Akai is a consumer electronics brand name. The original company was founded in 1946 in Tokyo, Japan as Akai Electric Co. Ltd. developing electronics such as LED TVs and Air Conditioning systems. Akai was founded by Masukichi Akai and his son, Saburo Akai as Akai Electric Company Ltd. a Japanese manufacturer in 1929 or 1946. The company's business became troubling and it left the audio industry in 1991. At its peak in the late 1990s, Akai Holdings employed 100,000 workers and had annual sales of HK$40 billion; the company filed for insolvency in November 2000, owing creditors US$1.1B. It emerged that ownership of Akai Holdings had somehow passed in 1999 to Grande Holdings, a company founded by Akai's chairman James Ting; the liquidators claimed that Ting had stolen over US$800m from the company with the assistance of accountants Ernst & Young who had tampered with audit documents going back to 1994. Ting was imprisoned for false accounting in 2005, E&Y paid $200m to settle the negligence case out of court in September 2009.
In a separate lawsuit, a former E&Y partner, Christopher Ho, made a "substantial payment" to Akai creditors in his role as chairman of Grande Holdings. Akai's products included reel-to-reel audiotape recorders, audio cassette decks, microphones, turntables, video recorders and loudspeakers. Many Akai products were sold under the name Roberts in the US, as well as A&D in Japan and Transonic Strato in Western Europe. During the late 1960s, Akai adopted Tandberg's cross-field recording technologies to enhance high frequency recording and switched to the reliable Glass and crystal ferrite heads a few years later; the company's most popular products were the GX-630D, GX-635D, GX-747/GX-747DBX and GX-77 open-reel recorders, the three-head, closed-loop GX-F95, GX-90, GX-F91, GX-R99 cassette decks, the AM-U61, AM-U7 and AM-93 stereo amplifiers. Akai manufactured and badged most of its imported hi-fi products with the Tensai brand (named after the Swiss audio and electronics distributor Tensai International.
Tensai International was Akai's exclusive distributor for the Swiss and Western European markets until 1988. Akai limited its consumer hi-fi product line in the United States and Europe towards the end of the 20th century. Akai produced consumer video cassette recorders during the 1980s; the Akai VS-2 was the first VCR with an on-screen display named the Interactive Monitor System. By displaying the information directly on the television screen, this innovation eliminated the need for the user to be physically near the VCR to program recording, read the tape counter, or perform other common features. Within a few years, all competing manufacturers had adopted on-screen display technology in their own products. In 1984, a new division of the company was formed to focus on the manufacture and sale of electronic instruments, was called Akai Professional; the first product released by the new subsidiary was a 12 channel, 12 track recorder. This innovative device used a special VHS-like cartridge, was good for 10 minutes of continuous 12 track recording or 20 minutes at half speed.
One track was permanently dedicated to recording absolute time, another one for synchronization such as SMPTE or MTC. Each channel strip included semi-parametric equalizers; the unit had innovations like an electronic 2 bus system, a 12 stereo channel patch bay and auto punch in and out, among others. The unique transport design and noise reduction gave these units a recording quality rivaling that of more expensive 16 track machines using 1" tape; the MG-1212 was replaced by the MG-1214, which improved the transport mechanism and overall performance. Other early products included the Akai AX80 8-voice analog synthesizer in 1984, followed by AX60 and AX73 6-voice analog synthesizers ca.1986. The AX-60 borrowed many ideas from the Roland Juno series, but used voltage controlled analog oscillators as a sound source as opposed to Roland's more common digitally controlled analog oscillators, allowed the performer to "split" the keyboard; the AX-60 had the ability to interface with Akai's early samplers through a serial cable, using 12-bit samples as an additional oscillator.
The S612 12-bit digital sampler in 1985, was the first in a series of affordable samplers in 19-inch studio-rack format but in black color. It held only a single sample at a time, loaded into memory via a separate disk drive utilizing Quick Disk 2.8-inch floppy disks. The maximum sample time at the highest quality sampling rate was one second; the introduction of a "professional" range of digital samplers began with the 12-bit S900 in 1986, followed by the X7000 keyboard sampler in 1986, the S700 rack-mount version in 1987. Unlike the single-sample S612, they allowed the use of six active samples at once, had a built-in disk drive and could be extended with six individual outputs via cable and a flash memory extension which added another six samples to the memory for multisample playback; the S700/X7000 sampler series were light-grey colored, which didn't change throughout the whole "professional" range of Akai samplers. The 16-bit Akai S1000 followed in 1988; the latter was replaced by the S3000 series in 1992–199
Digital signal processor
A digital signal processor is a specialized microprocessor, with its architecture optimized for the operational needs of digital signal processing. The goal of DSP is to measure, filter or compress continuous real-world analog signals. Most general-purpose microprocessors can execute digital signal processing algorithms but may not be able to keep up with such processing continuously in real-time. Dedicated DSPs have better power efficiency, thus they are more suitable in portable devices such as mobile phones because of power consumption constraints. DSPs use special memory architectures that are able to fetch multiple data or instructions at the same time. Digital signal processing algorithms require a large number of mathematical operations to be performed and on a series of data samples. Signals are converted from analog to digital, manipulated digitally, converted back to analog form. Many DSP applications have constraints on latency. Most general-purpose microprocessors and operating systems can execute DSP algorithms but are not suitable for use in portable devices such as mobile phones and PDAs because of power efficiency constraints.
A specialized digital signal processor, will tend to provide a lower-cost solution, with better performance, lower latency, no requirements for specialised cooling or large batteries. Such performance improvements have led to the introduction of digital signal processing in commercial communications satellites where hundreds or thousands of analog filters, frequency converters and so on are required to receive and process the uplinked signals and ready them for downlinking, can be replaced with specialised DSPs with a significant benefits to the satellites' weight, power consumption, complexity/cost of construction and flexibility of operation. For example, the SES-12 and SES-14 satellites from operator SES, both intended for launch in 2017, were built by Airbus Defence and Space with 25% of capacity using DSP; the architecture of a digital signal processor is optimized for digital signal processing. Most support some of the features as an applications processor or microcontroller, since signal processing is the only task of a system.
Some useful features for optimizing DSP algorithms are outlined below. By the standards of general-purpose processors, DSP instruction sets are highly irregular. Both traditional and DSP-optimized instruction sets are able to compute any arbitrary operation but an operation that might require multiple ARM or x86 instructions to compute might require only one instruction in a DSP optimized instruction set. One implication for software architecture is that hand-optimized assembly-code routines are packaged into libraries for re-use, instead of relying on advanced compiler technologies to handle essential algorithms. With modern compiler optimizations hand-optimized assembly code is more efficient and many common algorithms involved in DSP calculations are hand-written in order to take full advantage of the architectural optimizations. Multiply–accumulates operations used extensively in all kinds of matrix operations convolution for filtering dot product polynomial evaluation Fundamental DSP algorithms depend on multiply–accumulate performance FIR filters Fast Fourier transform Instructions to increase parallelism: SIMD VLIW superscalar architecture Specialized instructions for modulo addressing in ring buffers and bit-reversed addressing mode for FFT cross-referencing Digital signal processors sometimes use time-stationary encoding to simplify hardware and increase coding efficiency.
Multiple arithmetic units may require memory architectures to support several accesses per instruction cycle Special loop controls, such as architectural support for executing a few instruction words in a tight loop without overhead for instruction fetches or exit testing Saturation arithmetic, in which operations that produce overflows will accumulate at the maximum values that the register can hold rather than wrapping around. Sometimes various sticky bits operation modes are available. Fixed-point arithmetic is used to speed up arithmetic processing Single-cycle operations to increase the benefits of pipelining Floating-point unit integrated directly into the datapath Pipelined architecture Highly parallel multiplier–accumulators Hardware-controlled looping, to reduce or eliminate the overhead required for looping operations In engineering, hardware architecture refers to the identification of a system's physical components and their interrelationships; this description called a hardware design model, allows hardware designers to understand how their components fit into a system architecture and provides to software component designers important information needed for software development and integration.
Clear definition of a hardware architecture allows the various traditional engineering disciplines to work more together to develop and manufacture new machines and components. Hardware is als
A DJ mixer is a type of audio mixing console used by Disc jockeys to control and manipulate multiple audio signals. Some DJs use the mixer to make seamless transitions from one song to another when they are playing records at a dance club. Hip hop DJs and turntablists use the DJ mixer to play record players like a musical instrument and create new sounds. DJs in the disco, house music, electronic dance music and other dance-oriented genres use the mixer to make smooth transitions between different sound recordings as they are playing; the sources are record turntables, compact cassettes, CDJs, or DJ software on a laptop. DJ mixers allow the DJ to use headphones to preview the next song before playing it to the audience. Most low- to mid-priced DJ mixers can only accommodate two turntables or CD players, but some mixers can accommodate up to four turntables or CD players. DJs and turntablists in hip hop music and nu metal use DJ mixers to create beats, loops and "scratching" sound effects. DJ mixers are much smaller than other mixing consoles used in sound reinforcement systems and sound recording.
Whereas a typical nightclub mixer will have 24 inputs and a professional recording studio's huge mixer may have 48, 72 or 96 inputs, a typical DJ mixer may have only two to four inputs. The key feature that differentiates a DJ mixer from other types of larger audio mixers is the ability to redirect the sounds of a non- playing source to headphones, so the DJ can find the desired part of a song or track and the presence of a crossfader, which allows an easier transition between two sources.. A crossfader has the same engineering design as fader, in that it is a sliding control, but unlike faders, which are vertical, crossfaders are horizontal. To understand the function of a crossfader, one can think of the crossfader in three key positions. For a DJ mixer that has two sound sources connected, such as two record turntables, when the crossfader is in the far left position, the mixer will output only turntable A's music; when the crossfader is in the far right position, the mixer will output only turntable B's music.
When the crossfader is at its midpoint, the mixer will output a blend of turntable A's music and turntable B's music. The other points along the crossfader's path produce different mixes of A and B. DJ mixers have phono preamplifiers to hook up turntables; the signal that comes directly out of a vinyl turntable is too weak to be amplified through a PA system. Before a turntable can be usable in a mix, it needs to be preamplified. DJ mixers are used to create DJ mixes, which are recorded and sold. DJ mixers have equalization controls for bass and treble of each channel; some 2010-era DJ mixers have onboard digital effects units such as echo or reverb. Some DJ mixers feature a built-in USB sound card to connect to a computer running DJ software without requiring a separate sound card. DJ mixers have a microphone input, so that a microphone can be plugged into the mixer, enabling the DJ to announce songs or act as a master of ceremonies for an event; some DJ mixers have a kill switch, which cuts out a channel, or, on some models cut out a frequency band.
The output from a DJ mixer is plugged into a sound reinforcement system or a PA system at a dance, nightclub or similar venue or event. The sound reinforcement system consists of power amplifiers which amplify the signal to the level that can drive speaker enclosures, which since the 1980s include both full-range speakers and subwoofers for the deep bass sounds. If the DJ is performing a mix for a radio station or television station, the output from the DJ mixer is plugged into the main audio console being used for the broadcast. If the DJ is performing a mix, being recorded by a recording studio, the output from the DJ mixer is plugged into the main audio console used for the recording, in turn plugged into the recording medium. In some cases, such as when a DJ is performing a set at a club for dancers, being broadcast over the radio or television system or recorded for a music video or other show, the output from the DJ mixer is plugged into the sound reinforcement system and into the main audio console being used for the broadcast and/or recording.
At club sets, some DJs may use a monitor speaker to hear the house's main mix. This monitor speaker can have its volume decreased by the DJ as needed. DJ mixers have an AC mains plug, connected to the wall to supply electric power for the unit; some DJ mixers can take batteries, which enables users to mix songs outside or away from electric power sources, with the output being plugged into a portable boom box or other battery-powered sound system. DJ mixing played a key role in the development of the African-American style of hip hop music. In hip hop music and in other genres that are influenced by hip hop, the turntable is used as a musical instrument by DJs, who use turntables along with a DJ mixer to create unique rhythmic sounds and other sound effects. Manipulation of a record as part of the music, rather than for normal playback or mixing, is called turntablism; the basis of turntablism, its best known technique, is scratching, pioneered by Grand Wizzard Theodore. It was not until Herbie Hancock's "Rockit" in 1983 that the turntablism movement was recognized in popular music outside of a hip hop context.
In the 2010s, many hip hop DJs use DJ CD players or digital record emulator devices to create scratching sounds
Germany the Federal Republic of Germany, is a country in Central and Western Europe, lying between the Baltic and North Seas to the north, the Alps to the south. It borders Denmark to the north and the Czech Republic to the east and Switzerland to the south, France to the southwest, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to the west. Germany includes 16 constituent states, covers an area of 357,386 square kilometres, has a temperate seasonal climate. With 83 million inhabitants, it is the second most populous state of Europe after Russia, the most populous state lying in Europe, as well as the most populous member state of the European Union. Germany is a decentralized country, its capital and largest metropolis is Berlin, while Frankfurt serves as its financial capital and has the country's busiest airport. Germany's largest urban area is the Ruhr, with its main centres of Essen; the country's other major cities are Hamburg, Cologne, Stuttgart, Düsseldorf, Dresden, Bremen and Nuremberg. Various Germanic tribes have inhabited the northern parts of modern Germany since classical antiquity.
A region named Germania was documented before 100 AD. During the Migration Period, the Germanic tribes expanded southward. Beginning in the 10th century, German territories formed a central part of the Holy Roman Empire. During the 16th century, northern German regions became the centre of the Protestant Reformation. After the collapse of the Holy Roman Empire, the German Confederation was formed in 1815; the German revolutions of 1848–49 resulted in the Frankfurt Parliament establishing major democratic rights. In 1871, Germany became a nation state when most of the German states unified into the Prussian-dominated German Empire. After World War I and the revolution of 1918–19, the Empire was replaced by the parliamentary Weimar Republic; the Nazi seizure of power in 1933 led to the establishment of a dictatorship, the annexation of Austria, World War II, the Holocaust. After the end of World War II in Europe and a period of Allied occupation, Austria was re-established as an independent country and two new German states were founded: West Germany, formed from the American and French occupation zones, East Germany, formed from the Soviet occupation zone.
Following the Revolutions of 1989 that ended communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe, the country was reunified on 3 October 1990. Today, the sovereign state of Germany is a federal parliamentary republic led by a chancellor, it is a great power with a strong economy. As a global leader in several industrial and technological sectors, it is both the world's third-largest exporter and importer of goods; as a developed country with a high standard of living, it upholds a social security and universal health care system, environmental protection, a tuition-free university education. The Federal Republic of Germany was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1957 and the European Union in 1993, it is part of the Schengen Area and became a co-founder of the Eurozone in 1999. Germany is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the G7, the G20, the OECD. Known for its rich cultural history, Germany has been continuously the home of influential and successful artists, musicians, film people, entrepreneurs, scientists and inventors.
Germany has a large number of World Heritage sites and is among the top tourism destinations in the world. The English word Germany derives from the Latin Germania, which came into use after Julius Caesar adopted it for the peoples east of the Rhine; the German term Deutschland diutisciu land is derived from deutsch, descended from Old High German diutisc "popular" used to distinguish the language of the common people from Latin and its Romance descendants. This in turn descends from Proto-Germanic *þiudiskaz "popular", derived from *þeudō, descended from Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂- "people", from which the word Teutons originates; the discovery of the Mauer 1 mandible shows that ancient humans were present in Germany at least 600,000 years ago. The oldest complete hunting weapons found anywhere in the world were discovered in a coal mine in Schöningen between 1994 and 1998 where eight 380,000-year-old wooden javelins of 1.82 to 2.25 m length were unearthed. The Neander Valley was the location where the first non-modern human fossil was discovered.
The Neanderthal 1 fossils are known to be 40,000 years old. Evidence of modern humans dated, has been found in caves in the Swabian Jura near Ulm; the finds included 42,000-year-old bird bone and mammoth ivory flutes which are the oldest musical instruments found, the 40,000-year-old Ice Age Lion Man, the oldest uncontested figurative art discovered, the 35,000-year-old Venus of Hohle Fels, the oldest uncontested human figurative art discovered. The Nebra sky disk is a bronze artefact created during the European Bronze Age attributed to a site near Nebra, Saxony-Anhalt, it is part of UNESCO's Memory of the World Programme. The Germanic tribes are thought to date from the Pre-Roman Iron Age. From southern Scandinavia and north Germany, they expanded south and west from the 1st century BC, coming into contact with the Celtic tribes of Gaul as well
M-Audio is a business unit of inMusic Brands that designs and markets digital audio and MIDI interfaces, keyboards and MIDI controllers, loudspeakers, studio monitors, digital DJ systems and music software. The company has independent offices in the US, Canada, UK, Germany and Japan. M-Audio was founded in the late 1990s by Tim Ryan, an engineer and graduate of the California Institute of Technology who had co-designed the Con Brio Advanced Digital Synthesizer and helped develop MIDI software for Commodore and Apple computers, including two of the best-selling MIDI software titles at that time, Studio One and Studio Two. After founding the company as Music Soft and changing the name to Midiman due to Yamaha Corporation owning the rights to the Music Soft name, Ryan began the company with hardware solutions designed to solve the challenges of connecting MIDI, computer equipment together for the purposes of music production. Midiman first established itself as a manufacturer of small, affordable MIDI problem solvers, sync devices, interfaces.
The first Midiman product was named the "Midiman," a MIDI-to-tape recorder synchronizer, but the first products that experienced mainstream success were the Syncman and Syncman Pro VITC-to-LTC/MTC converters. The next products of note were the Midisport and Bi-Port range of MIDI interfaces which were far more commercially successful than any other Midiman product to date, which established a core product category for the company for many years to come. Following the commercial success of the MIDI interface line, Midiman introduced the Flying Cow and Flying Calf A/D / D/A converters, entered the audio interface product category for the first time with the 4-input, 20-bit DMAN 2044. In the year 2000 and in conjunction with the announcement of the Delta Series PCI audio interfaces, Midiman introduced "M-Audio" as the new brand for their audio products. In the years following, Midiman grew business further by entering into distribution deals with Propellerhead Software, Ableton, ArKaos, Groove Tubes microphones, The success of the Midiman and M-Audio products, combined with the distribution revenues, resulted in 128% growth for the company in 2001 and 68% growth in 2002, making Midiman the fastest-growing music company in the US for both of those years.
Having now established themselves in the MIDI interface and audio interface product categories, Midiman entered the MIDI keyboard controller market in 2002 with the introduction of the portable 25-key Oxygen8. While not the first 25-key MIDI controller nor the first cost-effective keyboard controller with plenty of hardware MIDI controls, the Oxygen8 helped establish the new category of portable keyboard controller, a significant product category for M-Audio in the years to come; the same year marked M-Audio's entry to the studio monitor speaker market with the Studiophile SP5B. That same year, Midiman re-branded themselves as M-Audio, the brand they'd been using for their audio division since 1999. In 2003, Midiman acquired Evolution Electronics LTD, manufacturer of MIDI controllers, as a wholly owned subsidiary, continued to sell Evolution-branded MIDI controllers and keyboards; the following year, Avid Technology acquired Midiman, Inc.. Avid paid $174 million, or nearly eight times the book value of the company.
The payment was in the form of $80 million in cash 2 million shares of Avid common stock issued, all M-Audio stock options assumed. Tim Ryan continued on with the company as general manager. After Avid purchased M-Audio, Digidesign and M-Audio cooperated to release a limited version of Digidesign's flagship product, Pro Tools, compatible with M-Audio's affordable audio interface hardware; this version of Pro Tools was named Pro Tools M-Powered. M-Audio's products continued to be aimed at computer-based home recording enthusiasts, with more and more emphasis on portability and hardware controllers for music software, like Trigger Finger, an early USB MIDI pad controller which utilized a 4x4 grid of 16 pads to trigger sounds via MIDI, the iControl controller for GarageBand, the ProjectMix I/O integrated control surface/audio interface; the company's keyboard controller range expanded to 3 different sizes of Oxygen-series keyboard, the more affordable and more modestly featured Keystation series, the premium Axiom series USB MIDI keyboard controllers.
Audio interfaces remained a dominant category for M-Audio as well, with ongoing versions of the Delta series PCI interfaces, the FastTrack series USB audio interfaces, the ProFire series firewire audio interfaces, among others. Studio reference monitors remained a strong category, included the Studiophile BX series, Studiophile CX series, premium Studiophile DSM series monitors, along with the consumer electronics-targeted AV series desktop speakers. M-Audio branched out into new product categories. In 2005, M-Audio released Black Box, a guitar processor and audio interface with guitar amp modeling, beat-synced effects, drum tracks for computer based recording that they had co-developed with Roger Linn Design. A digital stage piano, the ProKeys 88, introduced M-Audio to an instrument category. A partnership with Ultimate Ears brought about M-Audio IE-series earphones, M-Audio joined the handheld digital audio recorder market with the MicroTrack series. With the introduction of Torq and its related hardware, M-Audio established itself in the growing digital DJ category.
In mid-2012, Avid sold M-Audio to inMusic as part of an attempt to streamline operations and reduce operating costs. Along with its consumer music hardware products, inMusic acquired the AIR software group's
Taiwan the Republic of China, is a state in East Asia. Neighbouring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the northeast, the Philippines to the south. Taiwan is the most populous state and largest economy, not a member of the United Nations; the island of Taiwan was inhabited by indigenous peoples for thousands of years before the 17th century, when Dutch colonialists opened the island to mass Han immigration. After a brief rule by the Kingdom of Tungning, the island was annexed in 1683 by the Qing dynasty of China, ceded to Japan in 1895. Following the surrender of Japan in 1945, the Republic of China, which had overthrown and succeeded the Qing in 1911, took control of Taiwan; the resumption of the Chinese Civil War led to the loss of the mainland to the Communists and the flight of the ROC government to Taiwan in 1949. Although the ROC government continued to claim to be the legitimate representative of China, since 1950 its effective jurisdiction has been limited to Taiwan and several small islands.
In the early 1960s, Taiwan entered a period of industrialisation. In the 1980s and early 1990s, it changed from a one-party military dictatorship to a multi-party democracy with a semi-presidential system; as a founding member, the ROC represented China in the UN until it was replaced by the PRC in 1971. The PRC has claimed sovereignty over Taiwan and refused diplomatic relations with any country that recognises the ROC; as of 2019, Taiwan maintains official ties with 16 out of 193 UN member states. Most international organisations in which the PRC participates either refuse to grant membership to Taiwan or allow it to participate only as a non-state actor. Most major powers maintain unofficial ties with Taiwan through representative offices and institutions that function as de facto embassies and consulates. In Taiwan, the major political division is between parties favouring eventual Chinese unification and promoting a Chinese identity contrasted with those aspiring to independence and promoting a Taiwanese identity, though both sides have moderated their positions to broaden their appeal.
Taiwan is a high-income advanced economy, with a skilled and educated workforce. It has the 22nd-largest economy in the world, its high-tech industry plays a key role in the global economy, it is urbanised, is one of the most densely populated countries in the world, with most of the population concentrated on the western coast. The state is ranked in terms of civil and political liberties, health care and human development. Various names for the island of Taiwan remain in use today, each derived from explorers or rulers during a particular historical period; the name Formosa dates from 1542, when Portuguese sailors sighted an uncharted island and noted it on their maps as Ilha Formosa. The name Formosa "replaced all others in European literature" and remained in common use among English speakers into the 20th century. In the early 17th century, the Dutch East India Company established a commercial post at Fort Zeelandia on a coastal sandbar called "Tayouan", after their ethnonym for a nearby Taiwanese aboriginal tribe Taivoan people, written by the Dutch and Portuguese variously as Taiouwang, Teijoan, etc.
This name was adopted into the Chinese vernacular as the name of the sandbar and nearby area. The modern word "Taiwan" is derived from this usage, seen in various forms in Chinese historical records; the area occupied by modern-day Tainan represented the first permanent settlement by both European colonists and Chinese immigrants. The settlement grew to be the island's most important trading centre and served as its capital until 1887. Use of the current Chinese name became official as early as 1684 with the establishment of Taiwan Prefecture. Through its rapid development the entire Formosan mainland became known as "Taiwan". In his Daoyi Zhilüe, Wang Dayuan used "Liuqiu" as a name for the island of Taiwan, or the part of it closest to Penghu. Elsewhere, the name was used for the Ryukyu Islands in general or Okinawa, the largest of them; the name appears in the Book of Sui and other early works, but scholars cannot agree on whether these references are to the Ryukyus, Taiwan or Luzon. The official name of the state is the "Republic of China".
Shortly after the ROC's establishment in 1912, while it was still located on the Chinese mainland, the government used the short form "China" to refer to itself, which derives from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne, the name was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state during the Qing era. During the 1950s and 1960s, after the government had withdrawn to Taiwan upon losing the Chinese Civil War, it was referred to as "Nationalist China" to differentiate it from "Communist China", it was a member of the United Nations representing "China" until 1971, when it lost its seat to the People's Republic of China. Over subsequent decades, the Republic of China has become known as "Taiwan", after the island that comprises 99% of the territory under its control. In some contexts ROC government publications, the name is written as "
Stage lighting is the craft of lighting as it applies to the production of theater, dance and other performance arts. Several different types of stage lighting instruments are used in this discipline. In addition to basic lighting, modern stage lighting can include special effects, such as lasers and fog machines. People who work on stage lighting are referred to as lighting technicians or lighting designers; the equipment used for stage lighting are used in other lighting applications, including corporate events, trade shows, broadcast television, film production, photographic studios, other types of live events. The personnel needed to install and control the equipment cross over into these different areas of "stage lighting" applications; the earliest known form of stage lighting was during the early Grecian theaters. They would build their theatres facing east to west so that in the afternoon they could perform plays and have the natural sunlight hit the actors, but not those seated in the orchestra.
Natural light continued to be utilized when playhouses were built with a large circular opening at the top of the theater. Early Modern English theaters were roofless, allowing natural light to be utilized for lighting the stage; as theaters moved indoors, artificial lighting became a necessity and it was developed as theaters and technology became more advanced. At an unknown date, candlelight was introduced which brought more developments to theatrical lighting across Europe. While Oliver Cromwell was ruling Britain, all stage production was suspended in 1642 and no advancements were made to English theaters. During this theatrical famine, great developments were being made in theaters on the European mainland. Charles II, who would become King Charles II witnessed Italian theatrical methods and brought them back to England when he came to power. New playhouses were built in their large sizes called for more elaborate lighting. After the refurbishing of the theaters, it was found that the "main source of light in Restoration theaters to be chandeliers" which were "concentrated toward the front of the house, over the forestage".
English theatres during this time used dipped candles to light sconces. Dipped candles were made by dipping a wick into hot wax to create a cylindrical candle. Candles needed frequent trimming and relighting regardless of what was happening on-stage because "they dripped hot grease on both the audience and actors". Chandeliers blocked the view of some patrons. There were two different types of Restoration theaters in England: Restoration commercial theaters and Restoration court theaters. Commercial theaters tended to be more "conservative in their lighting, for economic reasons" and therefore used "candle-burning chandeliers" primarily. Court theatres could afford to "use most of the Continental innovations" in their productions. Theaters such as the Drury Lane Theatre and the Covent Garden Theatre were lit by a large central chandelier and had a varying number of smaller stage chandeliers and candle sconces around the walls of the theaters. Two main court theaters, built between 1660 and 1665, were the Hall Theatre.
Chandeliers and sconces seemed to be the primary lighting sources here but other developments were being made at the Hall. By the 1670s, the Hall Theatre started using footlights, between 1670 and 1689 they used candles or lamps, it can be noted that by the end of the 17th century, "French and English stages were similar". There is not much written on theatrical lighting in England at the end of the 17th century and from the little information historians do have, not much changed by the middle of the 18th century. Gas lighting hit the English stage in the early 1800s beginning with the Drury Lane and Covent Garden theaters. In the 1820s, a new type of artificial illumination was developed. In this type of illumination, a gas flame is used to heat a cylinder of quicklime. Upon reaching a certain temperature, the quicklime would begin to incandesce; this illumination could be directed by reflectors and lenses. It took some time from the development of this new Limelight before it found its way into theatrical use, which started around 1837.
Limelight became popular in the 1860s and beyond. Lighting advances made in English theaters during this time frame paved the way for the many lighting advances in the modern theatrical world. Stage lighting has multiple functions, including: Selective visibility: The ability to see what is occurring on stage. Any lighting design will be ineffective if the viewers cannot see the characters, unless this is the explicit intent. Revelation of form: Altering the perception of shapes onstage three-dimensional stage elements. Focus: Directing the audience's attention to an area of the stage or distracting them from another. Mood: Setting the tone of a scene. Harsh red light has a different effect than soft lavender light. Location and time of day: Establishing or altering position in time and space. Blues can suggest night time while red can suggest a sunrise or sunset. Use of mechanical filters to project sky scenes, the Moon, etc. Projection/stage elements: Lighting may be used to project scenery or to act as scenery onstage.
Plot: A lighting event may trigger or advance the action onstage and off. Composition: Lighting may be used to show only the areas of the stage which the designer wants the audience to see, to "paint a picture". Effect: In pop and rock concerts or DJ shows or raves, colored lights and lasers may be used as a visual effect. Ligh