Luhansk People's Republic
The Luhansk People's Republic known as Lugansk People's Republic abbreviated as LPR or LNR, is a landlocked proto-state in the Donbass region, in eastern Ukraine. Along with the Donetsk People's Republic, the LPR declared independence from Ukraine in the aftermath of the 2014 Ukrainian revolution. An armed conflict with Ukraine followed its declaration of independence, during which the LPR and DPR received military and humanitarian assistance from Russia; this conflict is still ongoing as of April 2019. LPR remains unrecognized by any UN member state, including Russia—although Russia recognizes documents issued by the LPR government, such as identity documents, diplomas and marriage certificates and vehicle registration plates. Ukraine's legislation describes the LPR's area as a "temporarily occupied territory" and its government as an "occupying administration of the Russian Federation". Ukraine's prosecutor general said that the LPR is a terrorist organisation, although LPR is not considered as such by any other country than Ukraine.
The LPR is landlocked and borders Ukraine to the north, the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic to the west, Russia to the east. The LPR extends to half of the Luhansk Oblast, including its densely populated areas, the regional capital Lugansk, as well as the major cities Alchevsk and Krasnodon. 64.4% of the population of the Oblast lives in the LPR. The northern part of Luhansk Oblast, predominantly Ukrainian-speaking, has remained under Ukrainian control; the territory controlled by the LPR is but not coincident with the right bank of the Donets. The highest point of the LPR is Grave Mechetna hill, located in the vicinity of the city of Petrovske; the population of the republic is estimated by the LPR's bureau of statistics at 1.5 million people, although the exactness of this estimate is questionable due to war-time migration and a lack of independent sources. 435,000 of the republic's population live in Luhansk, where the republic has its administration. Lugansk and Donetsk People's republics are located in the historical region of Donbass, added to Ukraine in 1922.
The majority of the population speak Russian as their first language. Attempts by various Ukrainian governments to question the legitimacy of the Russian culture in Ukraine had since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine resulted in political conflict. In the Ukrainian national elections, a remarkably stable pattern had developed, where Donbass and the Western Ukrainian regions had voted for the opposite candidates since the presidential election in 1994. Viktor Yanukovych, a Donetsk native, had been elected as a president of Ukraine in 2010, his overthrow in the 2014 Ukrainian revolution led to protests in Eastern Ukraine, which escalated into an armed conflict between the newly formed Ukrainian government and the local armed militias. On 5 March 2014, 12 days after the protesters in Kiev seized the president's office, a crowd of people in front of the Luhansk Oblast State Administration building proclaimed Aleksandr Kharitonov as "People's Governor" in Luhansk region. On 9 March 2014 Luganskaya Gvadiya of Kharitonov stormed the government building in Luhansk and forced the newly appointed Governor of Luhansk Oblast, Mykhailo Bolotskykh, to sign a letter of resignation.
One-thousand pro-Russian activists seized and occupied the Security Service of Ukraine building in the city of Luhansk on 6 April 2014, following similar occupations in Donetsk and Kharkiv. The activists demanded that separatist leaders, arrested in previous weeks be released. In anticipation of attempts by the government to retake the building, barricades were erected to reinforce the positions of the activists, it was proposed by the activists that a "Lugansk Parliamentary Republic" be declared on 8 April 2014, but this did not occur. By 12 April, the government had regained control over the SBU building with the assistance of local police forces. Several thousand protesters gathered for a'people's assembly' outside the regional state administration building in Luhansk city on 21 April; these protesters called for the creation of a'people's government', demanded either federalisation of Ukraine or incorporation of Luhansk into the Russian Federation. They elected Valery Bolotov as'People's Governor' of Luhansk Oblast.
Two referendums were announced by the leadership of the activists. One was scheduled for 11 May, was meant to determine whether the region would seek greater autonomy, or retain its previous constitutional status within Ukraine. Another referendum, meant to be held on 18 May in the event that the first referendum favoured autonomy, was to determine whether the region would join the Russian Federation, or become independent. During a gathering outside the RSA building on 27 April 2014, pro-Russian activists proclaimed the "Luhansk People's Republic"; the protesters issued demands, which said that the Ukrainian government should provide amnesty for all protesters, include the Russian language as an official language of Ukraine, hold a referendum on the status of Luhansk Oblast. They warned the Ukrainian government that if it did not meet these demands by 14:00 on 29 April, they would launch an armed insurgency in tandem with that of the Donetsk People's Republic; as the Ukrainian government did
Ukraine, sometimes called the Ukraine, is a country in Eastern Europe. Excluding Crimea, Ukraine has a population of about 42.5 million, making it the 32nd most populous country in the world. Its capital and largest city is Kiev. Ukrainian is the official language and its alphabet is Cyrillic; the dominant religions in the country are Greek Catholicism. Ukraine is in a territorial dispute with Russia over the Crimean Peninsula, which Russia annexed in 2014. Including Crimea, Ukraine has an area of 603,628 km2, making it the largest country within Europe and the 46th largest country in the world; the territory of modern Ukraine has been inhabited since 32,000 BC. During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture, with the powerful state of Kievan Rus' forming the basis of Ukrainian identity. Following its fragmentation in the 13th century, the territory was contested and divided by a variety of powers, including Lithuania, Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire and Russia. A Cossack republic emerged and prospered during the 17th and 18th centuries, but its territory was split between Poland and the Russian Empire, merged into the Russian-dominated Soviet Union in the late 1940s as the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic.
In 1991 Ukraine gained its independence from the Soviet Union in the aftermath of its dissolution at the end of the Cold War. Before its independence, Ukraine was referred to in English as "The Ukraine", but most sources have since moved to drop "the" from the name of Ukraine in all uses. Following its independence, Ukraine declared itself a neutral state. In 2013, after the government of President Viktor Yanukovych had decided to suspend the Ukraine-European Union Association Agreement and seek closer economic ties with Russia, a several-months-long wave of demonstrations and protests known as the Euromaidan began, which escalated into the 2014 Ukrainian revolution that led to the overthrow of Yanukovych and the establishment of a new government; these events formed the background for the annexation of Crimea by Russia in March 2014, the War in Donbass in April 2014. On 1 January 2016, Ukraine applied the economic component of the Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area with the European Union.
Ukraine is ranks 88th on the Human Development Index. As of 2018, Ukraine has the second lowest GDP per capita in Europe. At US$40, it has the lowest median wealth per adult in the world, it suffers from a high poverty rate and severe corruption. However, because of its extensive fertile farmlands, Ukraine is one of the world's largest grain exporters. Ukraine maintains the second-largest military in Europe after that of Russia; the country is home to a multi-ethnic population, 77.8 percent of whom are Ukrainians, followed by a large Russian minority, as well as Georgians, Belarusians, Crimean Tatars, Jews and Hungarians. Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system with separate powers: legislative and judicial branches; the country is a member of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, the GUAM organization, one of the founding states of the Commonwealth of Independent States. There are different hypotheses as to the etymology of the name Ukraine. According to the older widespread hypothesis, it means "borderland", while some more recent linguistic studies claim a different meaning: "homeland" or "region, country"."The Ukraine" used to be the usual form in English, but since the Declaration of Independence of Ukraine, "the Ukraine" has become less common in the English-speaking world, style-guides recommend not using the definite article.
"The Ukraine" now implies disregard for the country's sovereignty, according to U. S. ambassador William Taylor. The Ukrainian position is that the usage of "'The Ukraine' is incorrect both grammatically and politically." Neanderthal settlement in Ukraine is seen in the Molodova archaeological sites which include a mammoth bone dwelling. The territory is considered to be the location for the human domestication of the horse. Modern human settlement in Ukraine and its vicinity dates back to 32,000 BC, with evidence of the Gravettian culture in the Crimean Mountains. By 4,500 BC, the Neolithic Cucuteni–Trypillia culture flourished in wide areas of modern Ukraine including Trypillia and the entire Dnieper-Dniester region. During the Iron Age, the land was inhabited by Cimmerians and Sarmatians. Between 700 BC and 200 BC it was Scythia. Beginning in the sixth century BC, colonies of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome and the Byzantine Empire, such as Tyras and Chersonesus, were founded on the northeastern shore of the Black Sea.
These colonies thrived well into the 6th century AD. The Goths stayed in the area but came under the sway of the Huns from the 370s AD. In the 7th century AD, the territory of eastern Ukraine was the centre of Old Great Bulgaria. At the end of the century, the majority of Bulgar tribes migrated in different directions, the Khazars took over much of the land. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the Antes were located in the territory of; the Antes were the ancestors of Ukrainians: White Croats, Polans, Dulebes and Tiverians. Migrations from Ukraine throughout the Balkans established many Southern Slavic nations. Northern migrations, reaching to the Ilmen l
Turkcell İletişim Hizmetleri A.Ş. is the leading mobile phone operator of Turkey, based in Istanbul. The company has 34.4 million subscribers as of September 30, 2011. In 2015, the company's number of subscribers climbed to 68.9 million, in nine countries Largest shareholder is Telia Finland Oyj with 51% ownership. It is one of the worlds biggest companies list published by Fortune. In February 1994, Turkcell started Turkey's first GSM network. In Q3 2012, it had a market share of 52,4%, its competitors were Vodafone with a market share of 27,9% and Avea with a market share of 19,7%. Turkcell is the first Turkish company to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange, where its shares have been traded since July 11, 2000 along with trading on the Istanbul Stock Exchange. Turkcell's shareholder structure is as follows: 51% is held by Turkcell Holding A.Ş. 0.05% by Çukurova Holding A.Ş. 13.07% by Sonera Holding B. V. 1.18% by MV Holding A.Ş. and the free float is 34.7%. As of December 2011, Sonera Holding and Cukurova Group and indirectly, own 37.1% and 13.8% of Turkcell’s share capital.
Çukurova Group agreed to sell a large stake to TeliaSonera in March 2005. They have since been debating whether this agreement is binding. In August 2009 the International Chamber of Commerce issued an award stating that Çukurova must deliver all the remaining shares in Turkcell Holding to TeliaSonera. Turkcell provides GSM services internationally, it has 9.6 million subscribers via Fintur Holdings and its affiliates in partnership with TeliaSonera in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan and Moldova, as of September 30, 2007. Turkcell's Ukrainian wholly owned business Astelit has 13.6 million subscribers. In 2009 they were the first company to get 3G services for their customers in Turkey. Turkcell provides coverage of an area that, as of March 31, 2007, includes 100% of the population living in cities of 3,000 or more people, 97.21% of the total population, 80.44% of Turkey's land area. The company has a few blind spots in mountainous areas in the Eastern region. Turkcell operates overseas, its Northern Cyprus brand is known as Kuzey Kıbrıs Turkcell which operates in the Northern Cyprus only.
KKTcell runs separately from Turkey's Turkcell, although the ownership of the network is the same. KKTcell is the North's largest Network Provider at the moment, in terms of registered users and network coverage. KKTcell numbers can be distinguished from Mainland Turkey Turkcell numbers as KKTcell numbers begin with 90 8XX-XXXX. Turkcell has international roaming agreements with 605 operators in 201 countries as of September, 2008, it claims to have more international GPRS roaming agreements than any other operator. It applies discounted roaming costs when calling from a Turkcell mobile to a KKTurkcell number. Turkcell has been the "Official Communication Sponsor" of the national football and basketball teams since 2002, it sponsors 14 of the 18 football teams in the Turkish Super League. The "Turkcell Football Awards" project was initiated in 2003 to encourage "fair play" by awarding athletes who show fairness and solidarity. Turkcell sponsors the Istanbul International Film Festival and co-sponsors the Istanbul International Jazz Festival.
Since 1999, Turkcell has supported the restoration of the ancient city walls in Bodrum. The last phase of the project, the restoration of an ancient theater, was completed in June 2003. Turkcell has continued to sponsor the CeBIT Bilişim Eurasia event, one of the major information technology fairs in Europe, for the tenth time in 2007. Turkcell's main educational project, "Modern Girls of Modern Turkey", which started in 2000, grants scholarships to 5,000 young women in less developed parts of the country; the project received international recognition in June 2001, when it won the UK "Institute of Public Relations Excellence Award" and the "Crystal Obelisk Award" from the Foundation of Women Executives in Public Relations in New York City in 2002. Turkcell Superonline, one of Turkcell's subsidiaries and a major ISP in Turkey, has been criticized for injecting advertisements; the company has not responded to the questions about the injections. This event was described as the first evidence of traffic monitoring and manipulation in Turkey with deep packet inspection.
In May 2013, Turkcell dropped its multibillion-dollar US lawsuit against MTN Group, citing a US Supreme Court ruling that hurt its case. The operator filed a $4.2 billion lawsuit in Washington in 2012 alleging the company used bribery to win a mobile license in Iran, first awarded to Turkcell. The court delayed the case in October 2012 pending a US Supreme Court decision on the Alien Tort Statute, the U. S. human rights law on which Turkcell's suit is based. Turkcell official site Vodafone buys Turkish mobile firm, BBC News, 13 December 2005 Turkey's Turkcell buys Belarus's BeST for $500 mln Sureyya Ciliv on Charlie Rose
Kiev or Kyiv is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine, located in the north-central part of the country on the Dnieper. The population in July 2015 was 2,887,974. Kiev is an important industrial, scientific and cultural center of Eastern Europe, it is home to many high-tech industries, higher education institutions, world-famous historical landmarks. The city has an extensive infrastructure and developed system of public transport, including the Kiev Metro; the city's name is said to derive from the name of one of its four legendary founders. During its history, one of the oldest cities in Eastern Europe, passed through several stages of great prominence and relative obscurity; the city existed as a commercial centre as early as the 5th century. A Slavic settlement on the great trade route between Scandinavia and Constantinople, Kiev was a tributary of the Khazars, until its capture by the Varangians in the mid-9th century. Under Varangian rule, the city became a capital of the first East Slavic state.
Destroyed during the Mongol invasions in 1240, the city lost most of its influence for the centuries to come. It was a provincial capital of marginal importance in the outskirts of the territories controlled by its powerful neighbours; the city prospered again during the Russian Empire's Industrial Revolution in the late 19th century. In 1917, after the Ukrainian National Republic declared independence from the Russian Empire, Kiev became its capital. From 1921 onwards Kiev was a city of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, proclaimed by the Red Army, from 1934, Kiev was its capital. During World War II, the city again suffered significant damage, but recovered in the post-war years, remaining the third largest city of the Soviet Union. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union and Ukrainian independence in 1991, Kiev remained the capital of Ukraine and experienced a steady migration influx of ethnic Ukrainians from other regions of the country. During the country's transformation to a market economy and electoral democracy, Kiev has continued to be Ukraine's largest and richest city.
Kiev's armament-dependent industrial output fell after the Soviet collapse, adversely affecting science and technology. But new sectors of the economy such as services and finance facilitated Kiev's growth in salaries and investment, as well as providing continuous funding for the development of housing and urban infrastructure. Kiev emerged as the most pro-Western region of Ukraine where parties advocating tighter integration with the European Union dominate during elections. Kiev is the traditional and most used English name for the city; the Ukrainian government however uses Kyiv as the mandatory romanization where legislative and official acts are translated into English. As a prominent city with a long history, its English name was subject to gradual evolution; the early English spelling was derived from Old East Slavic form Kyjevŭ. The name is associated with that of the legendary eponymous founder of the city. Early English sources use various names, including Kiou, Kiew, Kiovia. On one of the oldest English maps of the region, Moscoviae et Tartariae published by Ortelius the name of the city is spelled Kiou.
On the 1650 map by Guillaume de Beauplan, the name of the city is Kiiow, the region was named Kÿowia. In the book Travels, by Joseph Marshall, the city is referred to as Kiovia; the form Kiev is based on Russian orthography and pronunciation, during a time when Kiev was in the Russian Empire. In English, Kiev was used in print as early as in 1804 in the John Cary's "New map of Europe, from the latest authorities" in "Cary's new universal atlas" published in London; the English travelogue titled New Russia: Journey from Riga to the Crimea by way of Kiev, by Mary Holderness was published in 1823. By 1883, the Oxford English Dictionary included Kiev in a quotation. Kyiv is the romanized version of the name of the city used in modern Ukrainian. Following independence in 1991, the Ukrainian government introduced the national rules for transliteration of geographic names from Ukrainian into English. According to the rules, the Ukrainian Київ transliterates into Kyiv; this has established the use of the spelling Kyiv in all official documents issued by the governmental authorities since October 1995.
The spelling is used by the United Nations, European Union, all English-speaking foreign diplomatic missions, several international organizations, Encarta encyclopedia, by some media in Ukraine. In October 2006, the United States Board on Geographic Names unanimously voted to change its standard transliteration to Kyiv, effective for the entire U. S. government, although'Kiev' remains the BGN conventional name for this city. The alternate romanizations Kyyiv and Kyjiv are in use in English-language atlases. Many major English-language news sources like the BBC, The New York Times continue to prefer Kiev, but others have adopted Kyiv in their style guides, including The Economist and The Guardian. Kiev, one of the oldest cities of Eastern Europe, played a pivotal role in the development of the medieval East Slavic civilization as well as in the modern Ukrainian nation. Scholars debate as to period of the foundation of the city: some date the founding to the late 9th century, other historians
Rinat Leonidovych Akhmetov is a Ukrainian businessman and oligarch. He is the founder and President of System Capital Management, is ranked among the wealthiest men in Ukraine; as of February 2015, he was listed as the 216th richest man in the world with an estimated net worth of US 5 billion. Some sources have claimed that Akhmetov has been involved in organized crime, but Akhmetov has never been charged with a crime, his lawyers refuted these accusations. Akhmetov is President of the Ukrainian football club Shakhtar Donetsk. In 2006–2007 and 2007–2012 Akhmetov was a member of the Ukrainian Verkhovna Rada for the Party of Regions. Akhmetov made numerous statements, since March 2014, appealing for integrity of Ukraine and finding peaceful solutions of the crisis. Rinat Akhmetov was born in Donetsk, Ukrainian SSR to a working-class family, he is a practicing Sunni Muslim. His father, Leonid Akhmetov was a coal-miner, his mother, Nyakiya Nasredinovna, was a shop assistant. Rinat Akhmetov has an older brother, who worked as a coal miner but had to resign due to work-related health complications.
Akhmetov obtained a Bachelor of Arts / Science in Economics from the Donetsk National University. He graduated in 2001. Details regarding Akhmetov's past, how he obtained his wealth after the fall of communism in Ukraine, the decade between 1985 and 1995 remain controversial. Akhmetov has stated in interviews that he obtained his wealth by making risky business investments in the first years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, responded to allegations in 2010, denying he has inherited any money from Akhat Bragin or anyone else: "I have earned my first million by trading coal and coke, spent the money on assets that no one wanted to buy, it was a risk but it was worth it". Many publications in Ukraine and other European countries have made claims about Akhmetov's alleged "criminal past", some of which retracted their statements. In 2005 Akhmetov hired American lawyers Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld, who issued a statement denying that Akhmetov has any ties with the criminal world. In his documentary book Donetsk Mafia: Anthology, Ukrainian author Serhiy Kuzin claims Akhmetov held the role of a'mafia thug' in his early years.
Andrew Wilson, a scholar specializing in Ukrainian politics, categorized Akhmetov as an alleged former'enforcer' and'leader' of " Bragin's'Tatar' clan", responsible for the use of "mafia methods to push aside the'red directors' of the ". By the early 1990s, Akhmetov began acquiring property in Donetsk by means of extortion with the assistance of Volodymyr Malyshev, Lieutenant-General of The Head of Ministry of Internal Affairs Department in Donetsk Oblast. Malyshev, now a member of Ukraine's Parliament on the committee controlling law enforcement, is accused by Kuzin of using his position to do away with existing police records concerning Akhmetov shortly before becoming chief of security for Akhmetov's company. "In, Akhmetov was different – he was private with no public persona, was trying to find ways to deal with his'difficult past'", noted U. S. ambassador William Taylor. Further in that article cited the answer of the spokesperson for Akhmetov addressed to the Kyiv Post: "We don't know whether this phrase is authentic and what it means.
Although, any accusations of Mr Akhmetov's involvement in criminal structures is slander." In October 1995, president of Shakhtar Donetsk football club, was killed in a mysterious bombing along with six of his bodyguards at the team's stadium during a match. Some rumours associate Akhmetov with the death of Bragin. Following the assassinations, Akhmetov is said to have "inherited a vast financial empire from Bragin". Akhmetov would head Dongorbank in 1995. In September 1999, an official Ukrainian Ministry of Internal Affairs report titled the "Overview of the Most Dangerous Organized Crime Structures in Ukraine" identified Akhmetov as a leader of an organized crime syndicate; the report tied the group to money laundering, financial fraud, the control of numerous large and fictitious companies. The report says that the group's activities "have been stopped," and says further that their criminal natures "have not been confirmed". Released in a WikiLeaks diplomatic cable, Volodymyr Horbulin, one of Ukraine's most respected policy strategists and former presidential advisor, told the U.
S. Ambassador to Ukraine in 2006 that the Party of Regions, which "enjoyed deep pockets, being financed by billionaire Donetsk boss Rinat Akhmetov" is composed of "pure criminals" and "criminal and anti-democracy figures". In a U. S. diplomatic cable dated 3 February 2006 U. S. Ambassador John Herbst referred to Akhmetov's Party of Regions as "long a haven for Donetsk-based mobsters and oligarchs" and called Akhmetov the "godfather" of the Donetsk clan. After Ukraine's Orange Revolution of late 2004, in an attempt to fight corruption, several prominent businessmen who were Party of Regions members came unde
Corporate social responsibility
Corporate social responsibility is a type of international private business self-regulation. While once it was possible to describe CSR as an internal organisational policy or a corporate ethic strategy, that time has passed as various international laws have been developed and various organisations have used their authority to push it beyond individual or industry-wide initiatives. While it has been considered a form of corporate self-regulation for some time, over the last decade or so it has moved from voluntary decisions at the level of individual organisations, to mandatory schemes at regional and transnational levels. Considered at the organisational level, CSR is understood as a private firm policy; as such, it must be integrated into a business model to be successful. With some models, a firm's implementation of CSR goes beyond compliance with regulatory requirements and engages in "actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that, required by law".
The choices of'complying' with the law, failing to comply, and'going beyond' are three distinct strategic organisational choices. While in many areas such as environmental or labor regulations, employers may choose to comply with the law, or go beyond the law, other organisations may choose to flout the law; these organisations are taking on clear legal risks. The nature of the legal risk, changes when attention is paid to soft law. Soft law may incur legal liability when businesses make misleading claims about their sustainability or other ethical credentials and practices. Overall, businesses may engage in CSR for ethical purposes. From a strategic perspective, the aim is to increase long-term profits and shareholder trust through positive public relations and high ethical standards to reduce business and legal risk by taking responsibility for corporate actions. CSR strategies encourage the company to make a positive impact on the environment and stakeholders including consumers, investors and others.
From an ethical perspective, some businesses will adopt CSR policies and practices because of ethical beliefs of senior management. For example, a CEO may believe. Proponents argue that corporations increase long-term profits by operating with a CSR perspective, while critics argue that CSR distracts from businesses' economic role. A 2000 study compared existing econometric studies of the relationship between social and financial performance, concluding that the contradictory results of previous studies reporting positive and neutral financial impact, were due to flawed empirical analysis and claimed when the study is properly specified, CSR has a neutral impact on financial outcomes. Critics questioned the "lofty" and sometimes "unrealistic expectations" in CSR. or that CSR is window-dressing, or an attempt to pre-empt the role of governments as a watchdog over powerful multinational corporations. In line with this critical perspective and sociological institutionalists became interested in CSR in the context of theories of globalization and late capitalism.
Some institutionalists viewed CSR as a form of capitalist legitimacy and in particular point out that what began as a social movement against uninhibited corporate power was transformed by corporations into a "business model" and a "risk management" device with questionable results. CSR is titled to aid an organization's mission as well as serve as a guide to what the company represents for its consumers. Business ethics is the part of applied ethics that examines ethical principles and moral or ethical problems that can arise in a business environment. ISO 26000 is the recognized international standard for CSR. Public sector organizations adhere to the triple bottom line, it is accepted that CSR adheres to similar principles, but with no formal act of legislation. Since the 1960s, corporate social responsibility has attracted attention from a range of businesses and stakeholders. A wide variety of definitions have been developed but with little consensus. Part of the problem with definitions has arisen because of the different interests represented.
A business person may define CSR as a business strategy, an NGO activist may see it as'greenwash' while a government official may see it as voluntary regulation." In addition, disagreement about the definition will arise from the disciplinary approach." For example, while an economist might consider the director's discretion necessary for CSR to be implemented a risk of agency costs, a law academic may consider that discretion to be an appropriate expression of what the law demands from directors. Corporate social responsibility has been defined by Sheehy as "international private business self-regulation." Sheehy examined a range of different disciplinary approaches to defining CSR. The definitions reviewed included the economic definition of "sacrificing profits," a management definition of "beyond compliance", institutionalist views of CSR as a "socio-political movement" and law's own focus on directors' duties. Further, Sheehy considered Archie Carroll's description of CSR as a pyramid of responsibilities, economic, legal and philanthropic responsibilities.
While Carroll was not defining CSR, but arguing for classification of activities, Sheehy developed a definition differently following the philosophy of science—the branch of philosophy used for defining phenomena. Carroll extended corporate social responsibility from the tradi
GSM is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute to describe the protocols for second-generation digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as mobile phones and tablets. It was first deployed in Finland in December 1991; as of 2014, it has become the global standard for mobile communications – with over 90% market share, operating in over 193 countries and territories.2G networks developed as a replacement for first generation analog cellular networks, the GSM standard described a digital, circuit-switched network optimized for full duplex voice telephony. This expanded over time to include data communications, first by circuit-switched transport by packet data transport via GPRS and EDGE. Subsequently, the 3GPP developed third-generation UMTS standards, followed by fourth-generation LTE Advanced standards, which do not form part of the ETSI GSM standard. "GSM" is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may refer to the most common voice codec used, Full Rate.
In 1983, work began to develop a European standard for digital cellular voice telecommunications when the European Conference of Postal and Telecommunications Administrations set up the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee and provided a permanent technical-support group based in Paris. Five years in 1987, 15 representatives from 13 European countries signed a memorandum of understanding in Copenhagen to develop and deploy a common cellular telephone system across Europe, EU rules were passed to make GSM a mandatory standard; the decision to develop a continental standard resulted in a unified, standard-based network, larger than that in the United States. In February 1987 Europe produced the first agreed GSM Technical Specification. Ministers from the four big EU countries cemented their political support for GSM with the Bonn Declaration on Global Information Networks in May and the GSM MoU was tabled for signature in September; the MoU drew in mobile operators from across Europe to pledge to invest in new GSM networks to an ambitious common date.
In this short 38-week period the whole of Europe had been brought behind GSM in a rare unity and speed guided by four public officials: Armin Silberhorn, Stephen Temple, Philippe Dupuis, Renzo Failli. In 1989 the Groupe Spécial Mobile committee was transferred from CEPT to the European Telecommunications Standards Institute. In parallel France and Germany signed a joint development agreement in 1984 and were joined by Italy and the UK in 1986. In 1986, the European Commission proposed reserving the 900 MHz spectrum band for GSM; the former Finnish prime minister Harri Holkeri made the world's first GSM call on July 1, 1991, calling Kaarina Suonio using a network built by Telenokia and Siemens and operated by Radiolinja. The following year saw the sending of the first short messaging service message, Vodafone UK and Telecom Finland signed the first international roaming agreement. Work began in 1991 to expand the GSM standard to the 1800 MHz frequency band and the first 1800 MHz network became operational in the UK by 1993, called and DCS 1800.
That year, Telecom Australia became the first network operator to deploy a GSM network outside Europe and the first practical hand-held GSM mobile phone became available. In 1995 fax, data and SMS messaging services were launched commercially, the first 1900 MHz GSM network became operational in the United States and GSM subscribers worldwide exceeded 10 million. In the same year, the GSM Association formed. Pre-paid GSM SIM cards were launched in 1996 and worldwide GSM subscribers passed 100 million in 1998. In 2000 the first commercial GPRS services were launched and the first GPRS-compatible handsets became available for sale. In 2001, the first UMTS network was launched, a 3G technology, not part of GSM. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 500 million. In 2002, the first Multimedia Messaging Service was introduced and the first GSM network in the 800 MHz frequency band became operational. EDGE services first became operational in a network in 2003, the number of worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded 1 billion in 2004.
By 2005 GSM networks accounted for more than 75% of the worldwide cellular network market, serving 1.5 billion subscribers. In 2005, the first HSDPA-capable network became operational; the first HSUPA network launched in 2007. Worldwide GSM subscribers exceeded three billion in 2008; the GSM Association estimated in 2010 that technologies defined in the GSM standard served 80% of the mobile market, encompassing more than 5 billion people across more than 212 countries and territories, making GSM the most ubiquitous of the many standards for cellular networks. GSM is a second-generation standard employing time-division multiple-Access spectrum-sharing, issued by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute; the GSM standard does not include the 3G Universal Mobile Telecommunications System code division multiple access technology nor the 4G LTE orthogonal frequency-division multiple access technology standards issued by the 3GPP. GSM, for the first time, set a common standard for Europe for wireless networks.
It was adopted by many countries outside Europe. This allowed subscribers to use other GSM networks; the common standard reduced research and development costs, since ha