The New York Times
The New York Times is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership. Founded in 1851, the paper has won more than any other newspaper; the Times is ranked 17th in the world by circulation and 2nd in the U. S; the paper is owned by The New York Times Company, publicly traded and is controlled by the Sulzberger family through a dual-class share structure. It has been owned by the family since 1896. G. Sulzberger, the paper's publisher, his father, Arthur Ochs Sulzberger Jr. the company's chairman, are the fourth and fifth generation of the family to helm the paper. Nicknamed "The Gray Lady", the Times has long been regarded within the industry as a national "newspaper of record"; the paper's motto, "All the News That's Fit to Print", appears in the upper left-hand corner of the front page. Since the mid-1970s, The New York Times has expanded its layout and organization, adding special weekly sections on various topics supplementing the regular news, editorials and features.
Since 2008, the Times has been organized into the following sections: News, Editorials/Opinions-Columns/Op-Ed, New York, Sports of The Times, Science, Home and other features. On Sunday, the Times is supplemented by the Sunday Review, The New York Times Book Review, The New York Times Magazine and T: The New York Times Style Magazine; the Times stayed with the broadsheet full-page set-up and an eight-column format for several years after most papers switched to six, was one of the last newspapers to adopt color photography on the front page. The New York Times was founded as the New-York Daily Times on September 18, 1851. Founded by journalist and politician Henry Jarvis Raymond and former banker George Jones, the Times was published by Raymond, Jones & Company. Early investors in the company included Edwin B. Morgan, Christopher Morgan, Edward B. Wesley. Sold for a penny, the inaugural edition attempted to address various speculations on its purpose and positions that preceded its release: We shall be Conservative, in all cases where we think Conservatism essential to the public good.
We do not believe that everything in Society is either right or wrong. In 1852, the newspaper started a western division, The Times of California, which arrived whenever a mail boat from New York docked in California. However, the effort failed. On September 14, 1857, the newspaper shortened its name to The New-York Times. On April 21, 1861, The New York Times began publishing a Sunday edition to offer daily coverage of the Civil War. One of the earliest public controversies it was involved with was the Mortara Affair, the subject of twenty editorials in the Times alone; the main office of The New York Times was attacked during the New York City Draft Riots. The riots, sparked by the beginning of drafting for the Union Army, began on July 13, 1863. On "Newspaper Row", across from City Hall, Henry Raymond stopped the rioters with Gatling guns, early machine guns, one of which he manned himself; the mob diverted, instead attacking the headquarters of abolitionist publisher Horace Greeley's New York Tribune until being forced to flee by the Brooklyn City Police, who had crossed the East River to help the Manhattan authorities.
In 1869, Henry Raymond died, George Jones took over as publisher. The newspaper's influence grew in 1870 and 1871, when it published a series of exposés on William Tweed, leader of the city's Democratic Party—popularly known as "Tammany Hall" —that led to the end of the Tweed Ring's domination of New York's City Hall. Tweed had offered The New York Times five million dollars to not publish the story. In the 1880s, The New York Times transitioned from supporting Republican Party candidates in its editorials to becoming more politically independent and analytical. In 1884, the paper supported Democrat Grover Cleveland in his first presidential campaign. While this move cost The New York Times a portion of its readership among its more progressive and Republican readers, the paper regained most of its lost ground within a few years. After George Jones died in 1891, Charles Ransom Miller and other New York Times editors raised $1 million dollars to buy the Times, printing it under the New York Times Publishing Company.
However, the newspaper was financially crippled by the Panic of 1893, by 1896, the newspaper had a circulation of less than 9,000, was losing $1,000 a day. That year, Adolph Ochs, the publisher of the Chattanooga Times, gained a controlling interest in the company for $75,000. Shortly after assuming control of the paper, Ochs coined the paper's slogan, "All The News That's Fit To Print"; the slogan has appeared in the paper since September 1896, has been printed in a box in the upper left hand corner of the front page since early 1897. The slogan was a jab at competing papers, such as Joseph Pulitzer's New York World and William Randolph Hearst's New York Journal, which were known for a lurid and inaccurate reporting of facts and opinions, described by the end of the century as "yellow journalism". Under Ochs' guidance, aided by Carr
Australia II is an Australian 12-metre-class America's Cup challenge racing yacht, launched in 1982 and won the 1983 America's Cup for the Royal Perth Yacht Club. Skippered by John Bertrand, she was the first successful Cup challenger, ending a 132-year tenure by the New York Yacht Club. Australia II was designed by Ben Lexcen, built by Steve Ward, owned by Alan Bond and helmed by John Bertrand. Lexcen's Australia II design featured a reduced waterline length and a short chord winged keel which gave the boat a significant advantage in manoeuvrability and heeling moment but it was a significant disadvantage in choppy seas; the boat was very quick in stays. The winged keel was a major design advance, its legality was questioned by the New York Yacht Club. During the summer of 1983, as selection trials took place for the Cup defence that autumn, the New York Yacht Club challenged the legality of the keel design; the controversy was decided in Australia II's favour. Australia II sported a number of other innovative features that contributed to her success, including radical vertical sail designs, all-kevlar running rigging and a lightweight carbon fibre boom.
In 2009, Dutch naval architect Peter van Oossanen claimed that the winged keel was designed by him and his group of Dutch designers, not Ben Lexcen. If true, this would have been reason to disqualify Australia II, since the rules state that the yacht is to be designed by citizens of the nation it represents; the controversy arose due to cup rules allowing designers to use model basins for testing that are not located in the challenging country. Model testing was performed in the Netherlands and Peter van Oossanen and another Dutch engineer, Joop Sloof, performed measurements and analyses related to evaluation of winged keel designs; the suggestion that the vessel was not designed by Australians has been refuted by both John Bertrand and project manager John Longley. Furthermore, it is well established that Lexcen had been experimenting with wing adaptations to the undersurface appendages of boats before, including his 1958 skiffs Taipan and Venom, although in the latter application they were not determined to be effective and not further adopted.
In 1983 Lexcen commented on the controversy: "I have in mind to admit it all to the New York Yacht Club that I owe the secret of the design to a Greek guy who helped me out and was invaluable. He's been dead for 2000 years. Bloody Archimedes..." Australia II dominated the 1983 Louis Vuitton Cup before defeating Azzurra in the semi finals and Victory'83 in the final to win the trophy and earn the right to challenge for the America's Cup. Australia II, bearing sail number KA6, represented the Royal Perth Yacht Club of Australia in its September 1983 challenge for the America's Cup; the defender, the New York Yacht Club, had held the cup since 1851, dominating challengers and sustaining the longest winning streak in sport. Australia II, skippered by John Bertrand, faced Dennis Conner sailing the 12-metre Liberty in the ocean off Newport, Rhode Island. Australia II came from behind to prevail 4 races to 3; the victory on 26 September 1983 was a landmark event for the nation of Australia, not to mention the Royal Perth Yacht Club.
The achievement was underscored when Australia II was awarded the ABC Wide World of Sports Athlete of the Year for 1983. The crew of Australia II for the America's Cup races was John Bertrand, Will Baillieu, Colin Beashel, Rob Brown, Peter Costello, Damian Fewster, James Hardy, Ken Judge, Skip Lissiman, John Longley, Scott McAllister, Brian Richardson, Phil Smidmore, Grant Simmer, Hugh Treharne. Beashel was an Olympic medal winning sailor. Richardson was an dual-Olympian oarsman who had stroked the Australian men's eight at the Moscow 1980 Olympics; the Boxing Kangaroo was the official mascot of the Australia II effort. The win was received with much enthusiasm in Australia, with the Men at Work song Down Under becoming the official anthem for the crew. In the mid-1980s, Australia II was sold by Alan Bond to the Australian government, she was lent to the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney for display in 1991. In 2000, Australia II was removed from the National Maritime Museum and transferred to the Western Australian Maritime Museum in Fremantle.
For the 150th anniversary celebrations of the America's Cup in 2001, she was removed from the museum and shipped to the Isle of Wight, sailing with the original crew for several days of commemorative regattas. Australia II was returned to the Western Australian Maritime Museum, where she is on permanent display. Schmitt, Hugh. Australia II – details on the housing of the yacht The West Australian 28 May 1987, p. 16a-c b 33rd America's Cup: Where are they now: Australia II KA 6
International America's Cup Class
The International Americas Cup Class are a class of racing yacht, developed for the America's Cup between 1992 and 2007. These yachts, while not identical, were all designed to the same formula to offer designers the freedom to experiment whilst keeping the boats sufficiently comparable to race in real time; the class was established for the 1992 America's Cup because of perceived shortcomings of the 12-metre class, used in the America's Cup since 1958. In addition to the America's Cup, IACC yachts were raced in other regattas, including the IACC worlds. IACC sail numbers were issued according to the date when the ACM measurement committee decided that the hull has reached a certain stage of completion; the number came in two parts: the hull number. The country code changed. Only one boat had a sail number issued twice as in the case of RUS-62, a new boat based on the modified hull of RUS-24 and re-registered as RUS-62. Version 5.0 of the International America's Cup Class Rule was issued on December 15, 2003.
Copyright is held jointly by the'Challenger of Record' BMW Oracle Racing. Typical parameters of an IACC yacht were: length: 25 metres weight: 24 tonnes height of the mast: 35 metres weight of the bulb: 19 tonnes sail surface area: 325 square metres upwind, 750 square metres downwind crew: 17+ "18th man" 2007 America's Cup Winner - Alinghi SUI-100, Switzerland 2003 America's Cup Winner - Alinghi SUI-64, Switzerland 2000 America's Cup Winner - Team New Zealand NZL-60, Team New Zealand, New Zealand 1995 America's Cup Winner - Team New Zealand NZL-32, New Zealand 1992 America's Cup Winner - America³ USA-23, United States 2007 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Emirates Team New Zealand NZL-92, New Zealand 2003 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Alinghi SUI-64, Switzerland 2000 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Prada Challenge ITA-45, Italy 1995 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner- Team New Zealand NZL-32, New Zealand 1992 Louis Vuitton Cup Winner - Il Moro di Venezia ITA-16, Italy The 2007 America’s Cup saw the introduction of the ‘’Umpire Signaling System’’ which allowed the Umpires to notify the two boats regarding their position in relation to each other when overtaking and their position relating to a mark of the course when in close proximity of the mark.
On both the defender and the challenger there was a display unit with three LED lights coloured green and white respectively. GREEN lamp: ZONE ENTRY. Status ‘On’ indicates that the leading yacht has entered a zone of two or three boat lengths from the mark. AMBER lamp: OVERLAP. Status ‘On’ indicates that the bow of the overtaking yacht is overlapping the stern of the leading yacht and there is no restriction on the leeward yacht to steer a direct course for the next mark; the leeward yacht may point higher than the direct course to the next mark causing the windward yacht to either tack or sail higher than needed to the next mark. WHITE lamp: RULE 17.1. Status ‘On’ indicates that the depth of the overlap has increased to the point where the yacht to leeward must now steer a proper course to the mark and hence cannot point higher and force the overtaking yacht to either tack or sail a higher course to the next mark; the rules of racing define what tactics/maneuvers are permissible when a yacht nears a mark and when a trailing yacht starts to overtake the boat in front.
The purpose of the USS is to remove doubt and associated protests caused by competitors having differing opinions of either their positions relative to each other or their distance from marks and performing tactical maneuvers prohibited by the racing rules. The system was developed by Pilotfish Networks AB. Formula: L + 1.25 × S − 9.8 × D S P 3 0.686 ≤ 24.000 m e t r e s DSP: displacement in cubic metres. The boats had to carry what was known as the "18th man", a passenger or the equivalent weight up to 100 kg; this was a sought-after position filled by a celebrity or a representative from one of the key sponsors to the team. After the conclusion of the 2007 America's Cup, Brad Butterworth announced on behalf of Alinghi and America's Cup Management that a new design of boat would be sailed in the next edition of the America's Cup; the feeling was that the existing IACC rule had evolved as far as was practical and that in the spirit of the America's Cup, a new design challenge was needed. Alinghi promulgated a new design, called the AC 90.
Plans to introduce this class were superseded by Alinghi's loss to BMW Oracle in the 2010 America's Cup and the subsequent creation of the AC72 class of catamarans. The last IACC yacht completed was hull number 100, the 2007 defender. Maxi yacht List of International America's Cup Class Yachts Louis Vuitton Cup
1995 America's Cup
The 29th America's Cup was contested between the winner of the 1995 Citizen Cup, Team Dennis Conner, with the yacht Young America, the winner of the 1995 Louis Vuitton Cup, Team New Zealand, with the yacht Black Magic. New Zealand won five races straight to take the cup away from the US for only the second time in 144 years. Ultimatesail.com
Philip Morris International
Philip Morris International Inc. is an American multinational cigarette and tobacco manufacturing company, with products sold in over 180 countries outside the United States. The most recognized and best selling product of the company is Marlboro; until a spin-off in March 2008, Philip Morris International was an operating company of Altria. Altria explained the spin-off, arguing PMI would have more "freedom" outside the constraints of US corporate ownership in terms of potential litigation and legislative restrictions to "pursue sales growth in emerging markets.", while Altria focuses on the United States. The shareholders in Altria at the time were given shares in PMI, listed on the London Stock Exchange and other markets; the company's headquarters are in New York City. It does not operate in the United States. With tobacco being addictive and the single greatest cause of preventable death globally, the company is controversial, it has been the subject of litigation and restrictive legislation from governments.
With the world-wide decrease in smoking in the 21st century, shares of Philip Morris were no longer considered the "safe haven" they once were. The company ranked No. 108 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. The company states its history is traced to a London tobacconist, Philip Morris, opening a single shop on London’s Bond Street in 1847 which sold tobacco and cigarettes. In 1881, Philip Morris' son, Leopard Morris, established "Philip Morris & Company and Grunebaum Ltd" with Joseph Grunebaum. In 1885, the company changed its name to "Philip Morris & Co. Ltd." In 1894, William Curtis Thomson and his family began to control the company, in 1902 the company was incorporated in New York. In 1919, the US business was acquired and incorporated as "Philip Morris & Co. Ltd. Inc." in Virginia. In 1954, Philip Morris became the first affiliate of Philip Co.. Ltd, Inc. outside the U. S. In 1972, the company's Marlboro became the world's top-selling cigarette brand.
In 1987, Philip Morris International was incorporated as an operating company of Philip Morris Companies Inc. In 2001, the operations center of the company was transferred from Rye Brook, New York, to Lausanne, Switzerland. On January 27, 2003, Philip Morris Companies Inc. formally changed its name to the Altria Group. In March 2008, Philip Morris International was spun off from Altria. In April 2014, Philip Morris International announced that it would close its Moorabbin plant in Australia by the end of 2014 after operating for 60 years, due to the gradual decline of sales in the last ten years and difficulties conforming to 2010 Australian government regulation about reducing fire risks. In 2015, the company sold 850 billion cigarettes. In August 2018 Reuters reported that Philip Morris "has been among foreign companies with exposure to Russia’s tobacco market; the company’s sales exposure to Russia is 7 percent, according to a note from Goldman Sachs." Philip Morris International has six multi-billion US$ brands including: Dji Sam Soe 234 was launched in 1913 and is a brand of Kretek cigarettes.
It is the best seller of Kretek cigarettes in Indonesia. L&M was launched by Liggett & Myers in 1953 with the tagline: "American cigarettes of the highest quality with the best filter." L&M variants include full flavor shorts, full flavor 100s, ultra lights, menthol shorts, menthol 100s, menthol light shorts, menthol light 100s, Turkish Blend shorts, Turkish Blend 100s, L&M Mild Kretek. Longbeach include in Australia and Indonesia in 1999. Longbeach variant include: Longbeach Longbeach Mild. Marlboro was launched in 1904. Marlboro is the premium brand. Marlboro variants include: Marlboro Special, Marlboro Menthol, Marlboro Lights, Marlboro Lights Menthol, Marlboro Mix-9 Filter Kretek, Marlboro Flavor Plus, Marlboro Black Menthol, Heatsticks, a heated tobacco product; the company's Marlboro brand ranked first among the most valuable tobacco brands of 2017 on BrandFinance's website, which uses the royalty relief method of brand valuation. ST Dupont Paris is the brand cigarette designed by Simon Tissot Dupont in 1902.
With the black packaging. ST Dupont Paris variants include: filter, lights and menthol lights. U Mild was launched in Indonesia in 22 May 1998 after Indonesian revolution. U Mild is a Mild Kretek cigarette sold in Indonesia. Information from company website. Harold Brown André Calantzopoulos Louis C. Camilleri – Chairman Massimo Ferragamo Werner Geissler Lisa Hook Jennifer Li Jun Makihara Kalpana Morparia Lucio A. Noto Frederik Paulsen Jr Robert B. Polet Stephen M. Wolf For the fiscal year 2017, Philip Morris reported earnings of US$6.021 billion, with an annual revenue of US$78.098 billion, an increase of 4.2% over the previous fiscal cycle. Its shares traded at over $105 per share, its market capitalization was valued at over US$138.4 billion in October 2018. Philip Morris International's research center is located in Neuchatel and houses Philip Morris International's product research and development program; as of April 2018, earnings reports showed the company had spent $4.5 billion on four products: two that heat rather than burn tobacco, two other nicotine products.
One of these heat-not-burn tobacco products is IQOS. It has funded the Foundation for a Smoke-Free World to purportedly fund scientific research for the global elimination of tobacco smoking, its claims to independence have been challenged and it has been criticised by the Campaign for Tobacco-Free Kids, Action on Smoking and Health, Corporate Accountability International. The American Cancer Society stated, "This attempt by Philip Morris International to paint itself as a public he
Yacht racing is a form of sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing. It is composed of multiple yachts, in direct competition, racing around a course marked by buoys or other fixed navigational devices or racing longer distances across open water from point-to-point, it can involve a series of races when buoy multiple legs when point-to-point racing. Yachting, that is, recreational boating, is old, as exemplified in the ancient poem Catullus 4: "Yacht" is referred to as deriving from either Norwegian, Middle Low German or from the Dutch word jacht, which means "a swift light vessel of war, commerce or pleasure; the sporting element in the word lies in the derivation of jaght from the root jaghen, which means to hunt, chase or pursue…."The formal racing of boats is believed to have started with sailboats in the Netherlands some time in the 17th century. Soon, in England, custom-built racing "yachts" began to emerge and the Royal Yacht Squadron was established in 1815.
In 1661 John Evelyn recorded a competition between Katherine and Anne, two large royal sailing vessels both of English design, "…the wager 100-1. One of the vessels was owned, sometimes steered, by Charles II, the King of England; the king lost. In 1782 the Cumberland Fleet, a class of sailing vessel known for its ability to sail close to the wind, were painted racing up the Thames River with spectators viewing from a bridge. Much like today, this obsession with sailing close to the wind with speed and efficiency fueled the racing community. In the nineteenth century most yacht races were started by allotting starting positions to the competitors. Buoys were laid in a straight line, to which the competitors attached their yachts by means of spring ropes; the yachts were required to keep all the sails forward of the main mast on deck until the starting signal was given. The Yacht Racing Association was founded in 1875 by Prince Batthyany-Strattman, Captain J. W. Hughes, Mr. Dixon Kemp; the Y. R. A. wrote standardised yacht racing rules.
Bringing yacht racing to the forefront of public life, the America's Cup was first raced in 1851 between the New York Yacht Club and the Royal Yacht Squadron. Not ruled or regulated by measurement criteria as today, it is the second-place finisher was Aurora, "and but for the fact that time allowance had been waived for the race she would have been the winner by a handsome margin." Subsequently, the Cup races were conducted every 3–4 years, based on a challenge issued by one club to the current Cup holder, which till 1983 was the NYYC. As at 2017, the La Ciotat Based Yacht Partridge 1885 is documented as being the world's oldest, still operational classic racing yacht; as yacht racing became more prevalent, yacht design more diverse, it was necessary to establish systems of measurements and time allowances due to the differences in boat design. Longer yachts are inherently faster than shorter ones. Larger yachts were handicapped; as a result, both ratings and “one-design” competition were developed.
Ratings systems rely upon some formulaic analysis of very specific yacht-design parameters such as length, sail area and hull shape. During the 1920s and through the 1970s the Cruising Club of America established a formula by which most racing/cruising boats were designed during that period. After its descendant, the mathematically complex International Offshore Rule of the 1970s, contributed to much decreased seaworthiness, the simpler Performance Handicap Racing Fleet system was adopted; the PHRF uses only proven performance characteristics theoretical sailing speed, as a means to allow dissimilar yachts—typically crewed by friends and families at clubs rather than by professional crews—to race together. Most popular family-oriented cruising sailboats will have a rating filed with a local chapter of the PHRF; the most prevalent handicap rating systems today are the ORC, ORR, IRC, the PHRF. Many countries organise their own handicap systems which do not take into account the size, weight, or sail area of the yacht, but performance is measured on the basis of previous race results.
The Irish E. C. H. O. System is such a handicap system. One-design racing was invented by Thomas Middleton in 1886 in Killiney Bay close to Dublin City, Republic of Ireland. Middleton was concerned that winning a yacht race was more reliant on having an expensive new yacht, than it was on the skill of the yachtsman. One design yacht racing is conducted with classes of similar boats, all built—often via mass-production—to the same design, with the same sail area and rig, the same number of crew, so that crew ability and tactical expertise are more to decide a race than boat type, or age, or weather. Popular racing boats such as The Water Wag, the J/22 and J/24, the Etchells, the Star and New York 30 of Nathanael Herreshoff are examples of one-design boats. In general, modern yacht-racing contests are conducted according to the Racing Rules of Sailing, first established in 1928. Though complex, the RRS are intended simply ensure fairness and safety; the Rules are updated every four years by the body now known as World Sailing.
The major races of today can be classified as offshore, around the world, inshore racing all adhering to one set of rule