Donald III of Scotland
Donald III, nicknamed "Donald the Fair" or "Donald the White", was King of Scots from 1093–1094 and 1094–1097. Donald was born in 1032, during the reign of his great-grandfather King Malcolm II, he was the second known son of Duncan. Malcolm died when Donald was a baby, at age 80, Donald's father became king. King Duncan I however, perished in 1040 when Donald was still a boy, killed by Thane Macbeth, yet another grandson of King Malcolm II, who usurped his place as king. Following his father's death, Donald went into hiding in Ireland for 17 years, for fear that he would be killed by Macbeth, his elder brother, went to England. It was during this time that Malcolm's grandfather, Crinan of Dunkeld, married to Malcolm II's daughter, was killed fighting Macbeth; when Malcolm grew to manhood, he became the new king. Donald was 25 years old at that time. Donald's activities during the reign of his elder brother Malcolm III are not recorded, it appears that he was not his brother's chosen heir, contrary to earlier custom, but that Malcolm had designated Edward, his eldest son by Margaret of Wessex, as the king to come.
If this was Malcolm's intent, his death and that of Edward on campaign in Northumbria in November 1093 confounded his plans. These deaths were followed soon afterwards by that of Queen Margaret. John of Fordun reports that Donald invaded the kingdom after Margaret's death "at the head of a numerous band", laid siege to Edinburgh with Malcolm's sons by Margaret inside. Fordun has Edgar Ætheling, concerned for his nephews' well-being, take the sons of Malcolm and Margaret to England. Andrew of Wyntoun's much simpler account has Donald banish his nephews; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle records only that Donald was chosen as king and expelled the English from the court. In May 1094, Donald's nephew Duncan, son of Malcolm and his first wife Ingibiorg Finnsdottir, invaded at the head of an army of Anglo-Normans and Northumbrians, aided by his half-brother Edmund and his father-in-law Gospatric, Earl of Northumbria; this invasion succeeded in placing Duncan on the throne as Duncan II, but an uprising defeated his allies and he was compelled to send away his foreign troops.
Duncan was killed on 12 November 1094 by Máel Petair, Mormaer of Mearns. The Annals of Ulster say that Duncan was killed on the orders of Edmund. Donald resumed power with Edmund as his designated heir. Donald was an elderly man by at around 62 years old, without any known sons, so that an heir was required. William of Malmesbury says that Edmund bargained "for half the kingdom", suggesting that Donald granted his nephew an appanage to rule. Edgar, eldest surviving son of Malcolm and Margaret, obtained the support of William Rufus, although other matters delayed Edgar's return on the coat-tails of an English army led by his uncle Edgar Ætheling. Donald's fate is not clear. William of Malmesbury tells us that he was "slain by the craftiness of David... and by the strength of William ". The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle says of Donald that he was expelled, while the Annals of Tigernach have him blinded by his brother. John of Fordun, following the king-lists, writes that Donald was "blinded, doomed to eternal imprisonment" by Edgar.
The place of his imprisonment was said to be Rescobie, by Forfar, in Angus. The old ex-king would die at the age of 67 in prison; the sources differ as to whether Donald was first buried at Dunfermline Abbey or Dunkeld Cathedral, but agree that his remains were moved to Iona. Donald left one daughter but no sons, his daughter Bethoc married Uctred de Tyndale, Lord of Tyndale. Bethoc's daughter, married Richard Comyn, Justiciar of Lothian; the claims of John II Comyn, Lord of Badenoch to the crown in the Great Cause came from Donald through Bethóc and Hextilda. Ladhmann son of Domnall, "grandson of the King of Scots" who died in 1116, might have been a son of Donald, he may have been a son of Domnall, son of Máel Coluim who died in 1085, who may in turn have been a son of Malcolm III or of Máel Coluim mac Maíl Brigti, Mormaer of Moray. Bethoc's second husband was Radulf of Nithsdale; the minor character of Donalbain in William Shakespeare's play Macbeth represents Donald III
Royal Shakespeare Company
The Royal Shakespeare Company is a major British theatre company, based in Stratford-upon-Avon, England. The company produces around 20 productions a year; the RSC plays in London, Newcastle upon Tyne and on tour across the UK and internationally. The company's home is in Stratford-upon-Avon, where it has redeveloped its Royal Shakespeare and Swan theatres as part of a £112.8-million "Transformation" project. The theatres re-opened in November 2010, having closed in 2007; the new buildings attracted 18,000 visitors within the first week and received a positive media response both upon opening, following the first full Shakespeare performances. Performances in Stratford-upon-Avon continued throughout the Transformation project at the temporary Courtyard Theatre; as well as the plays of Shakespeare and his contemporaries, the RSC produces new work from living artists and develops creative links with theatre-makers from around the world, as well as working with teachers to inspire a lifelong love of William Shakespeare in young people and running events for everyone to explore and participate in its work.
The RSC celebrated its fiftieth birthday season from April–December 2011, with two companies of actors presenting the first productions designed for the new Royal Shakespeare and Swan Theatre stages. The 2011-season began with performances of Macbeth and a re-imagined lost play The History of Cardenio; the fiftieth birthday season featured The Merchant of Venice with Sir Patrick Stewart and revivals of some of the RSC's greatest plays, including a new staging of Marat/Sade. For the London 2012 Festival as part of the Cultural Olympiad, the RSC produced the World Shakespeare Festival, featuring artists from across the world performing in venues around the UK. In 2013, the company began live screenings of its Shakespeare productions – called Live from Stratford-upon-Avon – which are screened around the world. In 2016, the company collaborated with Intel and The Imaginarium Studios to stage The Tempest, bringing performance capture to the Royal Shakespeare Theatre for the first time. There have been theatrical performances in Stratford-upon-Avon since at least Shakespeare's day, though the first recorded performance of a play written by Shakespeare himself was in 1746 when Parson Joseph Greene, master of Stratford Grammar School, organised a charitable production to fund the restoration of Shakespeare's funerary monument.
John Ward's Birmingham-based company, the Warwickshire Company of Comedians, agreed to perform it. A surviving copy of the playbill records; the first building erected to commemorate Shakespeare was David Garrick's Jubilee Pavilion in 1769, there have been at least 17 buildings used to perform Shakespeare's plays since. The first permanent commemorative building to Shakespeare's works in the town was a theatre built in 1827, in the gardens of New Place, but has long since been demolished; the RSC's history began with the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre, the brainchild of a local brewer, Charles Edward Flower. He donated a two-acre site by the River Avon and in 1875 launched an international campaign to build a theatre in the town of Shakespeare's birth; the theatre, a Victorian-Gothic building seating just over 700 people, opened on 23 April 1879, with a performance of Much Ado About Nothing, a title which gave ammunition to several critics. The Memorial, a red brick Gothic cathedral, designed by Dodgshun and Unsworth of Westminster, was unkindly described by Bernard Shaw as "an admirable building, adaptable to every purpose except that of a theatre."
From 1919, under the direction of William Bridges-Adams and after a slow start, its resident New Shakespeare Company became one of the most prestigious in Britain. The theatre received a Royal Charter of Incorporation in 1925. On the afternoon of 6 March 1926, when a new season was about to commence rehearsals, smoke was seen. Fire broke out, the mass of half-timbering chosen to ornament the interior provided dry tinder. By the following morning the theatre was a blackened shell; the company transferred its Shakespeare festivals to a converted local cinema. Fund-raising began for the rebuilding of the theatre, with generous donations arriving from philanthropists in America. In January 1928, following an open competition, 29-year-old Elisabeth Scott was unanimously appointed architect for the new theatre which became the first important work erected in the United Kingdom from the designs of a woman architect. George Bernard Shaw commented, her modernist plans for an art deco structure came under fire from many directions but the new building was opened triumphantly on William Shakespeare's birthday, 23 April 1932.
It came under the direction of Sir Barry Jackson in 1945, Anthony Quayle from 1948 to 1956 and Glen Byam Shaw 1957–1959, with an impressive roll-call of actors. Scott's building, with some minor adjustments to the stage, remained in constant use until 2007 when it was closed for a major refit of the interior. Timeline: 1932 – new Shakespeare Memorial Theatre opens, abutting the remains of the old. 1961 – chartered name of the corporation and the Stratford theatre becomes ‘Royal Shakespeare.’ 1974 – The Other Place opened, created from a prefabricated former store/rehearsal room in Stratford. 1986 – the Swan Theatre opened, created from the shell of the 1879 Memorial Theatre. 1991 – Purpose-built new Other Place, designed by Michael Reardon, opens. September 2004 – The vision for the renewal of the Royal Shakespeare Theatre transformation is announced. July 2006 – The Courtyard Theatre opens with a staging of Michael Boyd’s Histories. November 2010 – The Royal Shakespeare and Swan T
Macbeth (1961 film)
Macbeth is a 1961 Canadian television film adaptation of William Shakespeare's Macbeth starring Sean Connery in his first North-American role. The screenplay was adapted by Paul Almond who directed the production, it was broadcast by CBC in five parts on 30 November, 5 December, 7 December, 12 December, 14 December 1961. The Scottish lord, he commits regicide to become king and furthers his moral descent with a reign of murderous terror to stay in power plunging the country into civil war. In the end, he loses everything that gives meaning and purpose to his life before losing his life itself. Sean Connery – Macbeth Zoe Caldwell – Lady Macbeth William Needles – Banquo Ted Follows – Macduff Robin Gammell – Malcolm Powys Thomas – King Duncan This adaptation was filmed in black and white in Toronto, Ontario. Macbeth on IMDb
University of Natal
The University of Natal was a university in Natal and became KwaZulu-Natal in South Africa. The University of Natal no longer exists as a distinct legal entity, as it was incorporated into the University of KwaZulu-Natal on 1 January 2004, it was founded in 1910 as the Natal University College in Pietermaritzburg and expanded to include a campus in Durban in 1931. In 1947, the university opened a medical school for non-white students in Durban; the Pietermaritzburg campus was known for its agricultural engineering programmes, hence the nickname "the farmers" whilst the Durban campus was known as "the engineers," as it concentrated on other engineering programmes. The Council of the University of Natal voted on 31 May 2002 to offer the post of Vice-Chancellor and University Principal to world-renowned medical scientist and former Medical Research Council President - Professor Malegapuru Makgoba who assumed office on the 1 September 2002, he was entrusted with leading the University of Natal into the merger with the University of Durban-Westville.
In so doing, he became the last Vice-Chancellor of the University of Natal. Professor Makgoba succeeded Professor Brenda Gourley as Vice-Chancellor. Brenda Gourley, a qualified chartered accountant, was the second last vice-chancellor of the University of Natal, her appointment at the university in 1994 was an historical event in South Africa. She was the first woman in South Africa to be appointed as a vice-chancellor of a South African university; the Maritime law programme based at the Institute of Maritime Law at the University of Natal, pioneered under the headship of Professor Hilton Staniland, was one of the first Maritime law programmes of its kind in South Africa. The above institute was well known in South African Maritime circles. A number of South African statutes regulating the South African maritime industry were drafted by Professor Hilton Staniland at the above Institute, including the Carriage of Goods by Sea Act 1 of 1986 and the Wreck and Salvage Act 94 of 1996; the main science block on the Howard College campus, completed in the early 1980s, was a pivotal location for biological research and game conservation for the province.
The Howard College campus in Durban was strung out along the Berea, a ridge to the north of the Durban city centre. Under apartheid, the Durban campus of the university was known for the activism of its staff and students against government-imposed racial segregation. In the 1970s and 1980s many of its students were members of the often-banned South African Students' Organisation, centred on the main arts centre at the Howard College campus. In addition, the university magazine Dome, was active against apartheid and was banned, with the printing press being moved around to prevent its being confiscated by police. In 1980 there was a brief boycotting of the food hall by the college residences because of the unfair treatment of black staff by the food supply contractor FEDICS; the Durban campus had a number of onsite residences, named after prominent South Africans including John Bews, Ernest Jansen, Louis Botha and Mabel Palmer. Pietermartizburg campus was the original campus, though it became the smaller of the two main campuses.
The campus is in a suburban location, centred on the administration buildings. The library houses many historic books, including books on colonial Boer war history. Unlike the Durban campus, most students did not live in campus residences. On 1 January 2004, the University of Natal was merged with the University of Durban-Westville to create a new legal entity called the University of KwaZulu-Natal. For full list, see Category:University of Natal alumni
Macbeth (2010 film)
Macbeth is a 2010 television film based on William Shakespeare's tragedy of the same name. It was broadcast on BBC Four on 12 December 2010. In the United States, it aired on PBS' Great Performances, it was directed by Rupert Goold from his stage adaptation for the Chichester Festival Theatre in 2007. Patrick Stewart is featured with Kate Fleetwood as Lady Macbeth; the film evokes the atmosphere of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin, with subtle parallels between Stalin and Macbeth in their brutal quests for power. The Three Witches receive an update in keeping with the 20th century aesthetics, appearing as hospital nurses, their presence is pervasive throughout the film, punctuating the horror of Macbeth's murderous reign. The film was filmed on location at Welbeck Abbey. Principal cast: Macbeth – Sir Patrick Stewart Lady Macbeth – Kate Fleetwood Banquo – Martin Turner Macduff – Michael Feast Malcolm – Scott Handy Donalbain – Ben Carpenter Duncan / Doctor – Paul Shelley Lady Macduff – Suzanne Burden Lennox – Mark Rawlings Ross – Tim Treloar Angus – Bill Nash Old Seyward / Murderer – Christopher Knott Porter – Christopher Patrick Nolan Fleance – Bertie Gilbert Director- Rupert Goold The film won a Peabody Award for 2010.
In addition, Patrick Stewart was nominated for a Screen Actors Guild Award for Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Television Movie or Miniseries. Macbeth on IMDb Macbeth: About the Film and Preview https://web.archive.org/web/20100719100552/http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/theatre/review-23413999-the-macbeth-of-a-lifetime.do https://web.archive.org/web/20101211161127/http://cft.org.uk/cft-productions_details.asp?pid=71 https://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/profiles/patrick-stewart-how-we-filmed-macbeth-in-18-days-2152271.html https://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/tvandradio/8194438/Terrifying-Macbeth-shows-Shakespeare-works-on-the-small-screen.html http://video.pbs.org/video/1604122998
Macbeth (1911 film)
Macbeth is a 1911 film adaptation of the William Shakespeare play Macbeth. Like all films of the time, it is black-and-white, with English intertitles. William Barker Frank Benson as Macbeth Constance Benson as Lady Macbeth Murray Carrington Guy Rathbone Macbeth on IMDb
Macbeth is a tragedy by William Shakespeare. It dramatises the damaging physical and psychological effects of political ambition on those who seek power for its own sake. Of all the plays that Shakespeare wrote during the reign of James I, patron of Shakespeare's acting company, Macbeth most reflects the playwright's relationship with his sovereign, it was first published in the Folio of 1623 from a prompt book, is Shakespeare's shortest tragedy. A brave Scottish general named Macbeth receives a prophecy from a trio of witches that one day he will become King of Scotland. Consumed by ambition and spurred to action by his wife, Macbeth murders King Duncan and takes the Scottish throne for himself, he is wracked with guilt and paranoia. Forced to commit more and more murders to protect himself from enmity and suspicion, he soon becomes a tyrannical ruler; the bloodbath and consequent civil war swiftly take Macbeth and Lady Macbeth into the realms of madness and death. Shakespeare's source for the story is the account of King of Scotland.
The events of the tragedy are associated with the execution of Henry Garnet for complicity in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605. In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, will not mention its title aloud, referring to it instead as "The Scottish Play". Over the course of many centuries, the play has attracted some of the most renowned actors to the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, it has been adapted to film, opera, novels and other media. The play opens amid thunder and lightning, the Three Witches decide that their next meeting will be with Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals Macbeth, the Thane of Glamis, Banquo have just defeated the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, who were led by the traitorous Macdonwald, the Thane of Cawdor. Macbeth, the King's kinsman, is praised for his fighting prowess. In the following scene and Banquo discuss the weather and their victory; as they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches greet them with prophecies.
Though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth, hailing him as "Thane of Glamis," "Thane of Cawdor," and that he will "be King hereafter." Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence. When Banquo asks of his own fortunes, the witches respond paradoxically, saying that he will be less than Macbeth, yet happier, less successful, yet more, he will father a line of kings, though he himself will not be one. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, another thane, Ross and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title: Thane of Cawdor; the first prophecy is thus fulfilled, Macbeth sceptical begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king. King Duncan welcomes and praises Macbeth and Banquo, declares that he will spend the night at Macbeth's castle at Inverness. Macbeth sends a message ahead to Lady Macbeth, telling her about the witches' prophecies. Lady Macbeth suffers none of her husband's uncertainty and wishes him to murder Duncan in order to obtain kingship; when Macbeth arrives at Inverness, she overrides all of her husband's objections by challenging his manhood and persuades him to kill the king that night.
He and Lady Macbeth plan to get Duncan's two chamberlains. They will be defenceless. While Duncan is asleep, Macbeth stabs him, despite his doubts and a number of supernatural portents, including a hallucination of a bloody dagger, he is so shaken. In accordance with her plan, she frames Duncan's sleeping servants for the murder by placing bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive. A porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king's chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan's body. Macbeth murders the guards to prevent them from professing their innocence, but claims he did so in a fit of anger over their misdeeds. Duncan's sons Malcolm and Donalbain flee to England and Ireland fearing that whoever killed Duncan desires their demise as well; the rightful heirs' flight makes them suspects and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman of the dead king. Banquo reveals this to the audience, while sceptical of the new King Macbeth, he remembers the witches' prophecy about how his own descendants would inherit the throne.
Despite his success, Macbeth aware of this part of the prophecy, remains uneasy. Macbeth invites Banquo to a royal banquet, where he discovers that Banquo and his young son, will be riding out that night. Fearing Banquo's suspicions, Macbeth arranges to have him murdered, by hiring two men to kill them sending a Third Murderer; the assassins succeed in killing Banquo. Macbeth becomes furious: he fears that his power remains insecure as long as an heir of Banquo remains alive. At a banquet, Macbeth invites Lady Macbeth to a night of drinking and merriment. Banquo's ghost sits in Macbeth's place. Macbeth raves fearfully, as the ghost is only visible to him; the others panic at the sight of Macbeth ragi