An electronic component is any basic discrete device or physical entity in an electronic system used to affect electrons or their associated fields. Electronic components are industrial products, available in a singular form and are not to be confused with electrical elements, which are conceptual abstractions representing idealized electronic components. Electronic components leads; these leads connect to create an electronic circuit with a particular function. Basic electronic components may be packaged discretely, as arrays or networks of like components, or integrated inside of packages such as semiconductor integrated circuits, hybrid integrated circuits, or thick film devices; the following list of electronic components focuses on the discrete version of these components, treating such packages as components in their own right. Components can be classified as active, or electromechanic; the strict physics definition treats passive components as ones that cannot supply energy themselves, whereas a battery would be seen as an active component since it acts as a source of energy.
However, electronic engineers who perform circuit analysis use a more restrictive definition of passivity. When only concerned with the energy of signals, it is convenient to ignore the so-called DC circuit and pretend that the power supplying components such as transistors or integrated circuits is absent, though it may in reality be supplied by the DC circuit; the analysis only concerns the AC circuit, an abstraction that ignores DC voltages and currents present in the real-life circuit. This fiction, for instance, lets us view an oscillator as "producing energy" though in reality the oscillator consumes more energy from a DC power supply, which we have chosen to ignore. Under that restriction, we define the terms as used in circuit analysis as: Active components rely on a source of energy and can inject power into a circuit, though this is not part of the definition. Active components include amplifying components such as transistors, triode vacuum tubes, tunnel diodes. Passive components can't introduce net energy into the circuit.
They can't rely on a source of power, except for what is available from the circuit they are connected to. As a consequence they can't amplify, although they may increase current. Passive components include two-terminal components such as resistors, capacitors and transformers. Electromechanical components can carry out electrical operations by using moving parts or by using electrical connectionsMost passive components with more than two terminals can be described in terms of two-port parameters that satisfy the principle of reciprocity—though there are rare exceptions. In contrast, active components lack that property. Conduct electricity in one direction, among more specific behaviors. Diode, diode bridge Schottky diode – super fast diode with lower forward voltage drop Zener diode – passes current in reverse direction to provide a constant voltage reference Transient voltage suppression diode, unipolar or bipolar – used to absorb high-voltage spikes Varicap, tuning diode, variable capacitance diode – a diode whose AC capacitance varies according to the DC voltage applied.
Light-emitting diode – a diode that emits light Photodiode – passes current in proportion to incident light Avalanche photodiode – photodiode with internal gain Solar Cell, photovoltaic cell, PV array or panel – produces power from light DIAC, Trigger Diode, SIDAC) – used to trigger an SCR Constant-current diode Peltier cooler – a semiconductor heat pump Tunnel diode - fast diode based on quantum mechanical tunneling Transistors were considered the invention of the twentieth century that changed electronic circuits forever. A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. Transistors Bipolar junction transistor – NPN or PNP Photo transistor – amplified photodetector Darlington transistor – NPN or PNP Photo Darlington – amplified photodetector Sziklai pair Field-effect transistor JFET – N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL MOSFET – N-CHANNEL or P-CHANNEL MESFET HEMT Thyristors Silicon-controlled rectifier – passes current only after triggered by a sufficient control voltage on its gate TRIAC – bidirectional SCR Unijunction transistor Programmable Unijunction transistor SIT SITh Composite transistors IGBT Digital electronics Analog Hall effect sensor – senses a magnetic field Current sensor – senses a current through it Opto-electronics Opto-isolator, opto-coupler, photo-coupler – photodiode, BJT, JFET, SCR, TRIAC, zero-crossing TRIAC, open collector IC, CMOS IC, solid state relay Slotted optical switch, opto switch, optical switch LED display – seven-segment display, sixteen-segment display, dot-matrix display Current: Filament lamp Vacuum fluorescent display Cathode ray tube (monochro
Scientific American is an American popular science magazine. Many famous scientists, including Albert Einstein, have contributed articles to it, it is the oldest continuously published monthly magazine in the United States. Scientific American was founded by inventor and publisher Rufus M. Porter in 1845 as a four-page weekly newspaper. Throughout its early years, much emphasis was placed on reports of what was going on at the U. S. Patent Office, it reported on a broad range of inventions including perpetual motion machines, an 1860 device for buoying vessels by Abraham Lincoln, the universal joint which now can be found in nearly every automobile manufactured. Current issues include a "this date in history" section, featuring excerpts from articles published 50, 100, 150 years earlier. Topics include humorous incidents, wrong-headed theories, noteworthy advances in the history of science and technology. Porter sold the publication to Alfred Ely Beach and Orson Desaix Munn a mere ten months after founding it.
Until 1948, it remained owned by Company. Under Munn's grandson, Orson Desaix Munn III, it had evolved into something of a "workbench" publication, similar to the twentieth-century incarnation of Popular Science. In the years after World War II, the magazine fell into decline. In 1948, three partners who were planning on starting a new popular science magazine, to be called The Sciences, purchased the assets of the old Scientific American instead and put its name on the designs they had created for their new magazine, thus the partners—publisher Gerard Piel, editor Dennis Flanagan, general manager Donald H. Miller, Jr.—essentially created a new magazine. Miller retired in 1979, Flanagan and Piel in 1984, when Gerard Piel's son Jonathan became president and editor. In 1986, it was sold to the Holtzbrinck group of Germany. In the fall of 2008, Scientific American was put under the control of Nature Publishing Group, a division of Holtzbrinck. Donald Miller died in December 1998, Gerard Piel in September 2004 and Dennis Flanagan in January 2005.
Mariette DiChristina is the current editor-in-chief, after John Rennie stepped down in June 2009. Scientific American published its first foreign edition in 1890, the Spanish-language La America Cientifica. Publication was suspended in 1905, another 63 years would pass before another foreign-language edition appeared: In 1968, an Italian edition, Le Scienze, was launched, a Japanese edition, Nikkei Science, followed three years later. A new Spanish edition, Investigación y Ciencia was launched in Spain in 1976, followed by a French edition, Pour la Science, in France in 1977, a German edition, Spektrum der Wissenschaft, in Germany in 1978. A Russian edition V Mire Nauki was launched in the Soviet Union in 1983, continues in the present-day Russian Federation. Kexue, a simplified Chinese edition launched in 1979, was the first Western magazine published in the People's Republic of China. Founded in Chongqing, the simplified Chinese magazine was transferred to Beijing in 2001. In 2005, a newer edition, Global Science, was published instead of Kexue, which shut down due to financial problems.
A traditional Chinese edition, known as Scientist, was introduced to Taiwan in 2002. The Hungarian edition Tudomány existed between 1984 and 1992. In 1986, an Arabic edition, Oloom Magazine, was published. In 2002, a Portuguese edition was launched in Brazil. Today, Scientific American publishes 18 foreign-language editions around the globe: Arabic, Brazilian Portuguese, Simplified Chinese, Traditional Chinese, Dutch, German, Hebrew, Japanese, Lithuanian, Romanian and Spanish. From 1902 to 1911, Scientific American supervised the publication of the Encyclopedia Americana, which during some of that period was known as The Americana, it styled itself "The Advocate of Industry and Enterprise" and "Journal of Mechanical and other Improvements". On the front page of the first issue was the engraving of "Improved Rail-Road Cars"; the masthead had a commentary as follows: Scientific American published every Thursday morning at No. 11 Spruce Street, New York, No. 16 State Street, No. 2l Arcade Philadelphia, by Rufus Porter.
Each number will be furnished with from two to five original Engravings, many of them elegant, illustrative of New Inventions, Scientific Principles, Curious Works. Improvements and Inventions; this paper is entitled to the patronage of Mechanics and Manufactures, being the only paper in America, devoted to the interest of those classes. As a family newspaper, it will convey more useful intelligence to children and young people, than five times its cost in school instruction. Another important argument in favor of this paper, is that it will be worth two dollars at the end of the year when the volume is complete, (Old volumes of the New York Mechanic, being now worth double th
Shallow trench isolation
Shallow trench isolation known as box isolation technique, is an integrated circuit feature which prevents electric current leakage between adjacent semiconductor device components. STI is used on CMOS process technology nodes of 250 nanometers and smaller. Older CMOS technologies and non-MOS technologies use isolation based on LOCOS. STI is created early during the semiconductor device fabrication process, before transistors are formed; the key steps of the STI process involve etching a pattern of trenches in the silicon, depositing one or more dielectric materials to fill the trenches, removing the excess dielectric using a technique such as chemical-mechanical planarization. Certain semiconductor fabrication technologies include deep trench isolation, a related feature found in analog integrated circuits; the effect of the trench edge has given rise to what has been termed the "reverse narrow channel effect" or "inverse narrow width effect". Due to the electric field enhancement at the edge, it is easier to form a conducting channel at a lower voltage.
The threshold voltage is reduced for a narrower transistor width. The main concern for electronic devices is the resulting subthreshold leakage current, larger after the threshold voltage reduction. Stack deposition Lithography print Dry etch Trench fill with oxide Chemical-mechanical polishing of the oxide Removal of the protective nitride Adjusting the oxide height to Si FEOL Clarycon: Shallow trench isolation N and K Technologies: Shallow trench isolation Dow Corning: Spin on Dielectrics - Spin-on Shallow Trench Isolation
In physics and electronic engineering, an electron hole is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice. Since in a normal atom or crystal lattice the negative charge of the electrons is balanced by the positive charge of the atomic nuclei, the absence of an electron leaves a net positive charge at the hole's location. Holes are not particles, but rather quasiparticles. Holes in a metal or semiconductor crystal lattice can move through the lattice as electrons can, act to positively-charged particles, they play an important role in the operation of semiconductor devices such as transistors and integrated circuits. If an electron is excited into a higher state it leaves a hole in its old state; this meaning is used in Auger electron spectroscopy, in computational chemistry, to explain the low electron-electron scattering-rate in crystals. In crystals, electronic band structure calculations lead to an effective mass for the electrons, negative at the top of a band.
The negative mass is an unintuitive concept, in these situations a more familiar picture is found by considering a positive charge with a positive mass. In solid-state physics, an electron hole is the absence of an electron from a full valence band. A hole is a way to conceptualize the interactions of the electrons within a nearly full valence band of a crystal lattice, missing a small fraction of its electrons. In some ways, the behavior of a hole within a semiconductor crystal lattice is comparable to that of the bubble in a full bottle of water. Hole conduction in a valence band can be explained by the following analogy. Imagine a row of people seated in an auditorium, where there are no spare chairs. Someone in the middle of the row wants to leave, so he jumps over the back of the seat into another row, walks out; the empty row is analogous to the conduction band, the person walking out is analogous to a conduction electron. Now imagine someone else comes along and wants to sit down; the empty row has a poor view.
Instead, a person in the crowded row moves into the empty seat the first person left behind. The empty seat moves one spot closer to the person waiting to sit down; the next person follows, the next, et cetera. One could say. Once the empty seat reaches the edge, the new person can sit down. In the process everyone in the row has moved along. If those people were negatively charged, this movement would constitute conduction. If the seats themselves were positively charged only the vacant seat would be positive; this is a simple model of how hole conduction works. Instead of analyzing the movement of an empty state in the valence band as the movement of many separate electrons, a single equivalent imaginary particle called a "hole" is considered. In an applied electric field, the electrons move in one direction, corresponding to the hole moving in the other. If a hole associates itself with a neutral atom, that atom becomes positive. Therefore, the hole is taken to have positive charge of +e the opposite of the electron charge.
In reality, due to the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics, combined with the energy levels available in the crystal, the hole is not localizable to a single position as described in the previous example. Rather, the positive charge which represents the hole spans an area in the crystal lattice covering many hundreds of unit cells; this is equivalent to being unable to tell. Conduction band electrons are delocalized; the analogy above is quite simplified, cannot explain why holes create an opposite effect to electrons in the Hall effect and Seebeck effect. A more precise and detailed explanation follows; the dispersion relation determines. A dispersion relation is the relationship between wavevector and energy in a band, part of the electronic band structure. In quantum mechanics, the electrons are waves, energy is the wave frequency. A localized electron is a wavepacket, the motion of an electron is given by the formula for the group velocity of a wave. An electric field affects an electron by shifting all the wavevectors in the wavepacket, the electron accelerates when its wave group velocity changes.
Therefore, the way an electron responds to forces is determined by its dispersion relation. An electron floating in space has the dispersion relation E=ℏ2k2/, where m is the electron mass and ℏ is reduced Planck constant. Near the bottom of the conduction band of a semiconductor, the dispersion relation is instead E=ℏ2k2/, so a conduction-band electron responds to forces as if it had the mass m*. Electrons near the top of the valence band behave; the dispersion relation near the top of the valence band is E=ℏ2k2/ with negative effective mass. So electrons near the top of the valence band behave; when a force pulls the electrons to the right, these electrons move left. This is due to the shape of the valence band, is unrelated to whether the band is full or empty. If you could somehow empty out the valence band and just put one electron near the valence band maximum, this electron would move the "wrong way" in response to forces. Po
Kurt Lehovec was one of the pioneers of the integrated circuit. He innovated the concept of p-n junction isolation used in every circuit element with a guard ring: a reverse-biased p-n junction surrounding the planar periphery of that element; this patent was assigned to Sprague Electric. Because Lehovec was under salary with Sprague, he was paid only one dollar for this invention. Lehovec was born June 1918 in Ledvice, in northern Bohemia, of the Czech Republic, he was educated there and went to the US in 1947 under the auspices of Operation Paperclip which allowed scientists and engineers to emigrate. With Carl Accardo and Edward Jamgochian, he explained the first light-emitting diodes citing previous work by Oleg Losev; the important case of fast ionic conduction in solid states is one in a surface space-charge layer of ionic crystals. Such conduction was first predicted by K. Lehovec in the paper "Space-charge layer and distribution of lattice defects at the surface of ionic crystals"; as a space-charge layer has nanometer thickness, the effect is directly related to nanoionics.
The Lehovec effect forms a basis for a creation of multitude nanostructured fast ion conductors as used in modern portable lithium batteries and fuel cells. Lehovec was a Professor Emeritus at the University of Southern California in Los Angeles and after retirement from USC Lehovec took to writing poetry, he lived in Southern California until his death in 2012 at the age of 93. Invention of the integrated circuit The Americanisation Of Kurt Lehovec, Electronics Weekly, retrieved 18 July 2014
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece of semiconductor material, silicon. The integration of large numbers of tiny transistors into a small chip results in circuits that are orders of magnitude smaller and faster than those constructed of discrete electronic components; the IC's mass production capability and building-block approach to circuit design has ensured the rapid adoption of standardized ICs in place of designs using discrete transistors. ICs are now used in all electronic equipment and have revolutionized the world of electronics. Computers, mobile phones, other digital home appliances are now inextricable parts of the structure of modern societies, made possible by the small size and low cost of ICs. Integrated circuits were made practical by mid-20th-century technology advancements in semiconductor device fabrication. Since their origins in the 1960s, the size and capacity of chips have progressed enormously, driven by technical advances that fit more and more transistors on chips of the same size – a modern chip may have many billions of transistors in an area the size of a human fingernail.
These advances following Moore's law, make computer chips of today possess millions of times the capacity and thousands of times the speed of the computer chips of the early 1970s. ICs have two main advantages over discrete circuits: performance. Cost is low because the chips, with all their components, are printed as a unit by photolithography rather than being constructed one transistor at a time. Furthermore, packaged ICs use much less material than discrete circuits. Performance is high because the IC's components switch and consume comparatively little power because of their small size and close proximity; the main disadvantage of ICs is the high cost to fabricate the required photomasks. This high initial cost means. An integrated circuit is defined as: A circuit in which all or some of the circuit elements are inseparably associated and electrically interconnected so that it is considered to be indivisible for the purposes of construction and commerce. Circuits meeting this definition can be constructed using many different technologies, including thin-film transistors, thick-film technologies, or hybrid integrated circuits.
However, in general usage integrated circuit has come to refer to the single-piece circuit construction known as a monolithic integrated circuit. Arguably, the first examples of integrated circuits would include the Loewe 3NF. Although far from a monolithic construction, it meets the definition given above. Early developments of the integrated circuit go back to 1949, when German engineer Werner Jacobi filed a patent for an integrated-circuit-like semiconductor amplifying device showing five transistors on a common substrate in a 3-stage amplifier arrangement. Jacobi disclosed cheap hearing aids as typical industrial applications of his patent. An immediate commercial use of his patent has not been reported; the idea of the integrated circuit was conceived by Geoffrey Dummer, a radar scientist working for the Royal Radar Establishment of the British Ministry of Defence. Dummer presented the idea to the public at the Symposium on Progress in Quality Electronic Components in Washington, D. C. on 7 May 1952.
He gave many symposia publicly to propagate his ideas and unsuccessfully attempted to build such a circuit in 1956. A precursor idea to the IC was to create small ceramic squares, each containing a single miniaturized component. Components could be integrated and wired into a bidimensional or tridimensional compact grid; this idea, which seemed promising in 1957, was proposed to the US Army by Jack Kilby and led to the short-lived Micromodule Program. However, as the project was gaining momentum, Kilby came up with a new, revolutionary design: the IC. Newly employed by Texas Instruments, Kilby recorded his initial ideas concerning the integrated circuit in July 1958 demonstrating the first working integrated example on 12 September 1958. In his patent application of 6 February 1959, Kilby described his new device as "a body of semiconductor material … wherein all the components of the electronic circuit are integrated." The first customer for the new invention was the US Air Force. Kilby won the 2000 Nobel Prize in Physics for his part in the invention of the integrated circuit.
His work was named an IEEE Milestone in 2009. Half a year after Kilby, Robert Noyce at Fairchild Semiconductor developed a new variety of integrated circuit, more practical than Kilby's implementation. Noyce's design was made of silicon. Noyce credited Kurt Lehovec of Sprague Electric for the principle of p–n junction isolation, a key concept behind the IC; this isolation allows each transistor to operate independently despite being part of the same piece of silicon. Fairchild Semiconductor was home of the first silicon-gate IC technology with self-aligned gates, the basis of all modern CMOS integrated circuits; the technology was developed by Italian physicist Federico Faggin in 1968. In 1970, he joined Intel in order to develop the first single-chip central processing unit microprocessor, the Intel 4004, for which he received the National Medal of Technology and Innovation in 2010; the 4004 was designed by Busicom's Masatoshi Shima and Intel's Ted Hoff in 1969, but it was Faggin's improved design in 1970 that made it a reality.
Advances in IC technology smaller features and la
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals controls the current through another pair of terminals; because the controlled power can be higher than the controlling power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits; the transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, is ubiquitous in modern electronic systems. Julius Edgar Lilienfeld patented a field-effect transistor in 1926 but it was not possible to construct a working device at that time; the first implemented device was a point-contact transistor invented in 1947 by American physicists John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, William Shockley. The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios and computers, among other things.
The transistor is on the list of IEEE milestones in electronics, Bardeen and Shockley shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics for their achievement. Most transistors are made from pure silicon or germanium, but certain other semiconductor materials can be used. A transistor may have only one kind of charge carrier, in a field effect transistor, or may have two kinds of charge carriers in bipolar junction transistor devices. Compared with the vacuum tube, transistors are smaller, require less power to operate. Certain vacuum tubes have advantages over transistors at high operating frequencies or high operating voltages. Many types of transistors are made to standardized specifications by multiple manufacturers; the thermionic triode, a vacuum tube invented in 1907, enabled amplified radio technology and long-distance telephony. The triode, was a fragile device that consumed a substantial amount of power. In 1909 physicist William Eccles discovered the crystal diode oscillator. Physicist Julius Edgar Lilienfeld filed a patent for a field-effect transistor in Canada in 1925, intended to be a solid-state replacement for the triode.
Lilienfeld filed identical patents in the United States in 1926 and 1928. However, Lilienfeld did not publish any research articles about his devices nor did his patents cite any specific examples of a working prototype; because the production of high-quality semiconductor materials was still decades away, Lilienfeld's solid-state amplifier ideas would not have found practical use in the 1920s and 1930s if such a device had been built. In 1934, German inventor Oskar Heil patented a similar device in Europe. From November 17, 1947, to December 23, 1947, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain at AT&T's Bell Labs in Murray Hill, New Jersey of the United States performed experiments and observed that when two gold point contacts were applied to a crystal of germanium, a signal was produced with the output power greater than the input. Solid State Physics Group leader William Shockley saw the potential in this, over the next few months worked to expand the knowledge of semiconductors; the term transistor was coined by John R. Pierce as a contraction of the term transresistance.
According to Lillian Hoddeson and Vicki Daitch, authors of a biography of John Bardeen, Shockley had proposed that Bell Labs' first patent for a transistor should be based on the field-effect and that he be named as the inventor. Having unearthed Lilienfeld’s patents that went into obscurity years earlier, lawyers at Bell Labs advised against Shockley's proposal because the idea of a field-effect transistor that used an electric field as a "grid" was not new. Instead, what Bardeen and Shockley invented in 1947 was the first point-contact transistor. In acknowledgement of this accomplishment, Shockley and Brattain were jointly awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics "for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect". In 1948, the point-contact transistor was independently invented by German physicists Herbert Mataré and Heinrich Welker while working at the Compagnie des Freins et Signaux, a Westinghouse subsidiary located in Paris. Mataré had previous experience in developing crystal rectifiers from silicon and germanium in the German radar effort during World War II.
Using this knowledge, he began researching the phenomenon of "interference" in 1947. By June 1948, witnessing currents flowing through point-contacts, Mataré produced consistent results using samples of germanium produced by Welker, similar to what Bardeen and Brattain had accomplished earlier in December 1947. Realizing that Bell Labs' scientists had invented the transistor before them, the company rushed to get its "transistron" into production for amplified use in France's telephone network; the first bipolar junction transistors were invented by Bell Labs' William Shockley, which applied for patent on June 26, 1948. On April 12, 1950, Bell Labs chemists Gordon Teal and Morgan Sparks had produced a working bipolar NPN junction amplifying germanium transistor. Bell Labs had announced the discovery of this new "sandwich" transistor in a press release on July 4, 1951; the first high-frequency transistor was the surface-barrier germanium transistor developed by Philco in 1953, capable of operating up to 60 MHz.
These were made by etching depressions into an N-type germanium base from both sides with jets of Indium sulfate until it was a few ten-thousandths of an inch thick. Indium electroplated into the depressions formed the emitter; the first "prototype" pocket transistor radio was shown by I