LWN.net is a computing webzine with an emphasis on free software and software for Linux and other Unix-like operating systems. It consists of a weekly issue, separate stories which are published most days, threaded discussion attached to every story. Most news published daily are short summaries of articles published elsewhere, are free to all viewers. Original articles are published weekly on Thursdays and are available only to subscribers for one week, after which they become free as well. LWN.net is part of Inc.. LWN caters to a more technical audience than other Linux/free software publications, it is praised for its in-depth coverage of Linux kernel internals and Linux kernel mailing list discussions. The acronym "LWN" stood for Linux Weekly News. Founded by Jonathan Corbet and Elizabeth Coolbaugh and published since January 1998, LWN was a free site devoted to collecting Linux news, published weekly. At the end of May 2002, LWN announced a redesigned site. Among the changes was a facility for readers to post comments about stories.
On July 25, 2002, LWN announced that due to its inability to raise enough funds through donations, the following issue would be its last. Following an outpouring of support from readers, the editors of LWN decided to continue publishing, albeit with a subscription model. New weekly editions of LWN are only available to readers who subscribe at one of three levels. After a 1-week delay, each issue becomes available to readers who are unable or unwilling to pay. LWN.net staff consists of: Jonathan Corbet, who oversees the front and kernel pages, as well as overall "executive editor" functions. LWN.net purchases a number of articles from freelance authors. DistroWatch Slashdot Phoronix Official website Timeline page - Also includes the site's own history at the bottom 2007 Subscribers survey, showing demographics and what sections of the site are liked
Larry McVoy is the CEO of BitMover, the company that makes BitKeeper, a version control system, used from February 2002 to early 2005 to manage the source code of the Linux kernel. He earned BS and MS degrees in computer science in 1985 and 1987 from the University of Wisconsin–Madison and has been employed by Sun Microsystems and Silicon Graphics, his work included performance enhancements to the various Unix operating systems developed by his employers. While McVoy worked at Sun, he worked on a peer-to-peer SCM system named TeamWare that would form the basis of his BitKeeper product. McVoy started working with the Linux kernel around its 0.9.7 version and developed the LMbench kernel benchmark. LMbench was maintained until 2009 by Carl Staelin; the BitKeeper source control system was developed and integrated into the Linux development process, but after McVoy decided to charge for the use of BitKeeper, the Linux development community prompted the development of the git tool that began serving as the source control system for the Linux kernel in 2005.
While working at Sun in the early 1990s, McVoy and a number of other high-profile Unix community members urged the company to open-source their flagship Unix product, SunOS, to compete with Microsoft's new Windows NT operating system. The proposal would have created a copyleft version of SunOS at a time before Linux had reached its 1.0 version. McVoy, L.. Extent-like Performance from a UNIX File System. Proceedings of the 1991 Winter USENIX Conference. Pp. 33–44. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.160.2196. McVoy's resume The Sourceware Operating System Proposal 2002 interview with Larry McVoy BitKeeper and Linux: The end of the road
Linus Benedict Torvalds is a Finnish–American software engineer, the creator, the principal developer of the Linux kernel, which became the kernel for many Linux distributions and operating systems such as Android and Chrome OS. He created the distributed version control system Git and the diving logging and planning software Subsurface, he was honored, along with Shinya Yamanaka, with the 2012 Millennium Technology Prize by the Technology Academy Finland "in recognition of his creation of a new open source operating system for computers leading to the used Linux kernel". He is the recipient of the 2014 IEEE Computer Society Computer Pioneer Award and the 2018 IEEE Masaru Ibuka Consumer Electronics Award. Torvalds was born in Helsinki, Finland in 1969, he is the son of journalists Anna and Nils Torvalds, the grandson of statistician Leo Törnqvist and of poet Ole Torvalds. Both of his parents were campus radicals at the University of Helsinki in the 1960s, his family belongs to the Swedish-speaking minority.
Torvalds was named after Linus Pauling, the Nobel Prize-winning American chemist, although in the book Rebel Code: Linux and the Open Source Revolution, Torvalds is quoted as saying, "I think I was named for Linus the Peanuts cartoon character", noting that this makes him half "Nobel Prize-winning chemist" and half "blanket-carrying cartoon character". Torvalds attended the University of Helsinki between 1988 and 1996, graduating with a master's degree in computer science from the NODES research group, his academic career was interrupted after his first year of study when he joined the Finnish Army Uusimaa brigade, in the summer of 1989, selecting the 11-month officer training program to fulfill the mandatory military service of Finland. In the army he held the rank of Second Lieutenant, with the role of a ballistic calculation officer. Torvalds bought computer science professor Andrew Tanenbaum's book Operating Systems: Design and Implementation, in which Tanenbaum describes MINIX, an educational stripped-down version of Unix.
In 1990, he resumed his university studies, was exposed to UNIX for the first time, in the form of a DEC MicroVAX running ULTRIX. His M. Sc. Thesis was titled Linux: A Portable Operating System, his interest in computers began with a Commodore VIC-20, at the age of 11 in 1981 programming in BASIC, but by directly accessing the 6502 CPU in machine code. He did not make use of assembly language. After the VIC-20 he purchased a Sinclair QL, which he modified extensively its operating system. "Because it was so hard to get software for it in Finland, Linus wrote his own assembler and editor" for the QL, as well as a few games. He wrote a Pac-Man clone named Cool Man. On January 5, 1991 he purchased an Intel 80386-based clone of IBM PC before receiving his MINIX copy, which in turn enabled him to begin work on Linux; the first prototypes of Linux were publicly released that year. Version 1.0 was released on March 14, 1994. Torvalds first encountered the GNU Project in 1991, after another Swedish-speaking computer science student, Lars Wirzenius, took him to the University of Technology to listen to free software-guru Richard Stallman's speech.
Torvalds used Stallman's GNU General Public License version 2 for his Linux kernel. After a visit to Transmeta in late 1996, Torvalds accepted a position at the company in California, where he would work from February 1997 until June 2003, he moved to the Open Source Development Labs, which has since merged with the Free Standards Group to become the Linux Foundation, under whose auspices he continues to work. In June 2004, Torvalds and his family moved to Dunthorpe, Oregon, to be closer to the OSDL's Beaverton, Oregon-based headquarters. From 1997 to 1999, he was involved in 86open helping to choose the standard binary format for Linux and Unix. In 1999, he was named by the MIT Technology Review TR100 as one of the world's top 100 innovators under age 35. In 1999, Red Hat and VA Linux, both leading developers of Linux-based software, presented Torvalds with stock options in gratitude for his creation; that same year both companies went public and Torvalds's share value temporarily shot up to US$20 million.
His personal mascot is a penguin nicknamed Tux, adopted by the Linux community as the mascot of the Linux kernel. Although Torvalds believes "open source is the only right way to do software", he has said that he uses the "best tool for the job" if that includes proprietary software, he was criticized for his use and alleged advocacy of the proprietary BitKeeper software for version control in the Linux kernel. Torvalds subsequently wrote. In 2008, Torvalds stated that he used the Fedora distribution of Linux because it had good support for the PowerPC processor architecture, which he had favored at the time, his usage of Fedora was confirmed in a 2012 interview. He has posted updates about his choice of desktop environment in response to perceived feature regressions; the Linux Foundation sponsors Torvalds so he can work full-time on improving Linux. Linus Torvalds is known for disagreeing with other developers on the Linux kernel mailing list. Calling himself a "really unpleasant person", he explained "I'd like to be a nice person and curse less and encourage people to grow rather than telling them they are idiots.
I'm sorry – I tried, it's just not in me." His attitude, which Torvalds considers necessary for making his point clear, has drawn criticism from Intel programmer Sage Sharp and systemd developer Lennart Poettering, among others. On Sunday, September 16, 2018
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant