyard-earphone accessory that hangs around the neck and avoids the problem of tangled earphone cords; the current models with Bluetooth headphones have a similar advantage. On September 7, 2005, Apple introduced the iPod Nano at a media event with Steve Jobs pointing to the small watch pocket in his jeans and asking, "Ever wonder what this pocket is for?"
Advertising emphasized the iPod Nano's small size: 40 millimetres wide, 90 millimetres long, 6.9 millimetres thick and weighing 42 grams. The stated battery life was up to 14 hours, while the screen was 176×132 pixels, 38 millimetres diagonal, displaying 65,536 colors. 1, 2, 4 GB capacities were available. On November 11, 2011, Apple announced a recall on this model of iPod nano; the recall was issued due to a battery overheat issue. This recall applied to iPod nanos sold between September 2005 and December 2006. On September 25, 2006, Apple updated the Nano line; the second-generation Nano featured scratch-resistant, anodized aluminum casing like the earlier Mini's design. However, unlike the second-generation Mini, the button labels were grey instead of matching the Nano's casing; the second-generation Nano featured a 40% brighter, "more vibrant" display, a battery life upgrade, storage sizes doubled to 2, 4, 8 GB models. The second generation introduced gapless playback of audio files, along with a new search option.
The 2 GB model was available in silver only. The 4 GB was available in green, silver, or pink, the 8 GB model was only available in black - red was added for 4 and 8 GB models. Apple claimed that the second generation iPod Nano's packaging was "32% lighter with 52% less volume than the first generation", thereby reducing environmental impact and shipping costs. On October 13, 2006, Apple announced a special edition iPod Nano. For each red iPod Nano sold in the United States, Apple donates US$10 to the Product Red initiative, while retaining the regular price. On November 3, 2006, Apple introduced a red 8 GB model, due to "outstanding customer demand", again retaining the same price point of the equivalent black model. Apple updated the Nano again on September 5, 2007; the third-generation Nano featured a 2-inch QVGA screen and a shorter, heavier design, with new colors. New features included browsing via Cover Flow, a new user interface, video playback, support for new iPod Games. Users had to repurchase games bought a month before the debut of the new iPod as they were not supported.
The Nano was announced in a 4 GB version coming in silver and an 8 GB version coming in silver, mint green and Product Red. The battery lasted for approx. 24 hours on audio playback and approx. 5 hours on video playback. On January 22, 2008, Apple released a pink version of the 8 GB iPod Nano. Combining elements from previous generations of the iPod Nano, the third-generation Nano had an aluminum front plate and a stainless steel back plate; the Nano sported a new Minimalistic hold switch, similar to the iPod Shuffle's power switch, moved to the bottom of the player. The 2-inch screen had the smallest dot pitch of any Apple product, having the same pixel count as the 2.5-inch display of the iPod Classic. On October 6, 2007, Apple released a firmware update via iTunes, said to improve Cover Flow and yield faster menu navigation; the update was released for the iPod Classic. On November 28, 2007, Apple released another firmware update via iTunes, which included unspecified bugfixes. January 15, 2008 saw the release of version 1.1, which added support for iTunes movie rentals, music song lyrics support and included more unspecified bugfixes.
Apple released update version 1.1.2 in May 2008 and version 1.1.3 in July 2008 with more bug fixes. At the Apple Let's Rock Event on September 9, 2008, the iPod Nano Fourth Generation was announced, it returned to the narrow form factor of the 1st and 2nd Generation model, while retaining and rotating the 51-millimetre screen from the 3rd gen model. It was thinner than the first and third generation Nano, measuring 90.7 millimetres tall by 38.7 millimetres wide by 6.2 millimetres thick, weighing 36.8 grams. It had a curved aluminum glass screen. Apple claimed the battery would last 24 hours of music playback, only 4 hours of video playback, compared to the 5 hours of the previous generation; the six previous colors were replaced by silver, purple, light blue, yellow, orange and pink, for a total of n