Digital rights management
Digital rights management tools or technological protection measures are a set of access control technologies for restricting the use of proprietary hardware and copyrighted works. DRM technologies try to control the use and distribution of copyrighted works, as well as systems within devices that enforce these policies; the use of digital rights management is not universally accepted. Proponents of DRM argue that it is necessary to prevent intellectual property from being copied just as physical locks are needed to prevent personal property from being stolen, that it can help the copyright holder maintain artistic control, that it can ensure continued revenue streams; those opposed to DRM contend there is no evidence that DRM helps prevent copyright infringement, arguing instead that it serves only to inconvenience legitimate customers, that DRM helps big business stifle innovation and competition. Furthermore, works can become permanently inaccessible if the DRM scheme changes or if the service is discontinued.
DRM can restrict users from exercising their legal rights under the copyright law, such as backing up copies of CDs or DVDs, lending materials out through a library, accessing works in the public domain, or using copyrighted materials for research and education under the fair use doctrine. The Electronic Frontier Foundation and the Free Software Foundation consider the use of DRM systems to be an anti-competitive practice. Worldwide, many laws have been created which criminalize the circumvention of DRM, communication about such circumvention, the creation and distribution of tools used for such circumvention; such laws are part of the United States' Digital Millennium Copyright Act, the European Union's Copyright Directive. The rise of digital media and analog-to-digital conversion technologies has vastly increased the concerns of copyright-owning individuals and organizations within the music and movie industries. While analog media lost quality with each copy generation, in some cases during normal use, digital media files may be duplicated an unlimited number of times with no degradation in the quality.
The rise of personal computers as household appliances has made it convenient for consumers to convert media in a physical, analog or broadcast form into a universal, digital form for portability or viewing later. This, combined with the Internet and popular file-sharing tools, has made unauthorized distribution of copies of copyrighted digital media much easier. In 1983, a early implementation of Digital Rights Management was the Software Service System devised by the Japanese engineer Ryuichi Moriya. and subsequently refined under the name superdistribution. The SSS was based on encryption, with specialized hardware that controlled decryption and enabled payments to be sent to the copyright holder; the underlying principle of the SSS and subsequently of superdistribution was that the distribution of encrypted digital products should be unrestricted and that users of those products would not just be permitted to redistribute them but would be encouraged to do so. Common DRM techniques include restrictive licensing agreements: The access to digital materials and public domain is restricted to consumers as a condition of entering a website or when downloading software.
Encryption, scrambling of expressive material and embedding of a tag, designed to control access and reproduction of information, including backup copies for personal use. DRM technologies enable content publishers to enforce their own access policies on content, such as restrictions on copying or viewing; these technologies have been criticized for restricting individuals from copying or using the content such as by fair use. DRM is in common use by the entertainment industry. Many online music stores, such as Apple's iTunes Store, e-book publishers and vendors, such as OverDrive use DRM, as do cable and satellite service operators, to prevent unauthorized use of content or services. However, Apple dropped DRM from all iTunes music files around 2009. Industry has expanded the usage of DRM to more traditional hardware products, such as Keurig's coffeemakers, Philips' light bulbs, mobile device power chargers, John Deere's tractors. For instance, tractor companies try to prevent farmers from making DIY repairs under usage of DRM-laws as DMCA.
Computer games sometimes use DRM technologies to limit the number of systems the game can be installed on by requiring authentication with an online server. Most games with this restriction allow three or five installs, although some allow an installation to be'recovered' when the game is uninstalled; this not only limits users who have more than three or five computers in their homes, but can prove to be a problem if the user has to unexpectedly perform certain tasks like upgrading operating systems or reformatting the computer's hard drive, tasks which, depending on how the DRM is implemented, count a game's subsequent reinstall as a new installation, making the game unusable after a certain period if it is only used on a single computer. In mid-2008, the Windows version of Mass Effect marked the start of a wave of titles making use of SecuROM for DRM and requiring authentication with a server; the use of t
Windows Media Player
Windows Media Player is a media player and media library application developed by Microsoft, used for playing audio and viewing images on personal computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system, as well as on Pocket PC and Windows Mobile-based devices. Editions of Windows Media Player were released for classic Mac OS, Mac OS X and Solaris but development of these has since been discontinued. In addition to being a media player, Windows Media Player includes the ability to rip music from and copy music to compact discs, burn recordable discs in Audio CD format or as data discs with playlists such as an MP3 CD, synchronize content with a digital audio player or other mobile devices, enable users to purchase or rent music from a number of online music stores. Windows Media Player replaced an earlier application called Media Player, adding features beyond simple video or audio playback. Windows Media Player 11 is available for Windows XP and included in Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008.
The default file formats are Windows Media Video, Windows Media Audio, Advanced Systems Format, its own XML based playlist format called Windows Playlist. The player is able to utilize a digital rights management service in the form of Windows Media DRM. Windows Media Player 12 is the most recent version of Windows Media Player, it was released on October 22, 2009 along with Windows 7 and has not been made available for previous versions of Windows or has it been updated since for Windows 8, Windows 8.1 and Windows 10. These versions of Windows instead use Groove Music and Microsoft Movies & TV as the default playback applications for most media. Windows RT does not run Windows Media Player; the first version of Windows Media Player appeared in 1991, when Windows 3.0 with Multimedia Extensions was released. Called Media Player, this component was included with "Multimedia PC"-compatible machines but not available for retail sale, it was capable of playing.mmm animation files, could be extended to support other formats.
It used MCI to handle media files. Being a component of Windows, Media Player shows the same version number as that of the version Windows with which it was included. Microsoft continually produced new programs to play media files. In November of the following year, Video for Windows was introduced with the ability to play digital video files in an AVI container format, with codec support for RLE and Video1, support for playing uncompressed files. Indeo 3.2 was added in a release. Video for Windows was first available as a free add-on to Windows 3.1, integrated into Windows 95 and Windows NT 4.0. In 1995, Microsoft released ActiveMovie with DirectX Media SDK. ActiveMovie incorporates a new way of dealing with media files, adds support for streaming media. In 1996, ActiveMovie was renamed DirectShow. However, Media Player continued to come with Windows until Windows XP, in which it was renamed Windows Media Player v5.1. In 1999, Windows Media Player's versioning broke away from that of Windows itself.
Windows Media Player 6.4 came as an out-of-band update for Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows NT 4.0 that co-existed with Media Player and became a built-in component of Windows 2000, Windows ME and Windows XP with an mplayer2.exe stub allowing to use this built-in instead of newer versions. Windows Media Player 7.0 and its successors came in the same fashion, replacing each other but leaving Media Player and Windows Media Player 6.4 intact. Windows XP is the only operating system to have three different versions of Windows Media Player side by side. All versions branded. Windows Media Player version 7 was a large revamp, with a new user interface and increased functionality. Windows Vista, dropped older versions of Windows Media Player in favor of v11. Beginning with Windows Vista, Windows Media Player supports the Media Foundation framework besides DirectShow. Windows Media Player 12 was released with Windows 7, it added new features. With Windows 8, the player did not receive an upgrade. On April 16, 2012, Microsoft announced that Windows Media Player would not be included in Windows RT, the line of Windows designed to run on ARM based devices.
Windows Media Player supports playback of audio and pictures, along with fast forward, file markers and variable playback speed. It supports streaming playback with multicast streams and progressive downloads. Items in a playlist can be skipped over temporarily at playback time without removing them from the playlist. Full keyboard-based operation is possible in the player. Windows Media Player supports full media management, via the integrated media library introduced first in version 7, which offers cataloguing and searching of media and viewing media metadata. Media can be arranged according to album, genre, date et al. Windows Media Player 9 Series introduced Quick Access Panel to browse and navigate the entire library through a menu; the Quick Access Panel was added to the mini mode in version 10 but was removed in version 11. WMP 9 Series introduced ratings and Auto Ratings. Windows Media Player 10 introduced support for aggregating pictures, Recorded TV shows, other media into the library.
Sony Music Entertainment Japan
Sony Music Entertainment Inc. abbreviated as SMEJ or SME, known as Sony Music Japan for short, is Sony's music arm in Japan. SMEJ is directly owned by Sony Corporation and independent from the United States-based Sony Music Entertainment due to its strength in the Japanese music industry, its subsidiaries including the Japanese animation production enterprise, established in September 1995 as a joint-venture between Sony Music Entertainment Japan and Sony Pictures Entertainment Japan, but which in 2001 became a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Entertainment Japan. It was prominent in the early to mid'90s producing and licensing music for animated series such as Roujin Z from acclaimed Japanese comic artist Katsuhiro Otomo and Capcom's Street Fighter animated series; until March 2007, Sony Music Japan had its own North American sublabel, Tofu Records. Releases of Sony Music Japan now appear on Columbia Records and/or Epic Records in North America. Sony does not have the trademark rights to the Columbia name in Japan, so releases under Columbia Records from another country appears on Sony Records in Japan, but retains the usage of the "walking eye" logo.
The Columbia name and trademark is controlled by Nippon Columbia, which was, in fact, the licensee for the American Columbia Records up until 1968 though relations were severed as far back as World War II. Nippon Columbia does not have direct relations with the British Columbia Graphophone Company, so the licensee for the British Columbia Graphophone Company was Toshiba Musical Industries. With Sony Corporation of America's buyout of Bertelsmann's stake in Sony BMG, Sony Music Entertainment Japan stepped in to acquire outstanding shares of BMG Music Japan from Sony BMG, making it a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony Music Japan. Sony Music Entertainment Japan was incorporated in March 1968 as a Tokyo-based 50/50 joint venture between Sony Corporation and U. S. conglomerate CBS to distribute the latter's music releases in Japan. The company was incorporated with Sony co-founder Akio Morita as president. Norio Ohga was part of the management team from the formation of the company and served as president and representative director since April 1970.
In 1972, when CBS/Sony was generating robust profits, Ohga was named chairman and at the same time gained further responsibility and influence within Sony. He would continue to work for the music company one morning a week. In 1980, Toshio Ozawa succeeded Ohga as president. In 1983, the company was renamed CBS/Sony Group. In January 1988, after more than a year of negotiations, Sony acquired CBS Records and the 50% of CBS/Sony Group that it did not own. In March 1988, four wholly owned subsidiaries were folded into CBS/Sony Group: CBS/Sony Inc. Epic/Sony Records Inc. CBS/Sony Records Inc. and Sony Video Software International. The company was renamed Inc.. Shugo Matsuo was named new president in January 1992, replacing Toshio Ozawa, appointed to the post of chairman. Overall sales for the fiscal year ending March 31, 1991 were 83.8 billion yen with a pretax profit of 9.2 billion yen. In June 1996, Ryokichi Kunugi became the new president. Shugo Matsuo was named chairman. Shigeo Maruyama was appointed to the new post of CEO on October 1, 1997 and replaced Kunugi as president in February 1998.
As of 2007, Naoki Kitagawa is the current CEO of the group. In May 2018, SMEJ acquired a 39% stake in the Peanuts comic strip franchise from DHX Media. Sony Music Entertainment announced the launch of its first video game publishing label, Unties, in October 2017. Unties will publish indie games for the PlayStation 4, PlayStation VR, Nintendo Switch, PC; the name was selected by Sony as representative of helping to "unleash" the power of independent video game development and "unshackle" such developers from the traditional video game publishing process. Unties’ first release was Tiny Metal, a turn-based tactics video game developed by Area 35, for the Nintendo Switch, PS4, PC; the game was first premiered at PAX West Indie Megabooth. Published Azure Reflections, a side-scrolling bullet hell developed by Souvenir Circ. on May 15 2018 for the PS4. Published Touhou Gensou Wanderers Reloaded, a roguelike rpg developed by Aqua Style, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Published Necrosphere, a platformer developed by Cat Nigiri, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC, PSVita.
Published Midnight Sanctuary, a VR/3D Novel game developed by CAVYHOUSE, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC. Published Tokyo Dark, a visual novel mystery adventure hybrid developed by Cherrymochi, for the PC. Published Chiki-Chiki Boxy Racers, an arcade racing game developed by Pocket, for the Nintendo Switch on August 30 2018. Scheduled to publish on Last Standard, a 3d action game developed by I From Japan, intended for PC. Scheduled to publish The Good Life, a daily-life rpg developed by White Owls Inc. for the PS4 and PC. Scheduled to publish Merkava Avalanche, a 3d cavalry warfare action game developed by WinterCrownWorks, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Olija, an action adventure game developed by Skeleton Crew Studio, for the PC. Scheduled to publish Deemo Reborn, a music rhythm and urban fantasy game developed by Taiwanese studio Rayak, for the PS4 with PSVR support. Scheduled to publish Giraffe and Anika, a 3d adventure game developed by Atelier Mimina, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch and PC.
Scheduled to publish 3rd Eye, a 2d horror exploration game, based on the Touhou franchise, for the PS4, Nintendo Switch, PC. Scheduled to publish Gensokyo Defenders, a tower-defense game developed by Neetpia, for the PS4 and Nintendo Switch; the company's leading role on the Ja
LISMO is an online music service provided by au, a Japanese mobile phone brand run by KDDI, a Japanese telecommunication company. This service uses a mobile phone as a music player; this service was introduced on January 19, 2006, the service began operating at the end of January in Japan. The first mobile phone which supports LISMO was sold on January 26, 2006. Since 2008, KDDI and Okinawa Cellular introduced'LISMO Video', a new service with new means to enjoy video content as well. In April 2013, KDDI acquired Taiwanese streaming service KKBOX; the LISMO and KKBOX services were merged under the KKBOX name. KKBOX is now expanding into other Asian markets. LISMO is short for au Listen Mobile service; the "LIS" in "LISMO" is pronounced the same as "risu", the Japanese word for "squirrel". The mascot of this service is LISMO-kun, it is a silhouette of a squirrel carrying an orange logo with earphones connected to it. Some original goods of this mascot are sold only at the "LISMO FOREST" of KDDI Designing Studio.
LISMO is supported by CDMA 1X WIN phones. Released in 2006Casio: W41CA,"G'zOne",W43CA Hitachi: W41H, W42H, W43H, W43HⅡ Kyocera: W41K, W42K, W43K, W44K Sanyo: W41SA, W42SA, W43SA Sharp: W41SH Sony Ericsson: W41S,"Walkman Phone", W43S, W44S Toshiba: "Music-HDD",W43T, W44T, W44TⅡ, W44TⅢ, W45T, "DRAPE", W47T au design project: "neon" Released in 2007Casio: W51CA, W52CA,"EXILIM Phone" W53CA Hitachi: W51H, W52SH, "Wooo Phone" W53H Kyocera: W51K Panasonic: W51P, W52P Sanyo: W51SA, W52SA, W53SA Sharp: "AQUOS Phone",W52SH Sony Ericsson: W51S,"Walkman Phone" W52S,W53S Toshiba: W51T, W52T, W53T, W54T, W55T au design project: "Media Skin", "INFOBAR 2" Released in 2008Casio: W61CA,"G'zOne", "EXILIM PHONE" W63CA Hitachi: W61H, "Wooo Phone" Kyocera: W61K, W64K, W65K Panasonic: W61P, W62P Pantech&Curitel: W61PT Sanyo: W61SA, W62SA, W63SA, W64SA Sharp: "AQUOS Phone", W62SH, "URBANO" Sony Ericsson: "Cyber-Shot Phone" W61S, W62S, "re", W64S, "Walkman Phone, Xmini" Toshiba: W61T, W62T, "Sportio", W64T, W65TReleased in 2009Casio: CA001 Hitachi: "Wooo Phone" Panasonic: P001 Sharp: SH001 Sony Ericsson: "Cyber-shot phone" S001, "Walkman Phone, Premier3" Toshiba: T001 This system provides the following functions.
Download and share music on a mobile phone and/or a personal computer. Copy music from a CD to a mobile phone. Share playlists with other LISMO users. Use downloaded music as a ringtone Backup address book data etc. to a personal computer Under investigation The music file has. KMF becomes. KDR on the PC, the codec is HE-AAC with 48 kbit/s bitrate, same as au's full track ringtone service. Au Music Player A music player application for au’s mobile phone. Music on the handset can be managed through this application program. Au Music Port A mobile phone data managing application for a personal computer; this application is used to backup data from a mobile phone. Manages not only music data, but other data in the mobile phone like camera data, PIM data, etc. Supports only Microsoft Windows au Music Store A service similar with the iTunes Music Store. Customers can download and purchase music with PC; the average price of one song is about 315 Yen and there are 20,000 songs available at the beginning of service.
Uta Tomo Play list sharing service. Works over au's server; this service is available only in Japan as of January 2006. Although all phones in Japan have an option to switch to English, phones from AU are not bilingual. Phones from AU use same software for all phone models; this software has not been translated. Thus, it is not easy for non-speakers of Japanese to use it as compared to in-built music players provided by AU competitors LISMO commercials, which changes approx; every 3 months, use many songs by J-pop artists. On March 5, 2008, an album titled Best of LISMO! was released. The album contains all 10 songs used in LISMO commercials that aired by the Summer 2007. List of songs used in the commercial: Hana - Orange Range Ishindenshin - Orange Range Keep Tryin' - Hikaru Utada By My Melody - Ken Hirai Mikazuki - Ayaka Lovers Again - Exile Cherry - Yui Tashika ni - Angela Aki Stay with Me - Kumi Koda Sony Connect Mora iTunes Music Store Japanese mobile phone culture KDDI au KDDI Introduces'LISMO Video', Allows Viewing Full Movies on au Handsets
Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding
Adaptive Transform Acoustic Coding is a family of proprietary audio compression algorithms developed by Sony. MiniDisc was the first commercial product to incorporate ATRAC in 1992. ATRAC allowed a small disc like MiniDisc to have the same running time as CD while storing audio information with minimal loss in perceptible quality. Improvements to the codec in the form of ATRAC3, ATRAC3plus, ATRAC Advanced Lossless followed in 1999, 2002, 2006 respectively. Other MiniDisc manufacturers such as Sharp and Panasonic implemented their own versions of the ATRAC codec. Sony has all but dropped the ATRAC related codecs in the USA and Europe and in their SonicStage powered'Connect' Music Service on 31 March 2008. However, it is being continued in various other countries. ATRAC's original 292 kbit/s bitrate, as used on the original MiniDiscs, was designed to be close to CD quality acoustically. Years ATRAC was improved and is considered better than earlier versions at similar bitrates. For purposes of comparison, CDs are encoded at 1411.2 kbit/s, lossless encoders can encode most CDs below 1000 kbit/s, with significant bitrate reduction for easier-to-encode content such as voice.
According to ATRAC engineers, ATRAC algorithms were developed in close cooperation with LSI development engineers within Sony in order to deliver on a tangible product that could encode at high speeds and with minimal power consumption. This is in contrast to other codecs developed on computers with no regard for the constraints of portable hardware; this is reflected in the design of the ATRAC codecs, which tend to emphasize processing smaller numbers of samples at a time to save memory at the cost of compression efficiency and additional multiplies. These trade-offs are logical on DSP systems, where memory is at a premium compared to multiplier performance. Sony Walkmans offer better battery life. However, as Sony only pushed ATRAC compatibility in Sony Ericsson Walkman series phones in the Japanese market, it is not supported in GSM/UMTS market phones. Sony's Xplod series of car audio CD players support ATRAC CDs. Minidiscs with ATRAC format songs have, in the past, been supported on Eclipse brand car stereos.
ATRAC1 was first used in Sony's own theater format SDDS system in the 1990s, in this context is a direct competitor to Dolby Digital and DTS. SDDS uses ATRAC1 with 8 channel encoding, with a total encoding rate over all the channels of 1168 kbit/s. Two stacked quadrature mirror filters split the signal into 3 parts: 0 to 5.5125 kHz 5.5125 to 11.025 kHz 11.025 to 22.05 kHzFull stereo encoding with a data rate of 292 kbit/s. High-frequency lowpass depends on the complexity of the material. ATRAC1 can be used in mono mode, doubling recording time. FFmpeg has an implementation of an ATRAC1 decoder. Like ATRAC1 and MP3, ATRAC3 is a hybrid subband-MDCT encoder, but with several differences. In ATRAC3, Three stacked QMF split the signal into 4 parts: 0 to 2.75625 kHz 2.75625 to 5.5125 kHz 5.5125 to 11.025 kHz 11.025 to 22.05 kHz The four subbands are MDCT encoded using a fixed-length transform. Unlike nearly all modern formats, the transform length cannot be varied to optimize coding transients. Instead, a simpler transient encoding technique called gain control is used, in which the gain of different subbands is varied during a transient prior to MDCT and restored during decoding after the inverse MDCT to try to smooth over transients.
Additionally, prior to quantization, tonal components are subtracted from the signal and independently quantized. During decoding, they are separately reconstructed and added back to reform the original MDCT coefficients. Sony claims the major advantage of ATRAC3 is its coding efficiency, tuned for portable DSP which provides less computing power and battery life. However, as ATRAC is a hybrid subband-MDCT codec, algorithmically similar to MP3, any advantage is exaggerated. Furthermore, compared to newer formats such as Windows Media Audio which use a simple MDCT rather than a hybrid, ATRAC3 must perform an additional and computationally expensive inverse-QMF, although the hybrid system does reduce memory usage, a factor given the limited memory available when ATRAC was developed. LP2 ModeThis uses a 132 kbit/s data rate, the quality of, advertised to be similar to that of MP3 encoded at a similar bit rate. However, in an independent double-blind test without format encoding parameters reference against Ogg Vorbis, AAC, LAME VBR MP3, ATRAC3 came last.
Due to lack of transparency in ATRAC encoder versioning, it is not known if the ATRAC3 encoder tested was optimal, subsequent investigation was inconclusive. It is possible. LP4 ModeThis reduces the data rate to 66 kbit/s by using joint stereo coding and a lowpass filter around 13.5 kHz. It allows 324 minutes to be recorded on an 80-minute MiniDisc, with the same padding required as LP2. NotesFFmpeg has an implementation of an ATRAC3 decoder, converted to fixed precision and implemented in the Rockbox series of firmware for ARM, Coldfire and MIPS processors. RealAudio8 is a high-bitrate implementation of ATRAC3; the PlayStation 3 video game Race Driver: Grid uses 224 simultaneous streams of ATRAC3 compressed audio, with between one and eight channels per stream at sample rates between 24 and 48 kHz, each filtered using 512 frequency bands of adaptive equalisation, routed via six r
Windows Media Audio
Windows Media Audio is a series of audio codecs and their corresponding audio coding formats developed by Microsoft. It is a proprietary technology. WMA consists of four distinct codecs; the original WMA codec, known as WMA, was conceived as a competitor to the popular MP3 and RealAudio codecs. WMA Pro, a newer and more advanced codec, supports high resolution audio. A lossless codec, WMA Lossless, compresses audio data without loss of audio fidelity. WMA Voice, targeted at voice content, applies compression using a range of low bit rates. Microsoft has developed a digital container format called Advanced Systems Format to store audio encoded by WMA; the first WMA codec was based on earlier work by Henrique Malvar and his team, transferred to the Windows Media team at Microsoft. Malvar was a senior researcher and manager of the Signal Processing Group at Microsoft Research, whose team worked on the MSAudio project; the first finalized codec was referred to as MSAudio 4.0. It was officially released as Windows Media Audio, as part of Windows Media Technologies 4.0.
Microsoft claimed that WMA could produce files that were half the size of equivalent-quality MP3 files. The former claim however was rejected by some audiophiles. RealNetworks challenged Microsoft's claims regarding WMA's superior audio quality compared to RealAudio. Newer versions of WMA became available: Windows Media Audio 2 in 1999, Windows Media Audio 7 in 2000, Windows Media Audio 8 in 2001, Windows Media Audio 9 in 2003. Microsoft first announced its plans to license WMA technology to third parties in 1999. Although earlier versions of Windows Media Player played WMA files, support for WMA file creation was not added until the seventh version. In 2003, Microsoft released new audio codecs; these codecs were Windows Media Audio 9 Professional, Windows Media Audio 9 Lossless, Windows Media Audio 9 Voice. All versions of WMA released since version 9.0 - namely 9.1, 9.2 and 10 - have been backwards compatible with the original v9 decoder and are therefore not considered separate codecs. The sole exception to this is the WMA 10 Professional codec whose Low Bit Rate mode is only backwards compatible with the older WMA Professional decoders at half sampling rate.
Full fidelity decoding of WMA 10 Professional LBR bitstreams requires a WMA version 10 or newer decoder. A WMA file is in most circumstances contained in the Advanced Systems Format, a proprietary Microsoft container format for digital audio or digital video; the ASF container format specifies how metadata about the file is to be encoded, similar to the ID3 tags used by MP3 files. Metadata may include song name, track number, artist name, audio normalization values; this container can optionally support digital rights management using a combination of elliptic curve cryptography key exchange, DES block cipher, a custom block cipher, RC4 stream cipher and the SHA-1 hashing function. See Windows Media DRM for further information. Since 2008 Microsoft has been using WMA Professional in its Protected Interoperable File Format based on the ISO Base Media File Format and most used for Smooth Streaming, a form of adaptive bit rate streaming over HTTP. Related industry standards such as DECE UltraViolet and MPEG-DASH have not standardized WMA as a supported audio codec, deciding in favor of the more industry-prevalent MPEG and Dolby audio codecs.
Each WMA file features a single audio track in one of the four sub-formats: WMA, WMA Pro, WMA Lossless, or WMA Voice. These formats use different codes that are mutually incompatible; each codec is further explained below. Windows Media Audio is the most common codec of the four WMA codecs. Colloquial usage of the term WMA in marketing materials and device specifications refers to this codec only; the first version of the codec released in 1999 is regarded as WMA 1. In the same year, the bit stream syntax, or compression algorithm, was altered in minor ways and became WMA 2. Since newer versions of the codec have been released, but the decoding process remained the same, ensuring compatibility between codec versions. WMA is a lossy audio codec based on the study of psychoacoustics. Audio signals that are deemed to be imperceptible to the human ear are encoded with reduced resolution during the compression process. WMA can encode audio signals sampled at up to 48 kHz with up to two discrete channels.
WMA 9 introduced variable bit rate and average bit rate coding techniques into the MS encoder although both were technically supported by the original format. WMA 9.1 added support for low-delay audio, which reduces latency for encoding and decoding. Fundamentally, WMA is a transform coder based on modified discrete cosine transform, somewhat similar to AAC, Cook and Vorbis; the bit stream of WMA is composed of each containing 1 or more frames of 2048 samples. If the bit reservoir is not used, a frame is equal to a superframe; each frame contains a number of blocks, which are 128, 256, 512, 1024, or 2048 samples long after being transformed into the frequency domain via the MDCT. In the frequency domain, masking for the transformed samples is determined, used to requantize the samples; the floating point samples are decomposed into coefficient and exponent parts and independently huffman coded. Stereo information is mid/side coded. At low bit rates, line spectral pairs and a form of noise codin
Avex Inc. is an entertainment conglomerate led by founder Max Matsuura and headquartered in Tokyo, Japan. Avex manages J-pop talents like internet sensation PikoTaro, it has shifted into other business domains like anime, video games and live music events like partnering with Ultra Music Festival and hosting the annual A-nation. Avex is an acronym of the English words Audio Visual Expert. Since its foundation, its corporate name was Avex D. D. Incorporated, ten years it was changed to Avex, Incorporated; the current name, Avex Group Holdings, was adopted in 2004 as part of reconstruction process after Tom Yoda's resignation. Avex Group Holdings, Incorporated was used for the main subsidiaries, while the old name was for entertainment components of the Group. In 2005, Incorporated became Avex Entertainment and stayed on as part of the Group. Avex was registered June 1, 1973 as Avex D. D. Incorporated, although it did not become established until 1988, they began as a CD wholesaler based in Tokyo. In September 1990, they created Avex Trax as a music label.
In the same year, they created "Musique Folio Inc.", a music publishing company, which became "Prime Direction Inc." During its early years, the company affiliated itself with the Mitsubishi group of companies. In 1993, they transferred to Aoyama and created a U. S. branch, called "AV Experience America Inc." The year marked the first of Avex's yearly events. It was held in Tokyo Dome under the name "avex rave'93" and attracted 50,000 attendees. In December 1993, they created a joint venture with Toshiba-EMI, called Cutting Edge. In 1994, they formed two UK subsidiaries, "Rhythm Republic Limited" and "Avex U. K. Limited." That year, they opened a disco, claimed on their website to be "the world's largest scale disco", named Velfarre. In 1997, they opened. In early 1999, they signed an agreement with Walt Disney Records and Hollywood Records to handle the companies' Japanese CD releases; that year "Avex Mode", an animation company, was established. In December, the company was listed on the 1st section of the Tokyo Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol 7860.
In 2001, Avex opened the "avex artists academy" music school. In 2002, they released the "CCCD", a type of copy-protected CD, opened their building in Aoyama, paid for by Sumitomo Life and worth 205 billion yen. In 2003, they opened a classical music business. In 2004, they began selling Japanese music CDs in South Korea and Avex President Max Matsuura "spotted" former idol Ami Suzuki performing live at the annual festival of their school, Nihon University, he subsequently signed her to the Avex label. In 2005, Avex acquired distribution rights for Aozora Records' catalogue including all future Hitomi Yaida releases. In early 2008, Avex partnered with Victor JVC to create the label D-topia Entertainment as a business partnership between the labels and its founder, Terukado Onishi, with the sales promotion handled by Victor while the area promotion handled by Avex; as part of the Avex Group's 20th anniversary celebration, a big project occurred with avex trax's "produced by avex trax" artists.
Avex Group launched BeeTV, May 2009 in partnership with NTT DoCoMo. In August 2004, a feud between Max Matsuura and co-founder Tom Yoda affected group, it started because of Yoda's ambition to expand Avex into other entertainment-related ventures producing movies. In addition, he accused Ryuhei Chiba, the company's executive director and president of Avex Inc. of pursuing personal profit from a few big artists. July 30: In a board meeting, Yoda introduced a resolution calling on Chiba to resign because of an alleged conflict of interest. A source says the disagreement arose because Chiba had signed an artist managed by a member of his family; the board backed Yoda's resolution in a 6-1 vote. However, Matsuura — described by insiders as a close ally of Chiba — introduced a second resolution demanding that Yoda step down due to "a difference of opinion in management principles." Matsuura's motion was defeated 5-2. He and Chiba resigned the next day. August 2: Matsuura and Chiba announced their resignations in a meeting with employees of Avex.
Chiba denied any fault, while Matsuura complained that Avex had lost its love of music and said he wanted to start over. They had the support of many staff who said they would quit. More the label's top star, Ayumi Hamasaki, said would leave; as a result, Avex's stocks in the TSE fell by 16 percent that day. August 3: Due to pressure by employees and artists and to save the company from bankruptcy, Yoda resigned and was replaced by Toshio Kobayashi. AGHD is listed at the Frankfurt Stock Exchange and Börse München of Germany under the ticker symbol AX8. More K-pop artists from other agencies continued to sign with Avex such as YG Entertainment's 2NE1, S-plus Entertainment's SS501 member Kim Hyung Jun, Pledis Entertainment's After School, NH Media's U-KISS and Yejeon Media's Shu-I. On July 21, 2011, it was announced that Avex had paired with Korean management label YG Entertainment to form YGEX Entertainment. In 2012, the group began offering limited releases for sale, DRM-free for the first time within Japan on Amazon MP3.
Max Matsuura and Toshio Kobayashi, the company's top two individual shareholders, launched their own investment companies to anchor their shares in 2012. As a show of modernization, Avex Group moved to Izumi Garden Tower in