The multiple-camera setup, multiple-camera mode of production, multi-camera or multicam is a method of filmmaking and video production. Several cameras—either film or professional video cameras—are employed on the set and record or broadcast a scene, it is contrasted with single-camera setup, which uses one camera. The two outer cameras shoot close-up shots or "crosses" of the two most active characters on the set at any given time, while the central camera or cameras shoot a wider master shot to capture the overall action and establish the geography of the room. In this way, multiple shots are obtained in a single take without having to start and stop the action; this is more efficient for programs that are to be shown a short time after being shot as it reduces the time spent in film or video editing. It is a virtual necessity for regular, high-output shows like daily soap operas. Apart from saving editing time, scenes may be shot far more as there is no need for re-lighting and the set-up of alternative camera angles for the scene to be shot again from the different angle.
It reduces the complexity of tracking continuity issues that crop up when the scene is reshot from the different angles. It is an essential part of live television. Drawbacks include a less optimized lighting which needs to provide a compromise for all camera angles and less flexibility in putting the necessary equipment on scene, such as microphone booms and lighting rigs; these can be efficiently hidden from just one camera but can be more complicated to set up and their placement may be inferior in a multiple-camera setup. Another drawback is in film usage—a four-camera setup may use up to four times as much film per take, compared with a single-camera setup. While shooting, the director and assistant director create a line cut by instructing the technical director to switch between the feeds from the individual cameras. In the case of sitcoms with studio audiences, this line cut is displayed to them on studio monitors; the line cut might be refined in editing, as the output from all cameras is recorded, both separately and as a combined reference display called the q split.
The camera being recorded to the line cut is indicated by a tally light controlled by a camera control unit on the camera as a reference both for the actors and the camera operators. The use of multiple film cameras dates back to the development of narrative silent films, with the earliest example being the first Russian feature film Defence of Sevastopol and directed by Vasily Goncharov and Aleksandr Khanzhonkov; when sound came into the picture multiple cameras were used to film multiple sets at a single time. Early sound was recorded onto wax discs; the use of multiple video cameras to cover a scene goes back to the earliest days of television. The BBC used multiple cameras for their live television shows from 1936 onward. Although it is claimed that the multiple-camera setup was pioneered for television by Desi Arnaz and cinematographer Karl Freund on I Love Lucy in 1951, other filmed television shows had used it, including the CBS comedy The Amos'n Andy Show, filmed at the Hal Roach Studios and was on the air four months earlier.
The technique was developed for television by Hollywood short-subject veteran Jerry Fairbanks, assisted by producer-director Frank Telford, first seen on the anthology series The Silver Theater, another CBS program, in February 1950. Desilu's innovation was to use 35mm film instead of 16mm and to film with a multiple-camera setup before a live studio audience. In the late 1970s, Garry Marshall was credited with adding the fourth camera to the multi-camera set-up for his series Mork & Mindy. Actor Robin Williams could not stay on his marks due to his physically active improvisations during shooting, so Marshall had them add the fourth camera just to stay on Williams so they would have more than just the master shot of the actor. Soon after, many productions followed suit and now having four cameras is the norm for multi-camera situation comedies; the multiple-camera method gives the director less control over each shot but is faster and less expensive than a single-camera setup. In television, multiple-camera is used for sports programs, news programs, soap operas, talk shows, game shows, some sitcoms.
Before the pre-filmed continuing series became the dominant dramatic form on American television, the earliest anthology programs utilized multiple camera methods. Multiple cameras can take different shots of a live situation as the action unfolds chronologically and is suitable for shows which require a live audience. For this reason, multiple camera productions can be taped much faster than single camera. Single camera productions are shot in takes and various setups with components of the action repeated several times and out of sequence. Sitcoms shot with the multiple camera setup include nearly all of Lucille Ball's TV series, as well as Mary Kay and Johnny, The Dick Van Dyke Show, The Mary Tyler Moore Show, All in the Family, Three's Company, The Cosby Show, Friends, Will & Grace, Everybody Loves Raymond, The King of Queens, Two and a Half Men, The Big Bang Theory, Mike & Molly, Mom, 2 Broke Girls, One Day at a Time. Many American sitcom
Shandi Ren Finnessey is an American actress, model, TV host and beauty queen. She is best known for winning the Miss USA title, as Miss Missouri USA, she held the title of Miss Missouri 2002 and competed in Miss America, where she won a preliminary award. She placed as first runner-up at the Miss Universe 2004 competition, she is one of three women to have been both Miss Missouri USA and Miss Missouri and the only Missourian to have been Miss USA. Her first runner-up finish at Miss Universe was the best placement in the 2000s and was the best United States placement between Brook Mahealani Lee's Miss Universe 1997 competition victory and Olivia Culpo's Miss Universe 2012 pageant win. In 2002, Finnessey authored an award-winning children's book, The Furrtails, on individuality and disabilities. In the mid-2000s, she was Chuck Woolery's co-host for the game show Lingo on the Game Show Network. Finessey has hosted PlayMania as well as quiznation and has served as a sideline reporter for the CBS tournament blackjack series Ultimate Blackjack Tour.
Finnessey was born to Patrick and Linda Finnessey, she grew up in Florissant, Missouri. She attended McCluer North High School public high school for two years where, according to an interview with ABILITY Magazine, she was teased a lot for her appearance. Finnessey recounted that she "had a mullet, tinted glasses and braces." The teasing made it difficult for her to focus on her studies, so for her junior year she transferred to the private all-girls Incarnate Word Academy, where she graduated in 1996. She completed a Bachelor of Science degree in psychology from Lindenwood University in December 1999. Following graduation, she worked as a full-time substitute teacher in Jackson, before starting graduate school, she began working on her Masters in Counseling at Lindenwood, but postponed her studies after being crowned Miss USA in 2004. Finnessey first competed in the Miss Missouri USA 2000 pageant in 1999 where, as Miss Saint Louis County in her senior year of college, she finished first runner-up to Denette Roderick.
She competed again in the following year and placed second runner-up behind first runner-up Melana Scantlin and winner Larissa Meek in the Miss Missouri USA 2001 event. In 2000, Finnessey was 3rd runner-up; the pageant was won by Jenna Edwards, 1999 Miss Teen All-American and would hold the Miss Florida 2004 and Miss Florida USA 2007 titles. First runner-up was Jennifer Glover, the previous Miss United States International 1999 and the future Miss California 2002 and Miss California USA 2001. On November 18, 2000, Finnessey won the Miss Jackson title in the Miss Missouri system and finished 2nd runner-up to Jennifer Hover in the June 3 – 9, 2001 Miss Missouri pageant held in Mexico, MO. Finnessey won the Miss St. Louis Metro local title in the Miss Missouri system and went on to win the 2002 Miss Missouri title, succeeding Hover, she won the contest despite having slammed her hand in a car door that weekend. During the contest, she performed an arrangement of "Flight of the Bumblebee" on the piano for her talent.
During her on-stage interview as one of the five finalists, she was asked what she learned having three brothers and she answered to be quick in the bathroom. She represented Missouri in the Miss America 2003 pageant, where she won an evening gown preliminary award but did not place. For the talent portion of the competition in the Miss America system events at times she played the violin and at other times the piano. In the competition to be Miss America, she played the piano. Less than a year after giving up her Miss Missouri title, as Miss Metro St. Louis, Finnessey won the Miss Missouri USA pageant on her third attempt at Black River Coliseum in Poplar Bluff, Missouri. During her six-month reign as Miss Missouri USA, Finnessey was involved in such charities as the Variety Club Telethon, St. Louis Cardinals Winter Warm Up for local charities, AIDS Foundation, Special Olympics in St. Louis and Gilda's Club, she joined Barbara Webster and Robin Elizabeth Riley as qualifiers to both of the nationally televised beauty pageants.
She represented Missouri in the April 12, 2004, nationally televised Miss USA 2004 pageant at the Kodak Theater in Los Angeles in front of hosts Nancy O'Dell and Billy Bush and judges Jeff Gordon, Jerry Buss, John Salley, Mekhi Phifer, Rocco DiSpirito and Jill Stuart. Her final question was whether experience or education serves a person better in life to which she answered "Definitely experience because you get your knowledge through experience." She competed on the platform of integrating people with mental challenges into society. In the nationally televised pageant, she became the first woman from Missouri to win the Miss USA title. During her reign as Miss USA, Finnessey became an advocate for breast cancer and ovarian cancer awareness and research, she has worked with Special Olympics, the National Down Syndrome Convention, American Cancer Society and Derek Jeter's Turn 2 Foundation. Finnessey resided in a luxury Riverside Drive apartment in New York City provided by the Miss Universe Organization and pageant co-owner Donald Trump.
As Miss USA, Finnessey went on to represent the United States at the international Miss Universe competition held in Quito, Ecuador, in May 2004, culminating on June 1, 2004. She placed first runner-up in the internationally broadcast competition, behind winner Jennifer Hawkins of Australia; the event was hosted by Bush and Daisy Fuentes and the judges included Petra Nemcova, Emilio Estefan and Bo Derek
Bumper Stumpers is a Canadian game show in which two teams of two players attempted to decipher vanity license plates in an attempt to win money. The show was a joint production of Canada's Global Television Network and the United States' USA Network, the two networks that aired the series in first run, in association with Barry & Enright Productions and Wink Martindale Enterprises; this was one of three original series that USA and Global co-produced in the 1980s, with a 1985 revival of Jackpot and 1986's The New Chain Reaction preceding it. Bumper Stumpers premiered on June 29, 1987 and aired concurrently on Global and USA until December 28, 1990, it was created by Wink Martindale, the second creation of his to make air and developed by Mark Maxwell-Smith. Al Dubois, who at the time was a weather forecaster for Global, hosted the show with Ken Ryan serving as the announcer; the show was taped in Toronto. Reruns of the series were seen on Global in Canada from 1990 to 1995 and on Game Show Network in America in 1994–95 and 2000.
Bumper Stumpers aired on the Canadian network GameTV from October 1, 2012 until 2017, from January 8 to February 25, 2018 and again from February 4, 2019 to March 1, 2019. Bumper Stumpers featured two teams, one a returning champion pair; the teams' goal was to solve the Super Stumper, a puzzle designed to resemble a vanity license plate that consisted of seven spaces. At the beginning of each game, host Dubois would tell the teams whom or what the plate belonged to, the first space was revealed. In order to begin filling in the spaces in the Super Stumper, the teams played a series of jump-in questions. Bumper Stumpers used a game board consisting of seven monitors, each jump-in question used the top row of two monitors; the teams would be shown two plates, one of which belonged to someone or something, had to guess which of the two was the correct plate. For instance, a plate belonging to swashbucklers would read "PYR88" with the solution being "pirates" while one belonging to Bill Cosby would read "IIPI" with the solution being the title of his television series I Spy.
In another example, a plate belonging to a saboteur would read "VTHKOLM" but be pronounced "fifth column", with the V serving its purpose as the Roman numeral five, while a plate with "H2O" in it would belong to something having to do with water due to it being the chemical symbol. Contestants could not buzz in until the jump-in was read or a green indicator light was lit atop the game board. Once a contestant buzzed in, he/she had to choose a plate and if correct, his/her teammate was given ten seconds to decipher it. If the other member of the team could not decipher the plate, the opposing team received ten seconds to guess themselves. If the first teammate buzzed in and picked the wrong plate, the opponents received first guess; the player who buzzed in and identified the plate to solve could decide to either let his/her partner play or challenge their opponents to solve the plate. That rule was dropped; the winners of the jump-in chose one of the remaining blank spaces to fill in on the Super Stumper were given five seconds to try to come up with the solution.
Coming up with the solution won the game. If a team could not solve the Super Stumper after all seven spaces were revealed, the opposing team had one final chance to solve it; the first team to solve two Super Stumpers became champion and won $1,000 with a chance to win more in the bonus round. Solving a Super Stumper won the team that did so $500 and the right to play the bonus round. If a Super Stumper went unsolved, a new one was played for $500 more and play continued until one of the teams solved one; the rules were changed to have the bonus round played after a team won two games, if the teams could not solve a Super Stumper, a shortened round was played. The teams chose spaces one at a time, starting with the team that won the previous jump-in, did so until one solved the Super Stumper; this show had three bonus rounds throughout the run. The first bonus round featured two separate rounds; the first half saw the players trying to identify up to seven plates within 30 seconds. Getting seven won $2,000 and ended the round immediately.
As long as the team identified at least one plate, they moved on to the second half of the round dubbed the Final Stumper. The Final Stumper was played with all seven of the game board's monitors, with the letters S-T-U-M-P-E-R displayed in them; the object was to bank a set amount of money without finding a stop sign, at which point the round ended. The Final Stumper was played two different ways. Hidden behind the seven monitors were various dollar amounts and stop signs. For each plate the team solved, a money amount was added to the board; the first amount added was $500, depending on how many plates were solved up to five additional amounts would be added. $100 was added to the board first, $200 second, $300 third, $400 fourth, an additional $500 space was added last. The team could keep choosing as long as they kept revealing dollar amounts and could stop at any point. Revealing a stop sign ended the round and froze the team's winnings. If they managed to find at least $500, the money was doubled.
A team could win a maximum of $1,800 in this portion of the round, if not all seven license plates were solved. Howe
A whiteboard is any glossy white surface for nonpermanent markings. Whiteboards are analogous to blackboards, but with a smoother surface allowing rapid marking and erasing of markings on their surface; the popularity of whiteboards increased in the mid-1990s and they have become a fixture in many offices, meeting rooms, school classrooms, other work environments. The term whiteboard is used metaphorically to refer to features of computer software applications that simulate whiteboards; such "virtual Tech whiteboards" allow one or more people to write or draw images on a simulated canvas. This is a common feature of many virtual meeting and instant messaging applications; the term whiteboard is used to refer to interactive whiteboards. Albert Stallion invented whiteboards while working at Alliance in the 1960s. Alliance produced enameled steel for architectural cladding, but Stallion noted it could potentially be used as a writing surface. Stallion left Alliance to form his own whiteboard production company, MagiBoards.
Whiteboards became commercially available in the early 1960s, but did not become used until 30 years later. Early whiteboards needed to be wiped with a damp cloth and markers had a tendency to leave marks behind after erasing the board. Dry-erase markers for whiteboards were invented in 1975. Whiteboards started becoming used by businesses in the early 1990s, they became more common in classrooms during the 1990s due to concerns over health problems in children with dust allergies and the potential for chalkdust to damage computers. By the late 1990s, about 21% of American classrooms had converted from chalkboards to whiteboards; the first whiteboards were expensive and were made of an enameled steel. Cheaper versions were produced, including laminated chipboard, high-pressure laminates and steel boards with a white polyester or acrylic, coating. Enameled whiteboards referred to as porcelain, sometimes glass boards, have the advantage that markings can be erased completely. Enameled boards are more expensive and less used in commercial environments, but in more demanding environments with heavier use, such as educational establishments, porcelain boards are considered superior.
Other types of dry marker boards are available, such as high gloss vinyl and coated paper, which can be rolled up, high-density two-part high gloss paints and coated acrylics and polypropylene magic whiteboards which use static electricity to cling to walls and doors. Clear marker surfaces, made of glass or specially coated acrylic, became available around the mid-2000s, they are manufactured from technical glass, e.g. for monitor screen filters, optically coated. Whiteboard material can be bought in rolls and pre-formed boards. Adhesive whiteboards come in either a sheet or a roll and feature a stick back enabling the user to create a custom size board or project with the material. Although adhesive whiteboard material does not come in a thick, hard glass or painted steel plate, the melamine allows for a flexible material while preserving the high-quality whiteboard attributes of other surface materials. Adhesive whiteboards allow for custom projects such as dry erase wall calendars, whiteboard tables, cupboard grocery lists, indoor games for kids, more.
The whiteboard pen was invented by Jerry Woolf of Techform Laboratories and patented by Pilot Pen in 1975. It is a non-permanent marker and uses an erasable ink that adheres to the writing surface without binding to or being absorbed by it. Applications range from temporary writing with acetate sheets to whiteboards and similar glossy surfaces; the erasable ink does not contain the toxic chemical compounds xylene and/or toluene, unlike permanent markers. There are six types of materials used for whiteboard surfaces: Melamine A resin-infused paper, used over a substrate that can range from particle board to MDF. Melamine boards range in quality because of the amount of resin deposited on the base material; some melamine boards remain clean for others less so. This least expensive type of whiteboard is most found in use in non-institutional applications, they are available in any office supply stores. Performance varies widely; these boards are not suitable for heavy use, as in many educational cases, with time the paint erodes and the original surface reappears.
Painted steel or aluminum Painted steel and aluminum dry erase have a wide range of quality. Painted surfaces tend to be smoother; the painted surface is a multiple layer of coatings made up of a base coat in color and a clear performance coating, the dry erase component. Paint varies from electron beam cured coatings to other coating systems. Good commercial grade painted steel or aluminum has excellent dry erase properties and many will be able to have permanent marker cleaned from the surface. Any coated surface is susceptible to scratching. Painted steel surfaces allow the use of magnets. Painted aluminum surfaces are used as a base for whiteboards as they are not magnetic and are more expensive than steel. Painted steel whiteboards are most used for custom printed whiteboards; these products are used as tracking boards, patient information boards and tournament and training boards. Hardcoat laminate
Electronic mail is a method of exchanging messages between people using electronic devices. Invented by Ray Tomlinson, email first entered limited use in the 1960s and by the mid-1970s had taken the form now recognized as email. Email operates across computer networks, which today is the Internet; some early email systems required the author and the recipient to both be online at the same time, in common with instant messaging. Today's email systems are based on a store-and-forward model. Email servers accept, forward and store messages. Neither the users nor their computers are required to be online simultaneously. An ASCII text-only communications medium, Internet email was extended by Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions to carry text in other character sets and multimedia content attachments. International email, with internationalized email addresses using UTF-8, has been standardized, but as of 2017 it has not been adopted; the history of modern Internet email services reaches back to the early ARPANET, with standards for encoding email messages published as early as 1973.
An email message sent in the early 1970s looks similar to a basic email sent today. Email had an important role in creating the Internet, the conversion from ARPANET to the Internet in the early 1980s produced the core of the current services; the term electronic mail was used generically for any electronic document transmission. For example, several writers in the early 1970s used the term to describe fax document transmission; as a result, it is difficult to find the first citation for the use of the term with the more specific meaning it has today. Electronic mail has been most called email or e-mail since around 1993, but variations of the spelling have been used: email is the most common form used online, is required by IETF Requests for Comments and working groups and by style guides; this spelling appears in most dictionaries. E-mail is the format that sometimes appears in edited, published American English and British English writing as reflected in the Corpus of Contemporary American English data, but is falling out of favor in some style guides.
Mail was the form used in the original protocol standard, RFC 524. The service is referred to as mail, a single piece of electronic mail is called a message. EMail is a traditional form, used in RFCs for the "Author's Address" and is expressly required "for historical reasons". E-mail is sometimes used, capitalizing the initial E as in similar abbreviations like E-piano, E-guitar, A-bomb, H-bomb. An Internet e-mail consists of an content. Computer-based mail and messaging became possible with the advent of time-sharing computers in the early 1960s, informal methods of using shared files to pass messages were soon expanded into the first mail systems. Most developers of early mainframes and minicomputers developed similar, but incompatible, mail applications. Over time, a complex web of gateways and routing systems linked many of them. Many US universities were part of the ARPANET, which aimed at software portability between its systems; that portability helped make the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol influential.
For a time in the late 1980s and early 1990s, it seemed that either a proprietary commercial system or the X.400 email system, part of the Government Open Systems Interconnection Profile, would predominate. However, once the final restrictions on carrying commercial traffic over the Internet ended in 1995, a combination of factors made the current Internet suite of SMTP, POP3 and IMAP email protocols the standard; the diagram to the right shows a typical sequence of events that takes place when sender Alice transmits a message using a mail user agent addressed to the email address of the recipient. The MUA formats the message in email format and uses the submission protocol, a profile of the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol, to send the message content to the local mail submission agent, in this case smtp.a.org. The MSA determines the destination address provided in the SMTP protocol, in this case email@example.com, a qualified domain address. The part before the @ sign is the local part of the address the username of the recipient, the part after the @ sign is a domain name.
The MSA resolves a domain name to determine the qualified domain name of the mail server in the Domain Name System. The DNS server for the domain b.org responds with any MX records listing the mail exchange servers for that domain, in this case mx.b.org, a message transfer agent server run by the recipient's ISP. smtp.a.org sends the message to mx.b.org using SMTP. This server may need to forward the message to other MTAs before the message reaches the final message delivery agent; the MDA delivers it to the mailbox of user bob. Bob's MUA picks up the message using either the Post Office Protocol or the Internet Message Access Protocol. In addition to this example and complications exist in the email system: Alice or Bob may use a client connected to a corporate email system, such as IBM Lotus Notes or Microsoft Exchange; these systems have their own internal email format and their clients communicate with the email server using a vendor-specific, proprietary protocol. The server sends or receives email via the Internet through the product's Internet mail gateway which does any necessary reformatt
American Broadcasting Company
The American Broadcasting Company is an American commercial broadcast television network, a flagship property of Walt Disney Television, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company. The network is headquartered in Burbank, California on Riverside Drive, directly across the street from Walt Disney Studios and adjacent to the Roy E. Disney Animation Building, But the network's second corporate headquarters and News headquarters remains in New York City, New York at their broadcast center on 77 West 66th Street in Lincoln Square in Upper West Side Manhattan. Since 2007, when ABC Radio was sold to Citadel Broadcasting, ABC has reduced its broadcasting operations exclusively to television; the fifth-oldest major broadcasting network in the world and the youngest of the Big Three television networks, ABC is nicknamed as "The Alphabet Network", as its initialism represents the first three letters of the English alphabet, in order. ABC launched as a radio network on October 12, 1943, serving as the successor to the NBC Blue Network, purchased by Edward J. Noble.
It extended its operations to television in 1948, following in the footsteps of established broadcast networks CBS and NBC. In the mid-1950s, ABC merged with United Paramount Theatres, a chain of movie theaters that operated as a subsidiary of Paramount Pictures. Leonard Goldenson, the head of UPT, made the new television network profitable by helping develop and greenlight many successful series. In the 1980s, after purchasing an 80 percent interest in cable sports channel ESPN, the network's corporate parent, American Broadcasting Companies, Inc. merged with Capital Cities Communications, owner of several print publications, television and radio stations. In 1996, most of Capital Cities/ABC's assets were purchased by The Walt Disney Company; the television network has eight owned-and-operated and over 232 affiliated television stations throughout the United States and its territories. Some of the ABC-affiliated stations can be seen in Canada via pay-television providers, certain other affiliates can be received over-the-air in areas within the Canada–United States border.
ABC News provides news and features content for select radio stations owned by Citadel Broadcasting, which purchased the ABC Radio properties in 2007. In the 1930s, radio in the United States was dominated by three companies: the Columbia Broadcasting System, the Mutual Broadcasting System, the National Broadcasting Company; the last was owned by electronics manufacturer Radio Corporation of America, which owned two radio networks that each ran different varieties of programming, NBC Blue and NBC Red. The NBC Blue Network was created in 1927 for the primary purpose of testing new programs on markets of lesser importance than those served by NBC Red, which served the major cities, to test drama series. In 1934, Mutual filed a complaint with the Federal Communications Commission regarding its difficulties in establishing new stations, in a radio market, being saturated by NBC and CBS. In 1938, the FCC began a series of investigations into the practices of radio networks and published its report on the broadcasting of network radio programs in 1940.
The report recommended that RCA give up control of either NBC NBC Blue. At that time, the NBC Red Network was the principal radio network in the United States and, according to the FCC, RCA was using NBC Blue to eliminate any hint of competition. Having no power over the networks themselves, the FCC established a regulation forbidding licenses to be issued for radio stations if they were affiliated with a network which owned multiple networks that provided content of public interest. Once Mutual's appeals against the FCC were rejected, RCA decided to sell NBC Blue in 1941, gave the mandate to do so to Mark Woods. RCA converted the NBC Blue Network into an independent subsidiary, formally divorcing the operations of NBC Red and NBC Blue on January 8, 1942, with the Blue Network being referred to on-air as either "Blue" or "Blue Network"; the newly separated NBC Red and NBC Blue divided their respective corporate assets. Between 1942 and 1943, Woods offered to sell the entire NBC Blue Network, a package that included leases on landlines, three pending television licenses, 60 affiliates, four operations facilities, contracts with actors, the brand associated with the Blue Network.
Investment firm Dillon, Read & Co. offered $7.5 million to purchase the network, but the offer was rejected by Woods and RCA president David Sarnoff. Edward J. Noble, the owner of Life Savers candy, drugstore chain Rexall and New York City radio station WMCA, purchased the network for $8 million. Due to FCC ownership rules, the transaction, to include the purchase of three RCA stations by Noble, would require him to resell his station with the FCC's approval; the Commission authorized the transaction on October 12, 1943. Soon afterward, the Blue Network was purchased by the new company Noble founded, the American Broadcasting System. Noble subsequently acquired the rights to the American Broadcasting Company name from George B. Storer in 1944. Meanwhile, in August 1944, the West Coast division of the Blue Network, which owned San Francisco radio station KGO, bought Los Angeles station KECA f
Text messaging, or texting, is the act of composing and sending electronic messages consisting of alphabetic and numeric characters, between two or more users of mobile devices, desktops/laptops, or other type of compatible computer. Text messages may be sent over a cellular network, or may be sent via an Internet connection; the term referred to messages sent using the Short Message Service. It has grown beyond alphanumeric text to include multimedia messages containing digital images and sound content, as well as ideograms known as emoji; as of 2017, text messages are used by youth and adults for personal, family and social purposes. Governmental and non-governmental organizations use text messaging for communication between colleagues. In the 2010s, the sending of short informal messages has become an accepted part of many cultures, as happened earlier with emailing; this makes texting a quick and easy way to communicate with friends and colleagues, including in contexts where a call would be impolite or inappropriate.
Like e-mail and voicemail, unlike calls, texting does not require the caller and recipient to both be free at the same moment. Text messages can be used to interact with automated systems, for example, to order products or services from e-commerce websites, or to participate in online contests. Advertisers and service providers use direct text marketing to send messages to mobile users about promotions, payment due dates, other notifications instead of using postal mail, email, or voicemail; the service is referred to by different colloquialisms depending on the region. It may be referred to as a "text" in North America, the United Kingdom, New Zealand and the Philippines, an "SMS" in most of mainland Europe, or an "MMS" or "SMS" in the Middle East and Asia; the sender of a text message is referred to as a "texter". The electrical telegraph systems, developed in the early 19th century, used simple electrical signals to send text messages. In the late 19th century, the wireless telegraphy was developed using radio waves.
In 1933, the German Reichspost introduced the first "telex" service. The University of Hawaii began using radio to send digital information as early as 1971, using ALOHAnet. Friedhelm Hillebrand conceptualised SMS in 1984 while working for Deutsche Telekom. Sitting at a typewriter at home, Hillebrand typed out random sentences and counted every letter, number and space; every time, the messages contained fewer than 160 characters, thus giving the basis for the limit one could type via text messaging. With Bernard Ghillebaert of France Télécom, he developed a proposal for the GSM meeting in February 1985 in Oslo; the first technical solution evolved in a GSM subgroup under the leadership of Finn Trosby. It was further developed under the leadership of Ian Harris. SMS forms an integral part of SS7. Under SS7, it is a "state" with a 160 character data, coded in the ITU-T "T.56" text format, that has a "sequence lead in" to determine different language codes, may have special character codes that permits, for example, sending simple graphs as text.
This was part of ISDN. Messages could be sent and received on ISDN phones, these can send SMS to any GSM phone; the possibility of doing something is one thing, implementing it another, but systems existed from 1988 that sent SMS messages to mobile phones. SMS messaging was used for the first time on 3 December 1992, when Neil Papworth, a 22-year-old test engineer for Sema Group in the UK, used a personal computer to send the text message "Merry Christmas" via the Vodafone network to the phone of Richard Jarvis, at a party in Newbury, organised to celebrate the event. Modern SMS text messaging is messaging from one mobile phone to another. Finnish Radiolinja became the first network to offer a commercial person-to-person SMS text messaging service in 1994; when Radiolinja's domestic competitor, Telecom Finland launched SMS text messaging in 1995 and the two networks offered cross-network SMS functionality, Finland became the first nation where SMS text messaging was offered on a competitive as well as on a commercial basis.
GSM was allowed in the United States and the radio frequencies were blocked and awarded to US "Carriers" to use US technology. Hence there is no "development" in the US in mobile messaging service; the GSM in the US had to use a frequency allocated for private communication services – what the ITU frequency régime had blocked for DECT – Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecommunications – 1000-feet range picocell, but survived. American Personal Communications, the first GSM carrier in America, provided the first text-messaging service in the United States. Sprint Telecommunications Venture, a partnership of Sprint Corp. and three large cable-TV companies, owned 49 percent of APC. The Sprint venture was the largest single buyer at a government-run spectrum auction that raised $7.7 billion in 2005 for PCS licenses. APC operated under the brand name of Sprint Spectrum and launched its service on November 15, 1995 in Washington, D. C. and in Baltimore, Maryland. Vice President Al Gore in Washington, D.
C. made the initial phone-call to lau