The Berne Convention for the Protection of Literary and Artistic Works known as the Berne Convention, is an international agreement governing copyright, first accepted in Berne, Switzerland, in 1886. The Berne Convention formally mandated several aspects of modern copyright law, it enforces a requirement that countries recognize copyrights held by the citizens of all other parties to the convention. The Berne Convention requires its parties to treat the copyright of works of authors from other parties to the convention at least as well as those of its own nationals. For example, French copyright law applies to anything published or performed in France, regardless of where it was created. In addition to establishing a system of equal treatment that harmonised copyright amongst parties, the agreement required member states to provide strong minimum standards for copyright law. Copyright under the Berne Convention must be automatic. However, when the United States joined the Convention on 1 March 1989, it continued to make statutory damages and attorney's fees only available for registered works.
However, in Moberg v Leygues, a 2009 decision of a Delaware Federal District Court, decided that the protections of the Berne Convention are supposed to be "frictionless," meaning no registration requirements can be imposed on a work from a different Berne member country. This means Berne member countries can require works originating in their own country to be registered and/or deposited, but cannot require these formalities of works from other Berne member countries. Under Article 3, the protection of the Convention applies to nationals and residents of countries that are party to the convention, to works first published or published in a country, party to the convention. Under Article 4, it applies to cinematic works by persons who have their headquarters or habitual residence in a party country, to architectural works situated in a party country; the Convention relies on the concept of "country of origin". Determining the country of origin is straightforward: when a work is published in a party country and nowhere else, this is the country of origin.
However, under Article 5, when a work is published in several party countries, the country with the shortest term of protection is defined as the country of origin. For works published in a party country and one or more non-parties, the party country is the country of origin. For unpublished works or works first published in a non-party country, the author's nationality provides the country of origin, if a national of a party country. In the Internet age, unrestricted publication online may be considered publication in every sufficiently internet-connected jurisdiction in the world, it is not clear what this may mean for determining "country of origin". In Kernel v. Mosley, a U. S. court "concluded that a work created outside of the United States, uploaded in Australia and owned by a company registered in Finland was nonetheless a U. S. work by virtue of its being published online". However other U. S. courts in similar situations have reached different conclusions, e.g. Håkan Moberg v. 33T LLC.
The matter of determining the country of origin for digital publication remains a topic of controversy among law academics as well. The Berne Convention states that all works except photographic and cinematographic shall be copyrighted for at least 50 years after the author's death, but parties are free to provide longer terms, as the European Union did with the 1993 Directive on harmonising the term of copyright protection. For photography, the Berne Convention sets a minimum term of 25 years from the year the photograph was created, for cinematography the minimum is 50 years after first showing, or 50 years after creation if it hasn't been shown within 50 years after the creation. Countries under the older revisions of the treaty may choose to provide their own protection terms, certain types of works may be provided shorter terms. If the author is unknown, because for example the author was deliberately anonymous or worked under a pseudonym, the Convention provides for a term of 50 years after publication.
However, if the identity of the author becomes known, the copyright term for known authors applies. Although the Berne Convention states that the copyright law of the country where copyright is claimed shall be applied, Article 7 states that "unless the legislation of that country otherwise provides, the term shall not exceed the term fixed in the country of origin of the work", i.e. an author is not entitled a longer copyright abroad than at home if the laws abroad give a longer term. This is known as "the rule of the shorter term". Not all countries have accepted this rule; as to works, protection must include "every production in the literary and artistic domain, whatever the mode or form of its expression". Subject to certain allowed reservations, limitations or exceptions, the following are among the rights that must be recognized as exclusive rights of authorization: the right to translate, the right to make adaptations and arrangements of the work, the right t
Media are the communication outlets or tools used to store and deliver information or data. The term refers to components of the mass media communications industry, such as print media, the news media, cinema and advertising; the term "medium" is defined as "one of the means or channels of general communication, information, or entertainment in society, as newspapers, radio, or television."The phrase "mass media" was, according to H. L. Mencken, used as early as 1923 in the United States; the term media in its modern application relating to communication channels was first used by Canadian communications theorist Marshall McLuhan, who stated in Counterblast: "The media are not toys. They can be entrusted only to new artists, because they are art forms." By the mid-1960s, the term had spread to general use in the United Kingdom. Writers such as Howard Rheingold have framed early forms of human communication as early forms of media, such as the Lascaux cave paintings and early writing. Another framing of the history of media starts with the Chauvet Cave paintings and continues with other ways to carry human communication beyond the short range of voice: smoke signals, trail markers, sculpture.
The development of early writing and paper enabled longer-distance communication systems such as mail, including in the Persian Empire and Roman Empire, which can be interpreted as early forms of media. In the last century, a revolution in telecommunications has altered communication by providing new media for long distance communication; the first transatlantic two-way radio broadcast occurred in 1906 and led to common communication via analog and digital media: Analog telecommunications include some radio systems, historical telephony systems, historical television broadcasts. Digital telecommunications allow for computer-mediated communication and computer networks. Modern communication media now allow for intense long-distance exchanges between larger numbers of people. On the other hand, many traditional broadcast media and mass media favor one-to-many communication. Electronic media usage is growing, although concern has arisen that it distracts youth from face-to-face contact with friends and family.
Research on the social engagement effect is mixed. One study by Wellman found that "33% of Internet users said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends'a lot', 23% said it had increased the quality of their communication with family members by a similar amount. Young people in particular took advantage of the social side of the Internet. Nearly half of the 18- to 29-year-olds said that the Internet had improved their connections to friends a lot. On the other hand, 19% of employed Internet users said that the Internet had increased the amount of time they spent working in home". Electronic media now comes in the forms of tablets, desktops, cell phones, mp3 players, DVDs, game systems and television. Technology has spiked to record highs within the last decade, thus changing the dynamic of communication; the spike in electronic media started to grow in 2007 when the release of the first iPhone came out. The meaning of electronic media, as it is known in various spheres, has changed with the passage of time.
The term media has achieved a broader meaning nowadays as compared to that given it a decade ago. Earlier, there was multimedia, once only a piece of software used to play video. Following this, it was CD and DVD camera of 3G applications in the field. In modern terms, the term "media" includes all the software which are used in PC or laptop or mobile phone installed for normal or better performance of the system; this type of hard disc is becoming smaller in size. The latest inclusion in the field is magnetic media whose application is common in the fastest growing information technology field. Modern day IT media is used in the banking sector and by the Income Tax Department for the purpose of providing the easiest and fastest possible services to consumers. In this magnetic strip, account information linking to all the data relating to a particular consumer is stored; the main features of these types of media are prepared unrecorded, data is stored at a stage as per the requirement of its user or consumer.
Media technology has made viewing easier as time has passed throughout history. Children today are encouraged to use media tools in school and are expected to have a general understanding of the various technologies available; the internet is arguably one of the most effective tools in media for communication tools such as e-mail and Facebook have brought people closer together and created new online communities. However, some may argue. Therefore, it is an important source of communication. In a large consumer-driven society, electronic media and print media are important for distributing advertisement media. More technologically advanced societies have access to goods and services through newer media than less technologically advanced societies. In addition to this "advertising" role
Metadata is "data that provides information about other data". Many distinct types of metadata exist, among these descriptive metadata, structural metadata, administrative metadata, reference metadata and statistical metadata. Descriptive metadata describes a resource for purposes such as identification, it can include elements such as title, abstract and keywords. Structural metadata is metadata about containers of data and indicates how compound objects are put together, for example, how pages are ordered to form chapters, it describes the types, versions and other characteristics of digital materials. Administrative metadata provides information to help manage a resource, such as when and how it was created, file type and other technical information, who can access it. Reference metadata describes the contents and quality of statistical data Statistical metadata may describe processes that collect, process, or produce statistical data. Metadata was traditionally used in the card catalogs of libraries until the 1980s, when libraries converted their catalog data to digital databases.
In the 2000s, as digital formats were becoming the prevalent way of storing data and information, metadata was used to describe digital data using metadata standards. The first description of "meta data" for computer systems is purportedly noted by MIT's Center for International Studies experts David Griffel and Stuart McIntosh in 1967: "In summary we have statements in an object language about subject descriptions of data and token codes for the data. We have statements in a meta language describing the data relationships and transformations, ought/is relations between norm and data."There are different metadata standards for each different discipline. Describing the contents and context of data or data files increases its usefulness. For example, a web page may include metadata specifying what software language the page is written in, what tools were used to create it, what subjects the page is about, where to find more information about the subject; this metadata can automatically improve the reader's experience and make it easier for users to find the web page online.
A CD may include metadata providing information about the musicians and songwriters whose work appears on the disc. A principal purpose of metadata is to help users discover resources. Metadata helps to organize electronic resources, provide digital identification, support the archiving and preservation of resources. Metadata assists users in resource discovery by "allowing resources to be found by relevant criteria, identifying resources, bringing similar resources together, distinguishing dissimilar resources, giving location information." Metadata of telecommunication activities including Internet traffic is widely collected by various national governmental organizations. This data can be used for mass surveillance. In many countries, the metadata relating to emails, telephone calls, web pages, video traffic, IP connections and cell phone locations are stored by government organizations. Metadata means "data about data". Although the "meta" prefix means "after" or "beyond", it is used to mean "about" in epistemology.
Metadata is defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data. Some examples include:Means of creation of the data Purpose of the data Time and date of creation Creator or author of the data Location on a computer network where the data was created Standards used File size Data quality Source of the data Process used to create the dataFor example, a digital image may include metadata that describes how large the picture is, the color depth, the image resolution, when the image was created, the shutter speed, other data. A text document's metadata may contain information about how long the document is, who the author is, when the document was written, a short summary of the document. Metadata within web pages can contain descriptions of page content, as well as key words linked to the content; these links are called "Metatags", which were used as the primary factor in determining order for a web search until the late 1990s. The reliance of metatags in web searches was decreased in the late 1990s because of "keyword stuffing".
Metatags were being misused to trick search engines into thinking some websites had more relevance in the search than they did. Metadata can be stored and managed in a database called a metadata registry or metadata repository. However, without context and a point of reference, it might be impossible to identify metadata just by looking at it. For example: by itself, a database containing several numbers, all 13 digits long could be the results of calculations or a list of numbers to plug into an equation - without any other context, the numbers themselves can be perceived as the data, but if given the context that this database is a log of a book collection, those 13-digit numbers may now be identified as ISBNs - information that refers to the book, but is not itself the information within the book. The term "metadata" was coined in 1968 by Philip Bagley, in his book "Extension of Programming Language Concepts" where it is clear that he uses the term in the ISO 11179 "traditional" sense, "structural metadata" i.e. "data about the containers of data".
E-commerce is the activity of buying or selling of products on online services or over the Internet. Electronic commerce draws on technologies such as mobile commerce, electronic funds transfer, supply chain management, Internet marketing, online transaction processing, electronic data interchange, inventory management systems, automated data collection systems. Modern electronic commerce uses the World Wide Web for at least one part of the transaction's life cycle although it may use other technologies such as e-mail. Typical e-commerce transactions include the purchase of online books and music purchases, to a less extent, customized/personalized online liquor store inventory services. There are three areas of e-commerce: online retailing, electric markets, online auctions. E-commerce is supported by electronic business. E-commerce businesses may employ some or all of the followings: Online shopping for retail sales direct to consumers via Web sites and mobile apps, conversational commerce via live chat and voice assistants Providing or participating in online marketplaces, which process third-party business-to-consumer or consumer-to-consumer sales Business-to-business buying and selling.
A timeline for the development of e-commerce: 1971 or 1972: The ARPANET is used to arrange a cannabis sale between students at the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology described as "the seminal act of e-commerce" in John Markoff's book What the Dormouse Said. 1979: Michael Aldrich demonstrates the first online shopping system. 1981: Thomson Holidays UK is the first business-to-business online shopping system to be installed. 1982: Minitel was introduced nationwide in France by France Télécom and used for online ordering. 1983: California State Assembly holds first hearing on "electronic commerce" in Volcano, California. Testifying are CPUC, MCI Mail, CompuServe, Volcano Telephone, Pacific Telesis. 1984: Gateshead SIS/Tesco is first B2C online shopping system and Mrs Snowball, 72, is the first online home shopper 1984: In April 1984, CompuServe launches the Electronic Mall in the USA and Canada. It is the first comprehensive electronic commerce service.
1989: In May 1989, Sequoia Data Corp. Introduced Compumarket, the first internet based system for e-commerce. Sellers and buyers could post items for sale and buyers could search the database and make purchases with a credit card. 1990: Tim Berners-Lee writes the first web browser, WorldWideWeb, using a NeXT computer. 1992: Book Stacks Unlimited in Cleveland opens a commercial sales website selling books online with credit card processing. 1993: Paget Press releases edition No. 3 of the first app store, The Electronic AppWrapper 1994: Netscape releases the Navigator browser in October under the code name Mozilla. Netscape 1.0 is introduced in late 1994 with SSL encryption. 1994: Ipswitch IMail Server becomes the first software available online for sale and immediate download via a partnership between Ipswitch, Inc. and OpenMarket. 1994: "Ten Summoner's Tales" by Sting becomes the first secure online purchase through NetMarket. 1995: The US National Science Foundation lifts its former strict prohibition of commercial enterprise on the Internet.
1995: Thursday 27 April 1995, the purchase of a book by Paul Stanfield, Product Manager for CompuServe UK, from W H Smith's shop within CompuServe's UK Shopping Centre is the UK's first national online shopping service secure transaction. The shopping service at launch featured W H Smith, Virgin Megastores/Our Price, Great Universal Stores, Dixons Retail, Past Times, PC World and Innovations. 1995: Jeff Bezos launches Amazon.com and the first commercial-free 24-hour, internet-only radio stations, Radio HK and NetRadio start broadcasting. EBay is founded by computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as AuctionWeb. 1996: The use of Excalibur BBS with replicated "Storefronts" was an early implementation of electronic commerce started by a group of SysOps in Australia and replicated to global partner sites. 1998: Electronic postal stamps can be purchased and downloaded for printing from the Web. 1999: Alibaba Group is established in China. Business.com sold for US $7.5 million to eCompanies, purchased in 1997 for US $149,000.
The peer-to-peer filesharing software Napster launches. ATG Stores launches to sell decorative items for the home online. 1999: Global e-commerce reaches $150 billion 2000: The dot-com bust. 2001: Alibaba.com achieved profitability in December 2001. 2002: eBay acquires PayPal for $1.5 billion. Niche retail companies Wayfair and NetShops are founded with the concept of selling products through several targeted domains, rather than a central portal. 2003: Amazon.com posts first yearly profit. 2004: DHgate.com, China's first online b2b transaction platform, is established, forcing other b2b sites to move away from the "yellow pages" model. 2007: Business.com acquired by R. H. Donnelley for $345 million. 2014: US e-commerce and Online Retail sales projected to reach $294 billion, an increase of 12 percent over 2013 and 9% of all retail sales. Alibaba Group has the largest Initial public offering worth $25 billion. 2015: Amazon.com accounts for more than half of all e-commerce
In library and information science, cataloging is the process of creating metadata representing information resources, such as books, sound recordings, moving images, etc. Cataloging provides information such as creator names and subject terms that describe resources through the creation of bibliographic records; the records serve as surrogates for the stored information resources. Since the 1970s these metadata are in machine-readable form and are indexed by information retrieval tools, such as bibliographic databases or search engines. While the cataloging process results in the production of library catalogs, it produces other types of discovery tools for documents and collections. Bibliographic control provides the philosophical basis of cataloging, defining the rules for sufficiently describing information resources to enable users to find and select the most appropriate resource. A cataloger is an individual responsible for the processes of description, subject analysis and authority control of library materials.
Catalogers serve as the "foundation of all library service, as they are the ones who organize information in such a way as to make it accessible". Ronald Hagler identified six functions of bibliographic control. "Identifying the existence of all types of information resources as they are made available." The existence and identity of an information resource must be known. "Identifying the works contained within those information resources or as parts of them." Depending on the level of granularity required, multiple works may be contained in a single package, or one work may span multiple packages. For example, is a single photo considered an information resource? Or can a collection of photos be considered an information resource? "Systematically pulling together these information resources into collections in libraries, archives and Internet communication files, other such depositories." Acquiring these items into collections so that they can be of use to the user. "Producing lists of these information resources prepared according to standard rules for citation."
Examples of such retrieval aids include library catalogue, archival finding aids, etc. "Providing name, title and other useful access to these information resources." Ideally, there should be many ways to find an item. There must be enough metadata in the surrogate record so users can find the information resource they are looking for; these access points should be consistent. "Providing the means of locating each information resource or a copy of it." In libraries, the online public access catalogue can give the user location information and indicate whether the item is available. While the organization of information has been going on since antiquity, bibliographic control as we know it today is a more recent invention. Ancient civilizations recorded lists of books onto tablets and libraries in the Middle Ages kept records of their holdings. With the invention of the printing press in the 15th century, multiple copies of a single book could be produced quickly. Johann Tritheim, a German librarian, was the first to create a bibliography in chronological order with an alphabetical author index.
Konrad Gesner followed in his footsteps in the next century as he published an author bibliography and subject index. He added to his bibliography an alphabetical list of authors with inverted names, a new practice, he included references to variant spellings of author's names, a precursor to authority control. Andrew Maunsell further revolutionized bibliographic control by suggesting that a book should be findable based on the author's last name, the subject of the book, the translator. In the 17th century Sir Thomas Bodley was interested in a catalog arranged alphabetically by author's last name as well as subject entries. In 1697, Frederic Rostgaard called for subject arrangement, subdivided by both chronology and by size, as well as an index of subjects and authors by last name and for word order in titles to be preserved based on the title page. After the French Revolution, France's government was the first to put out a national code containing instructions for cataloging library collections.
At the British Museum Library Anthony Panizzi created his "Ninety-One Cataloging Rules", which served as the basis for cataloging rules of the 19th and 20th centuries. Charles C. Jewett applied. "Descriptive cataloging" is a well-established concept in the tradition of library cataloging in which a distinction is made between descriptive cataloging and subject cataloging, each applying a set of standards, different qualifications and also different kinds of professionals. In the tradition of documentation and information science the concept document representation have been used to cover both "descriptive" and "subject" representation. Descriptive cataloging has been defined as "the part of cataloging concerned with describing the physical details of a book, such as the form and choice of entries and the title page transcription." Subject cataloging may take the form of indexing. Classification involves the assignment of a given document to a class in a classification system. Indexing is the assignment of characterizing labels to the documents represented in a record.
Sound recording and reproduction
Sound recording and reproduction is an electrical, electronic, or digital inscription and re-creation of sound waves, such as spoken voice, instrumental music, or sound effects. The two main classes of sound recording technology are analog digital recording. Acoustic analog recording is achieved by a microphone diaphragm that senses changes in atmospheric pressure caused by acoustic sound waves and records them as a mechanical representation of the sound waves on a medium such as a phonograph record. In magnetic tape recording, the sound waves vibrate the microphone diaphragm and are converted into a varying electric current, converted to a varying magnetic field by an electromagnet, which makes a representation of the sound as magnetized areas on a plastic tape with a magnetic coating on it. Analog sound reproduction is the reverse process, with a bigger loudspeaker diaphragm causing changes to atmospheric pressure to form acoustic sound waves. Digital recording and reproduction converts the analog sound signal picked up by the microphone to a digital form by the process of sampling.
This lets the audio data be transmitted by a wider variety of media. Digital recording stores audio as a series of binary numbers representing samples of the amplitude of the audio signal at equal time intervals, at a sample rate high enough to convey all sounds capable of being heard. A digital audio signal must be reconverted to analog form during playback before it is amplified and connected to a loudspeaker to produce sound. Prior to the development of sound recording, there were mechanical systems, such as wind-up music boxes and player pianos, for encoding and reproducing instrumental music. Long before sound was first recorded, music was recorded—first by written music notation also by mechanical devices. Automatic music reproduction traces back as far as the 9th century, when the Banū Mūsā brothers invented the earliest known mechanical musical instrument, in this case, a hydropowered organ that played interchangeable cylinders. According to Charles B. Fowler, this "...cylinder with raised pins on the surface remained the basic device to produce and reproduce music mechanically until the second half of the nineteenth century."
The Banū Mūsā brothers invented an automatic flute player, which appears to have been the first programmable machine. Carvings in the Rosslyn Chapel from the 1560s may represent an early attempt to record the Chladni patterns produced by sound in stone representations, although this theory has not been conclusively proved. In the 14th century, a mechanical bell-ringer controlled by a rotating cylinder was introduced in Flanders. Similar designs appeared in barrel organs, musical clocks, barrel pianos, music boxes. A music box is an automatic musical instrument that produces sounds by the use of a set of pins placed on a revolving cylinder or disc so as to pluck the tuned teeth of a steel comb; the fairground organ, developed in 1892, used a system of accordion-folded punched cardboard books. The player piano, first demonstrated in 1876, used a punched paper scroll that could store a long piece of music; the most sophisticated of the piano rolls were hand-played, meaning that the roll represented the actual performance of an individual, not just a transcription of the sheet music.
This technology to record a live performance onto a piano roll was not developed until 1904. Piano rolls were in continuous mass production from 1896 to 2008. A 1908 U. S. Supreme Court copyright case noted that, in 1902 alone, there were between 70,000 and 75,000 player pianos manufactured, between 1,000,000 and 1,500,000 piano rolls produced; the first device that could record actual sounds as they passed through the air was the phonautograph, patented in 1857 by Parisian inventor Édouard-Léon Scott de Martinville. The earliest known recordings of the human voice are phonautograph recordings, called phonautograms, made in 1857, they consist of sheets of paper with sound-wave-modulated white lines created by a vibrating stylus that cut through a coating of soot as the paper was passed under it. An 1860 phonautogram of Au Clair de la Lune, a French folk song, was played back as sound for the first time in 2008 by scanning it and using software to convert the undulating line, which graphically encoded the sound, into a corresponding digital audio file.
On April 30, 1877, French poet, humorous writer and inventor Charles Cros submitted a sealed envelope containing a letter to the Academy of Sciences in Paris explaining his proposed method, called the paleophone. Though no trace of a working paleophone was found, Cros is remembered as the earliest inventor of a sound recording and reproduction machine; the first practical sound recording and reproduction device was the mechanical phonograph cylinder, invented by Thomas Edison in 1877 and patented in 1878. The invention soon spread across the globe and over the next two decades the commercial recording and sale of sound recordings became a growing new international industry, with the most popular titles selling millions of units by the early 1900s; the development of mass-production techniques enabled cylinder recordings to become a major new consumer item in industrial countries and the cylinder was the main consumer format from the late 1880s until around 1910. The next major technical development was the invention of the gramophone record credited to Emile Berliner and patented in 1887, though others had demonstrated simi
Audiovisual means possessing both a sound and a visual component, such as slide-tape presentations, television programs, church services and live theater productions. Audiovisual service providers offer web streaming, video conferencing and live broadcast services. Computer-based audiovisual equipment is used in education, with many schools and universities installing projection equipment and using interactive whiteboard technology. Another audiovisual expression is the visual presentation of sound. Residential audiovisual encompasses in-ceiling speakers, flat panel TVs, projectors and projector screens; this could include lighting, cinema rooms. The professional audiovisual industry is a multibillion-dollar industry, comprising the manufacturers, systems integrators, programmers, presentations professionals and technology managers of audiovisual products and services. Commercial audiovisual can sometimes be a lengthy process to get it right. Boardroom audio visual can be installed for a number of reasons, but it is because the executives of the organization/business wants to have meetings with colleagues/customers/suppliers around the world.
When creating an array of boardrooms for customers it has been seen that you have to be able to balance the pattern from the audio and microphone so there is no interruption in the sound quality for the individual/s listening in. The proliferation of audiovisual communications technologies, including sound, lighting and projection systems, is evident in every sector of society: in business, government, the military, retail environments, worship and entertainment, hospitality and museums; the application of audiovisual systems is found in collaborative conferencing. Concerts and corporate events are among the most obvious venues where audiovisual equipment is used in a staged environment. Providers of this type of service are known as rental and staging companies, although they may be served by an in-house technology team. According to a 2006 market forecast study by InfoComm International, a leading trade association representing the audiovisual industry, 2006 was the fourth consecutive year that significant growth was projected for the industry.
Revenue for surveyed North American companies was expected to grow by 40% in 2006, by 10.7% for European audiovisual companies. The single biggest factor for this increase is the increased demand for networked audiovisual products due to the integration of audiovisual and IT technology; the two leading markets for AV equipment in North America and Europe continue to be business/IT and education as conference room technologies become more advanced. Audiovisual education is instruction where particular attention is paid to the audio and visual presentation of the material, with the goal of improving comprehension and retention. Information and communications technology Multimedia Video World Day for Audiovisual Heritage