Desktop search tools search within a user's own computer files as opposed to searching the Internet. These tools are designed to find information on the user's PC, including web browser history, e-mail archives, text documents, sound files and video. A variety of desktop search programs are now available. Most desktop search programs are standalone applications. Desktop search products are software alternatives to the search software included in the operating system, helping users sift through desktop files, emails and more. Desktop search emerged as a concern for large firms for two main reasons: untapped productivity and security. According to analyst firm Gartner, up to 80% of some companies' data is locked up inside unstructured data — the information stored on an user's PC, the directories and files they've created on a network, documents stored in repositories such as corporate intranets and a multitude of other locations. Moreover, many companies have structured or unstructured information stored in older file formats to which they don't have ready access.
The sector attracted considerable attention in the late 2004 to early 2005 period from the struggle between Microsoft and Google. According to market analysts, both companies were attempting to leverage their monopolies to strengthen their dominance. Due to Google's complaint that users of Windows Vista cannot choose any competitor's desktop search program over the built-in one, an agreement was reached between US Justice Department and Microsoft that Windows Vista Service Pack 1 would enable users to choose between the built-in and other desktop search programs, select which one is to be the default.. As of September 2011, Google ended life for Google Desktop. Most desktop search engines build and maintain an index database to improve performance when searching large amounts of data. Indexing takes place when the computer is idle and most search applications can be set to suspend indexing if a portable computer is running on batteries, in order to save power. There are notable exceptions, however: Voidtools' Everything Search Engine, which performs searches over only file names, not contents, is able to build its index from scratch in just a few seconds.
Another exception is Vegnos Desktop Search Engine, which performs searches over filenames and files' contents without building any indices. An index may not be up-to-date, when a query is performed. In this case, results returned; some products have sought to remedy this disadvantage by building a real-time indexing function into the software. There are disadvantages to not indexing. Namely, the time to complete a query can be significant, the issued query can be resource-intensive. Desktop search tools collect three types of information about files: file and folder names metadata, such as titles, comments in file types such as MP3, PDF and JPEG file content, for the types of documents supported by the toolLong-term goals for desktop search include the ability to search the contents of image files, sound files and video by context. Indexing Service a "a base service that extracts content from files and constructs an indexed catalog to facilitate efficient and rapid searching" was released in August 1996, it was built in order to speed up manually searching for files on Personal Desktops and Corporate Computer Network.
Indexing service helped by using Microsoft web servers to index files on the desired hard drives. Indexing was done by file format. By using terms that users provided, a search was conducted that matched terms to the data within the file formats; the largest issue that Indexing service faced was the fact that every time a file was added, it had to be indexed. This coupled with the fact that the indexing cached the entire index in RAM, made the hardware a huge limitation; this made indexing large amounts of files require powerful hardware and long wait times. In 2003, Windows Desktop Search replaced Microsoft Indexing Service. Instead of only matching terms to the details of the file format and file names, WDS brings in content indexing to all Microsoft files and text-based formats such as e-mail and text files; this means, that WDS indexed the content. Thus, when a user searched a term, WDS no longer matched just information such as file format types and file names, but terms, values stored within those files.
WDS brought "Instant searching" meaning the user could type a character and the query would start searching and updating the query as the user typed in more characters. Windows Search used up a lot of processing power, as Windows Desktop Search would only run if it was directly queried or while the PC was idle. Only running while directly queried or while the computer was idled, indexing the entire hard drive still took hours; the index would be around 10% of the size of all the files that it indexed, e.g. if the indexed files amounted to around 100GB, the index size would be 10GB. With the release of Windows Vista came Windows Search 3.1. Unlike its predecessors WDS and Windows Search 3.0, 3.1 could search through both indexed and non indexed locations seamlessly. The RAM and CPU requirements were reduced, cutting back indexing times immensely. Windows Search 4.0 is running on all PCs with Windows 7 and up. In 1994 the AppleSearch search engine was introduced, allowing users to search all documents within their Macintosh computer, including file format types, meta-data on those files, content within the files.
AppleSearch was a client/server app
GNU/Linux naming controversy
The GNU/Linux naming controversy is a dispute between members of the free software community and open-source software community over whether to refer to computer operating systems that use a combination of GNU software and the Linux kernel as "GNU/Linux" or "Linux". Proponents of the term Linux argue that it is far more used by the public and media, that it serves as a generic term for systems that combine that kernel with software from multiple other sources. Proponents of the term GNU/Linux note that GNU alone would be just as good a name for GNU variants which combine the GNU operating system software with software from other sources. GNU/Linux is a term promoted by its founder Richard Stallman. Proponents call for the correction of the more extended term, on the grounds that it doesn't give credit to the major contributor and the associated free software philosophy. GNU is a longstanding project begun in 1984 to develop a free operating system, it is argued that when the Linux kernel was independently created in 1991, it provided a substantial missing piece.
Several distributions employ the FSF-endorsed name, such as Debian and Parabola GNU/Linux-libre. In 1983, Richard Stallman, founder of the Free Software Foundation, set forth plans of a complete Unix-like operating system, called GNU, composed of free software. In September of that year, Stallman published a manifesto in Dr. Dobb's Journal detailing his new project publicly, outlining his vision of free software. Software development work began in January 1984. By 1991, the GNU mid-level portions of the operating system were complete, the upper level could be supplied by the X Window System, but the lower level was still lacking; the GNU kernel was called GNU Hurd. The Hurd followed an ambitious design which proved unexpectedly difficult to implement and has only been marginally usable. Independently, in 1991, Linus Torvalds released the first version of the Linux kernel. Early Linux developers ported GNU code, including the GNU C Compiler, to the kernel; the free software community adopted the use of the Linux kernel as the missing kernel for the GNU operating system.
This work filled the remaining gaps in providing a free operating system. Over the next few years, several suggestions arose for naming operating systems using the Linux kernel and GNU components. In 1992, the Yggdrasil Linux distribution adopted the name "Linux/GNU/X". In Usenet and mailing-list discussions, one can find usages of "GNU/Linux" as early as 1992 and of "GNU+Linux" as early as 1993; the Debian project, at one time sponsored by the Free Software Foundation, switched to calling its product "Debian GNU/Linux" in early 1994. GNU's June 1994 Bulletin describes "Linux" as a "free Unix system for 386 machines", but the January 1995 Bulletin switched to the term "GNU/Linux" instead. Stallman's and the FSF's efforts to include "GNU" in the name started around 1994, but were mostly via private communications until 1996. In May 1996, Stallman released Emacs 19.31 with the Autoconf system target "linux" changed to "lignux", included an essay "Linux and the GNU system" suggesting that people use the terms "Linux-based GNU system".
He used "GNU/Linux" and the essay was superseded by Stallman's 1997 essay, "Linux and the GNU project". Modern free software and Open-source software systems are composed of software by many different authors, including the Linux kernel developers, the GNU project, other vendors such as those behind the X Window System. Desktop- and server-based distributions use GNU components such as the GNU C Library, GNU Core Utilities, bash. In a 2002 analysis of the source code for Red Hat Linux 7.1, a typical Linux distribution, the total size of the packages from the GNU project was found to be much larger than the Linux kernel. A 2011 analysis of Ubuntu's "Natty" release main repository found that 8% to 13% of it consisted of GNU components, while only 6% is taken by the Linux kernel. Determining what constitutes the "operating system" per se is a matter of continuing debate. On the other hand, some embedded systems, such as handheld devices and smartphones, residential gateways, Voice over IP devices, are engineered with space efficiency in mind and use a Linux kernel with few or no components of GNU.
A system running μClinux is to substitute uClibc for glibc and BusyBox for Coreutils. Google's Linux-based Android operating system does not use any GNU components or libraries, replacing glibc with Google's own BSD-based Bionic C library; the FSF agrees. There are systems that use a GNU userspace and/or C library on top of a non-Linux kernel, for example Debian GNU/Hurd or Debian GNU/kFreeBSD; the FSF justifies the name "GNU/Linux" on the grounds that the GNU project was developing a complete system, of which they argue that the Linux kernel filled one of the final gaps.
Linux range of use
Linux kernel-based operating systems have been adopted in a wide range of uses. All the advantages and benefits of free and open-source software apply to the Linux kernel, to most of the rest of the system software; the common human interface devices available for desktop computers and similar devices determine the design of the human-computer interface implemented in software. There are a few software packages to choose among, when building an accordingly designed graphical user interface; the generic input driver for the Linux kernel is evdev, but here are several input methods implemented as middleware, i.e. atop and not as part of the Linux kernel. As adoption is proving, the Linux kernel is suitable as a gaming platform. Of course, added software is needed to either augment a typical desktop installation to be suitable as a gaming platform, or to create a Linux-based operating system for a dedicated gaming platform. There is an abundance of server software supporting various communications protocols, such as HTTP, SMTP, POP3 and IMAP, Lightweight Directory Access Protocol, Server Message Block, Simple Network Management Protocol, Session Initiation Protocol, various routing protocols that run exclusively, on the Linux kernel.
Some software bundles called solution stacks, have been that adopted, that their acronyms have become well known. Examples include: For dynamic web pages: Linux operating system, Apache web server, MySQL database, PHP programming language Linux operating system, Yaws web server, Mnesia or CouchDB database, Erlang programming language For cloud computing: Linux operating system, Eucalyptus Amazon Web Services framework, AppScale cloud computing framework, Python programming language OpenStack – for infrastructure as a service, the controller nodes run only on a Linux operating systemAll three types of virtualization have been implemented by a few projects, that run Linux, some being Linux-exclusive; the Linux kernel has been customized and hardened to various scenarios to the operation of a bastion host. Some were mainlined, some are being developed and maintained out-of-tree. Linux kernel-based operating systems are still employed as routing servers on both server computers and commodity hardware, in cases where professional routing equipment such as Cisco Catalyst, are either overkill or too costly.
Components of the Linux kernel, such as Netfilter or the Linux network scheduler, along with the available free and open-source routing daemons Bird Internet routing daemon, B. A. T. M. A. N. Quagga, XORP fulfill the task well. Low-cost and low-performance routing can be performed by wireless routers running OpenWrt; the anonymity routing solution Tor is cross-platform and not exclusive to Linux. Components of the Linux kernel, such as Logical Volume Manager, are well suited to support computer clusters. There is software for managing clusters, e.g. Pacemaker, Linux-HA, DRBD, oVirt, openQRM, Eucalyptus, AppScale, or OpenNebula. For both single system image and multi system image clusters, there are at least LinuxPMI, OpenSSI, Open-Sharedroot, Kerrighed available. There are three solutions for operating-system-level virtualization: Linux-VServer, LXC and OpenVZ, which offer similarities to FreeBSD jails and Solaris Containers. A Linux operating systems runs virtualized on Xen, a micro-kernel-type hypervisor published under the same license as the Linux kernel, with KVM it is possible to turn the Linux kernel into a hypervisor.
For the managing there are libvirt and several utilities building on them, a few other programs. OpenStack controller nodes run on Linux, while compute nodes are cross-platform. Software projects, serving a similar use-case as OpenStack are Nimbus, AppScale, OpenNebula, Eucalyptus or openQRM. One of the best known Linux-based operating systems for mobile devices, such as smartphones, is the Android. Android employs a modified Linux kernel and combines it with libbionic instead of the glibc, SurfaceFlinger as display server, some other replacements written for this purpose. Many mobile devices have a touchscreen as their sole human interface device; the GUI and the middleware of the operating system has to be adapted as to enable software designers to create an according human-computer interface. The Linux kernel has gained wide use in operating systems used in embedded systems, as real-time and non-real-time variants. Patches exist which transform the Linux kernel into a real-time kernel, termed a real-time operating system.
Several are maintained. Minimally, such an operating system includes a more or less modified Linux kernel, uClibc and BusyBox. Non-RTOS variants exist. OpenWrt, a Linux distribution, is for use on customer-premises equipment devices like wireless routers. Rockbox, based on μClinux, is an operating system for portable media players. All the fastest supercomputers in the decade since the Earth Simulator have used Linux. Linux ran on the first teraFLOPS supercomputer, ASCI Red in 1997, on IBM Roadrunner in 2008, the first petascale computer; as of January 2018, 500 or 100% of the world's fastest supercomputers run an operating system based on the Linux kernel. The world’s fastest supercomputer is China’s Sunway TaihuLight, is powered by a colossal 650,000+ CPUs, runs a customised version of Linux called ‘Sunway RaiseOS’, with processing speed of
Linux kernel oops
In computing, an oops is a deviation from correct behavior of the Linux kernel, one that produces a certain error log. The better-known kernel panic condition results from many kinds of oops, but other instances of an oops event may allow continued operation with compromised reliability; the term does not stand for anything, other than. When the kernel detects a problem, it kills any offending processes and prints an oops message, which Linux kernel engineers can use in debugging the condition that created the oops and fixing the underlying programming error. After a system has experienced an oops, some internal resources may no longer be operational, thus if the system appears to work undesirable side effects may have resulted from the active task being killed. A kernel oops leads to a kernel panic when the system attempts to use resources that have been lost; the official Linux kernel documentation regarding oops messages resides in the file Documentation/admin-guide/bug-hunting.rst of the kernel sources.
Some logger configurations may affect the ability to collect oops messages. The kerneloops software can collect and submit kernel oopses to a repository such as the www.kerneloops.org website, which provides statistics and public access to reported oopses. For a person not familiar with technical details of computers and operating systems, an oops message might look confusing. Unlike other operating systems such as Windows or macOS, Linux chooses to present details explaining the crash of the kernel rather than display a simplified, user-friendly message. Kdump – Linux kernel's crash dump mechanism, which internally uses kexec System.map – contains mappings between symbol names and their addresses in memory, used to interpret oopses Linux Device Drivers, 3rd edition, Chapter 4. John Bradford. "Re: what's an OOPS". LKML. Archived from the original on 2007-03-10. Retrieved 2006-05-22. Szakacsits Szabolcs. "Re: what's an OOPS". LKML. Archived from the original on 2007-03-13. Retrieved 2006-05-22. Al Viro.
"OOPS report analysis". LKML. Retrieved 2008-01-14. Kernel Oops Howto Useful information on configuration files and tools to help display oops messages. Lots of other links. Oops.kernel.org, a public service collecting kernel oops reports
A Linux distribution is an operating system made from a software collection, based upon the Linux kernel and a package management system. Linux users obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices and personal computers to powerful supercomputers. A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system, a window manager, a desktop environment. Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers. A Linux distribution may be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software, packaged together with the Linux kernel in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.
The software is adapted to the distribution and packaged into software packages by the distribution's maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations distributed around the world. Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers or the package management systems, there are only few packages that are written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution. Six hundred Linux distributions exist, with close to five hundred out of those in active development; because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, laptops, mobile phones and tablets, as well as minimal environments for use in embedded systems. There are commercially backed distributions, such as Fedora, openSUSE and Ubuntu, community-driven distributions, such as Debian, Slackware and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions are distributed in source code form and compiled locally during installation.
Linus Torvalds developed the Linux kernel and distributed its first version, 0.01, in 1991. Linux was distributed as source code only, as a pair of downloadable floppy disk images – one bootable and containing the Linux kernel itself, the other with a set of GNU utilities and tools for setting up a file system. Since the installation procedure was complicated in the face of growing amounts of available software, distributions sprang up to simplify this. Early distributions included the following: H. J. Lu's "Boot-root", the aforementioned disk image pair with the kernel and the absolute minimal tools to get started, in late 1991 MCC Interim Linux, made available to the public for download in February 1992 Softlanding Linux System, released in 1992, was the most comprehensive distribution for a short time, including the X Window System Yggdrasil Linux/GNU/X, a commercial distribution first released in December 1992The two oldest and still active distribution projects started in 1993; the SLS distribution was not well maintained, so in July 1993 a new distribution, called Slackware and based on SLS, was released by Patrick Volkerding.
Dissatisfied with SLS, Ian Murdock set to create a free distribution by founding Debian, which had its first release in December 1993. Users were attracted to Linux distributions as alternatives to the DOS and Microsoft Windows operating systems on IBM PC compatible computers, Mac OS on the Apple Macintosh, proprietary versions of Unix. Most early adopters were familiar with Unix from school, they embraced Linux distributions for their low cost, availability of the source code for most or all of the software included. The distributions were a convenience, offering a free alternative to proprietary versions of Unix but they became the usual choice for Unix or Linux experts. To date, Linux has become more popular in server and embedded devices markets than in the desktop market. For example, Linux is used on over 50% of web servers, whereas its desktop market share is about 3.7%. Many Linux distributions provide an installation system akin to that provided with other modern operating systems. On the other hand, some distributions, including Gentoo Linux, provide only the binaries of a basic kernel, compilation tools, an installer.
Distributions are segmented into packages. Each package contains service. Examples of packages are a library for handling the PNG image format, a collection of fonts or a web browser; the package is provided as compiled code, with installation and removal of packages handled by a package management system rather than a simple file archiver. Each package intended for such a PMS contains meta-information such as a package description, "dependencies"; the package management system can evaluate this meta-information to allow package searches, to perform an automatic upgrade to a newer version, to check that all dependencies of a package are fulfilled, and/or to fulfill them automatically. Alth
LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. It consists of a weekly issue, separate stories which are published most days, threaded discussion attached to every story. Most news published daily are short summaries of articles published elsewhere, are free to all viewers. Original articles are published weekly on Thursdays and are available only to subscribers for one week, after which they become free as well. LWN.net is part of Inc.. LWN caters to a more technical audience than other Linux/free software publications, it is praised for its in-depth coverage of Linux kernel internals and Linux kernel mailing list discussions. The acronym "LWN" stood for Linux Weekly News. Founded by Jonathan Corbet and Elizabeth Coolbaugh and published since January 1998, LWN was a free site devoted to collecting Linux news, published weekly. At the end of May 2002, LWN announced a redesigned site. Among the changes was a facility for readers to post comments about stories.
On July 25, 2002, LWN announced that due to its inability to raise enough funds through donations, the following issue would be its last. Following an outpouring of support from readers, the editors of LWN decided to continue publishing, albeit with a subscription model. New weekly editions of LWN are only available to readers who subscribe at one of three levels. After a 1-week delay, each issue becomes available to readers who are unable or unwilling to pay. LWN.net staff consists of: Jonathan Corbet, who oversees the front and kernel pages, as well as overall "executive editor" functions. LWN.net purchases a number of articles from freelance authors. DistroWatch Slashdot Phoronix Official website Timeline page - Also includes the site's own history at the bottom 2007 Subscribers survey, showing demographics and what sections of the site are liked
The Linux Foundation is a non-profit technology consortium founded in 2000 as a merger between Open Source Development Labs and the Free Standards Group to standardize Linux, support its growth, promote its commercial adoption. It hosts and promotes the collaborative development of open source software projects, it began in 2000 under the Open Source Development Labs and became the organization it is today when OSDL merged with the Free Standards Group. The Linux Foundation sponsors the work of Linux creator Linus Torvalds and lead maintainer Greg Kroah-Hartman and is supported by members such as AT&T, Fujitsu, Huawei, IBM, Microsoft, NEC, Qualcomm, VMware, as well as developers from around the world. In recent years, the Linux Foundation has expanded its services through events and certification, open source projects. Projects hosted at the Linux Foundation include Open Network Automation Platform, Cloud Native Computing Foundation, Cloud Foundry Foundation, Xen Project, many others; the origins of The Linux Foundation can be traced to 1993 when Patrick D'Cruze started the Linux International email list known as LI.
In 1993 at Comdex, Bob Young introduced Mark Bolzern to the LI list and shortly thereafter Bolzern shared his vision and was asked to "make it so" by the members of the list. Bolzern funded LI and its activities until others joined; the vision defined among other things, an entity to deal with traditional public relations on behalf of Linus Torvalds, to file for TradeMark on behalf of Linus among many other things about to be described. Under Bolzern's direction, LI became a collaboration of Linux related vendors and technologists, heading a single direction that served everyone according to the original vision, it became clear that Bolzern could not continue to be both CEO of WorkGroup Solutions/LinuxMall AND executive director of Linux International at the same time because of perceived conflict of interest. So: In mid 1994 Bolzern and Young recruited Jon "maddog" Hall into the Executive Director position, who in turn filed the Corporate paperwork on behalf of the new Board of Directors while Bolzern remained on the Board, as well as continued leading trade show and marketing efforts until late 1999.
This included User Groups by Bolzern, or maddog. Bolzern organized and managed the launch of Linux Pavilions at major trade shows of the time such as UniForum, Comdex and with maddog helping to establish the Atlanta Linux Showcase helped Larry Augustin and the Silicon Valley Linux user group create the San Francisco Linux Expo. Notable in the 94–98 timeframe was an anti-fraud Linux Trademark filing led by LI. Included in the LI suite of projects by the mid 90s were the Linux Mark Institute, Linux Base Standard, Certification Programs and the Trade Show & Press relationships along with being a Vendor association. Here is a page outlining Linux International's membership as of the latter half of the 90s; the list is not presented as alphabetical, but as agreed in order of merit to Linux. Bolzern & maddog continued to provide the bulk of the funding until about 1998, augmented by vendor and individual membership fees; as more and more individuals and sponsors joined the LI vision, by 1999 LI had become a vendor-neutral 501c6 Non-Profit Industry Association for Linux with Linus Torvalds' blessing, while Linus himself focused on development and technical excellence for Linux itself.
LI's primary purpose was to be that Industry Marketing Organization that supported Linux related Certification Programs, along with development of essential Projects and Education. The vision was huge, as large vendors expected more sophistication, thus more help was needed as Bolzern was being distracted because his wife was diagnosed with cancer, maddog was becoming weary of the load. With everyone's support Augustin took action and suggested another organization be formed to continue. In 2000, OSDL was founded after appealing to the Linux International Board of Directors for a number of the fundamental projects that are still part of the Linux Foundation today. OSDL was a non-profit organization supported by a global consortium that aimed to "accelerate the deployment of Linux for enterprise computing" and "to be the recognized center-of-gravity for the Linux industry." While Jon "maddog" Hall went a different direction with LI.org. In 2003, Linus Torvalds, the creator of the available Linux kernel, announced he would join the organization as an OSDL Fellow to work full-time on future versions of Linux.
In 2007, OSDL merged with the Free Standards Group, another organization promoting the adoption of Linux. At the time, Jim Zemlin, who headed FSG, took over as executive director of The Linux Foundation where he remains today. On September 11, 2011, The Linux Foundation's website was taken down due to a breach discovered 27 days prior, including but limited to all attendant subdomains of The Linux Foundation, such as Linux.com. Major parts including OpenPrinting were still offline on October 20, 2011; the restoration was complete on January 4, 2012. In March 2014, The Linux Foundation announced it would begin building a MOOC program with nonprofit education platform, edX; the aim of this collaboration was to serve the growing demand for Linux expertise in a vehicle, available to "anyone, anywhere in the world, at any time." At this point, their first offering was a basic "Introduction to Linux" course, but the library has since expanded to include Intro to Cloud Infrastructure Te