SunOS is a Unix-branded operating system developed by Sun Microsystems for their workstation and server computer systems. The SunOS name is only used to refer to versions 1.0 to 4.1.4, which were based on BSD, while versions 5.0 and are based on UNIX System V Release 4, are marketed under the brand name Solaris. SunOS 1 only supported the Sun-2 series systems, including Sun-1 systems upgraded with Sun-2 CPU boards. SunOS 2 supported Sun-3 series systems. SunOS 4 supported Sun-3, Sun386i and Sun-4 architectures. Although SunOS 4 was intended to be the first release to support Sun's new SPARC processor, there was a SunOS 3.2 release with preliminary support for Sun-4 systems. SunOS 4.1.2 introduced support for Sun's first sun4m-architecture multiprocessor machines. The last release of SunOS 4 was 4.1.4 in 1994. The sun4, sun4c and sun4m architectures were supported in 4.1.4. Sun continued to ship SunOS 4.1.3 and 4.1.4 until December 27, 1998. In 1987, AT&T Corporation and Sun announced that they were collaborating on a project to merge the most popular Unix flavors on the market at that time: BSD, System V, Xenix.
This would become System V Release 4. On September 4, 1991, Sun announced that its next major OS release would switch from its BSD-derived source base to one based on SVR4. Although the internal designation of this release would be SunOS 5, from this point Sun began using the marketing name Solaris; the justification for this new "overbrand" was that it encompassed not only SunOS, but the OpenWindows desktop environment and Open Network Computing functionality. Though the new SVR4-based OS was not expected to ship in volume until the following year, Sun began using the new Solaris name to refer to the shipping SunOS 4 release, thus SunOS 4.1.1 was rebranded Solaris 1.0. SunOS 4.1.x micro versions continued to be released through 1994, each of these was given a Solaris 1.x equivalent name. In practice, these were still referred to by customers and Sun personnel by their SunOS release names. Matching the version numbers was not straightforward: Today, SunOS 5 is universally known as Solaris, although the SunOS name is still visible within the OS itself – in the startup banner, the output of the uname command, man page footers, among other places.
Matching a SunOS 5.x release to its corresponding Solaris marketing name is simple: each Solaris release name includes its corresponding SunOS 5 minor version number. For example, Solaris 2.4 incorporated SunOS 5.4. There is one small twist: after Solaris 2.6, the "2." was dropped from the Solaris name and the SunOS minor number appears by itself. The latest Solaris release is named Solaris 11 and incorporates SunOS 5.11. GUI environments bundled with earlier versions of SunOS included SunTools and NeWS. In 1989, Sun released OpenWindows, an OPEN LOOK-compliant X11-based environment which supported SunView and NeWS applications; this became the default SunOS GUI in SunOS 4.1.1. Solaris OpenSolaris OpenIndiana Illumos Comparison of BSD operating systems Comparison of operating systems Unix wars The Sun Hardware Reference SunOS & Solaris Version History at the Wayback Machine An Introduction to Solaris – a sample chapter from Solaris Internals: Core Kernel Architecture by Jim Mauro & Richard McDougall, Prentice-Hall, 2000.
Info on SunOS from OSdata Initial Solaris announcement
Linux is a family of free and open-source software operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991 by Linus Torvalds. Linux is packaged in a Linux distribution. Distributions include the Linux kernel and supporting system software and libraries, many of which are provided by the GNU Project. Many Linux distributions use the word "Linux" in their name, but the Free Software Foundation uses the name GNU/Linux to emphasize the importance of GNU software, causing some controversy. Popular Linux distributions include Debian and Ubuntu. Commercial distributions include SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. Desktop Linux distributions include a windowing system such as X11 or Wayland, a desktop environment such as GNOME or KDE Plasma. Distributions intended for servers may omit graphics altogether, include a solution stack such as LAMP; because Linux is redistributable, anyone may create a distribution for any purpose. Linux was developed for personal computers based on the Intel x86 architecture, but has since been ported to more platforms than any other operating system.
Linux is the leading operating system on servers and other big iron systems such as mainframe computers, the only OS used on TOP500 supercomputers. It is used by around 2.3 percent of desktop computers. The Chromebook, which runs the Linux kernel-based Chrome OS, dominates the US K–12 education market and represents nearly 20 percent of sub-$300 notebook sales in the US. Linux runs on embedded systems, i.e. devices whose operating system is built into the firmware and is tailored to the system. This includes routers, automation controls, digital video recorders, video game consoles, smartwatches. Many smartphones and tablet computers run other Linux derivatives; because of the dominance of Android on smartphones, Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose operating systems. Linux is one of the most prominent examples of open-source software collaboration; the source code may be used and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under the terms of its respective licenses, such as the GNU General Public License.
The Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in 1969, at AT&T's Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, Douglas McIlroy, Joe Ossanna. First released in 1971, Unix was written in assembly language, as was common practice at the time. In a key pioneering approach in 1973, it was rewritten in the C programming language by Dennis Ritchie; the availability of a high-level language implementation of Unix made its porting to different computer platforms easier. Due to an earlier antitrust case forbidding it from entering the computer business, AT&T was required to license the operating system's source code to anyone who asked; as a result, Unix grew and became adopted by academic institutions and businesses. In 1984, AT&T divested itself of Bell Labs; the GNU Project, started in 1983 by Richard Stallman, had the goal of creating a "complete Unix-compatible software system" composed of free software. Work began in 1984. In 1985, Stallman started the Free Software Foundation and wrote the GNU General Public License in 1989.
By the early 1990s, many of the programs required in an operating system were completed, although low-level elements such as device drivers and the kernel, called GNU/Hurd, were stalled and incomplete. Linus Torvalds has stated that if the GNU kernel had been available at the time, he would not have decided to write his own. Although not released until 1992, due to legal complications, development of 386BSD, from which NetBSD, OpenBSD and FreeBSD descended, predated that of Linux. Torvalds has stated that if 386BSD had been available at the time, he would not have created Linux. MINIX was created by Andrew S. Tanenbaum, a computer science professor, released in 1987 as a minimal Unix-like operating system targeted at students and others who wanted to learn the operating system principles. Although the complete source code of MINIX was available, the licensing terms prevented it from being free software until the licensing changed in April 2000. In 1991, while attending the University of Helsinki, Torvalds became curious about operating systems.
Frustrated by the licensing of MINIX, which at the time limited it to educational use only, he began to work on his own operating system kernel, which became the Linux kernel. Torvalds began the development of the Linux kernel on MINIX and applications written for MINIX were used on Linux. Linux matured and further Linux kernel development took place on Linux systems. GNU applications replaced all MINIX components, because it was advantageous to use the available code from the GNU Project with the fledgling operating system. Torvalds initiated a switch from his original license, which prohibited commercial redistribution, to the GNU GPL. Developers worked to integrate GNU components with the Linux kernel, making a functional and free operating system. Linus Torvalds had wanted to call his invention "Freax", a portmant
Emacs or EMACS is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility. The manual for the most used variant, GNU Emacs, describes it as "the extensible, self-documenting, real-time display editor". Development of the first Emacs began in the mid-1970s, work on its direct descendant, GNU Emacs, continues as of 2019. Emacs has over 10,000 built-in commands and its user interface allows the user to combine these commands into macros to automate work. Implementations of Emacs feature a dialect of the Lisp programming language that provides a deep extension capability, allowing users and developers to write new commands and applications for the editor. Extensions have been written to manage email, outlines, RSS feeds, as well as clones of ELIZA, Conway's Life and Tetris; the original EMACS was written in 1976 by Carl Mikkelsen, David A. Moon and Guy L. Steele Jr. as a set of Editor MACroS for the TECO editor. It was inspired by the ideas of the TECO-macro editors TECMAC and TMACS.
The most popular, most ported, version of Emacs is GNU Emacs, created by Richard Stallman for the GNU Project. XEmacs is a variant that branched from GNU Emacs in 1991. GNU Emacs and XEmacs are for the most part compatible with each other. Emacs is, along with vi, one of the two main contenders in the traditional editor wars of Unix culture. Emacs is among the open source projects still under development. Emacs development began during the 1970s at the MIT AI Lab, whose PDP-6 and PDP-10 computers used the Incompatible Timesharing System operating system that featured a default line editor known as Tape Editor and Corrector. Unlike most modern text editors, TECO used separate modes in which the user would either add text, edit existing text, or display the document. One could not place characters directly into a document by typing them into TECO, but would instead enter a character in the TECO command language telling it to switch to input mode, enter the required characters, during which time the edited text was not displayed on the screen, enter a character to switch the editor back to command mode.
This behavior is similar to that of the program ed. Richard Stallman visited the Stanford AI Lab in 1972 or 1974 and saw the lab's E editor, written by Fred Wright, he was impressed by the editor's intuitive WYSIWYG behavior, which has since become the default behavior of most modern text editors. He returned to MIT where Carl Mikkelsen, a hacker at the AI Lab, had added to TECO a combined display/editing mode called Control-R that allowed the screen display to be updated each time the user entered a keystroke. Stallman reimplemented this mode to run efficiently and added a macro feature to the TECO display-editing mode that allowed the user to redefine any keystroke to run a TECO program. E had another feature: random-access editing. TECO was a page-sequential editor, designed for editing paper tape on the PDP-1 and allowed editing on only one page at a time, in the order of the pages in the file. Instead of adopting E's approach of structuring the file for page-random access on disk, Stallman modified TECO to handle large buffers more efficiently and changed its file-management method to read and write the entire file as a single buffer.
All modern editors use this approach. The new version of TECO became popular at the AI Lab and soon accumulated a large collection of custom macros whose names ended in MAC or MACS, which stood for macro. Two years Guy Steele took on the project of unifying the diverse macros into a single set. Steele and Stallman's finished implementation included facilities for extending and documenting the new macro set; the resulting system was called EMACS, which stood for Editing MACroS or, alternatively, E with MACroS. Stallman picked the name Emacs "because <E> was not in use as an abbreviation on ITS at the time." An apocryphal hacker koan alleges that the program was named after Emack & Bolio's, a popular Cambridge ice cream store. The first operational EMACS system existed in late 1976. Stallman saw a problem in too much customization and de facto forking and set certain conditions for usage, he wrote: "EMACS was distributed on a basis of communal sharing, which means all improvements must be given back to me to be incorporated and distributed."The original Emacs, like TECO, ran only on the PDP-10 running ITS.
Its behavior was sufficiently different from that of TECO that it could be considered a text editor in its own right, it became the standard editing program on ITS. Mike McMahon ported Emacs from ITS to the TOPS-20 operating systems. Other contributors to early versions of Emacs include Kent Pitman, Earl Killian, Eugene Ciccarelli. By 1979, Emacs was the main editor used in its Laboratory for Computer Science. In the following years, programmers wrote a variety of Emacs-like editors for other computer systems; these included EINE and ZWEI, which were written for the Lisp machine by Mike McMahon and Daniel Weinreb, Sine, written by Owen Theodore Anderson. Weinreb's EINE was the first Emacs written in Lisp. In 1978, Bernard Greenberg wrote Multics Emacs entirely in Multics Lisp at Honeywell's Cambridge Information Systems Lab. Multics Emacs was maintained by Richard Soley, who went on to develop the NILE Emacs-like editor for the NIL Project, by Barry Margolin. Many versions of Emacs, including GNU Emacs, would adopt Lisp as an extension language.
James Gosling, who would invent Ne
A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical hardware device, used for entering data into, displaying or printing data from, a computer or a computing system. The teletype was an example of an early day hardcopy terminal, predated the use of a computer screen by decades; the acronym CRT, which once referred to a computer terminal, has come to refer to a type of screen of a personal computer. Early terminals were inexpensive devices but slow compared to punched cards or paper tape for input, but as the technology improved and video displays were introduced, terminals pushed these older forms of interaction from the industry. A related development was timesharing systems, which evolved in parallel and made up for any inefficiencies of the user's typing ability with the ability to support multiple users on the same machine, each at their own terminal; the function of a terminal is confined to input of data. A terminal that depends on the host computer for its processing power is called a "dumb terminal" or a thin client.
A personal computer can run terminal emulator software that replicates the function of a terminal, sometimes allowing concurrent use of local programs and access to a distant terminal host system. The terminal of the first working programmable automatic digital Turing-complete computer, the Z3, had a keyboard and a row of lamps to show results. Early user terminals connected to computers were electromechanical teleprinters/teletypewriters, such as the Teletype Model 33 ASR used for telegraphy or the Friden Flexowriter. Keyboard/printer terminals that came included the IBM 2741 and the DECwriter LA30. Respective top speeds of teletypes, IBM 2741 and LA30 were 15 and 30 characters per second. Although at that time "paper was king" the speed of interaction was limited. Early video computer displays were sometimes nicknamed "Glass TTYs" or "Visual Display Units", used no CPU, instead relying on individual logic gates or primitive LSI chips, they became popular Input-Output devices on many different types of computer system once several suppliers gravitated to a set of common standards: ASCII character set, but early/economy models supported only capital letters RS-232 serial ports 24 lines of 80 characters of text.
Models sometimes had two character-width settings. Some type of cursor that can be positioned. Implementation of at least 3 control codes: Carriage Return, Line-Feed, Bell, but many more, such as Escape sequences to provide underlining, dim or reverse-video character highlighting, to clear the display and position the cursor; the Datapoint 3300 from Computer Terminal Corporation was announced in 1967 and shipped in 1969, making it one of the earliest stand-alone display-based terminals. It solved the memory space issue mentioned above by using a digital shift-register design, using only 72 columns rather than the more common choice of 80. Starting with the Datapoint 3300, by the late 1970s and early 1980s, there were dozens of manufacturers of terminals, including Lear-Siegler, ADDS, Data General, DEC, Hazeltine Corporation, Heath/Zenith, Hewlett Packard, IBM, Volker-Craig, Wyse, many of which had incompatible command sequences; the great variations in the control codes between makers gave rise to software that identified and grouped terminal types so the system software would display input forms using the appropriate control codes.
The great majority of terminals were monochrome, manufacturers variously offering green, white or amber and sometimes blue screen phosphors.. Terminals with modest color capability were available but not used. An "intelligent" terminal does its own processing implying a microprocessor is built in, but not all terminals with microprocessors did any real processing of input: the main computer to which it was attached would have to respond to each keystroke; the term "intelligent" in this context dates from 1969. Notable examples include the IBM 2250 and IBM 2260, predecessors to the IBM 3270 and introduced with System/360 in 1964. Most terminals were connected to minicomputers or mainframe computers and had a green or amber screen. Terminals communicate wi
WebPositive is a web browser included with the Haiku operating system. It was created to replace the aging BeZillaBrowser with a WebKit-based browser. One part of its name is a tip of the hat to BeOS' simple NetPositive, while the other points to its modern foundation: WebKit, the open source HTML rendering library at the heart of many other mainstream browsers, like Apple's Safari. By making use of WebKit as its engine, WebPositive is able to keep up with the latest web technologies. In the Google Summer of Code 2009, Maxime Simon, mentored by Ryan Leavengood, was commissioned to work on a WebKit port for Haiku, initiated by the work Leavengood had done for a bounty on the Haikuware website; this led to the development of the HaikuLauncher prototype browser, which demonstrated the functionality of the WebKit rendering engine but did little else. In February 2010, Stephan Aßmus took on the task of improving the HaikuLauncher web browser to make it more usable; this led to many preview releases before a stable version was integrated into Haiku R1 / Alpha 2.
In that same year, Ryan Leavengood took over as the lead developer of WebPositive. Earlier versions of WebPositive used cURL services but they were slow and had many other bugs, one of the majors bugs being that cookies overloaded at times, it became clear. It was that Adrien Destugues, or PulkoMandy, was given a contract in October 2013 to work on WebPositive so that he could fix the bugs; this led to Destugues becoming the lead developer for HaikuWebKit. Destugues replaced cURL with Haiku's Service Kit in the core of the application, earlier worked upon by Stephan Aßmus and Christophe Huriaux in the Google Summer of Code 2010, Alexandre Deckner in 2011. Destugues has made big improvements to WebPositive's HTML5 support in WebKit, such as implementing support for datalists and color input. Destugues' constant work on HaikuWebKit and WebPositive results in a faster WebPositive with fewer bugs. WebPositive User Guide WebPositive tag on Haiku-OS.org Destugues' talk on HaikuWebKit and Web+ at BeGeistert 028
A text editor is a type of computer program that edits plain text. Such programs are sometimes known following the naming of Microsoft Notepad. Text editors are provided with operating systems and software development packages, can be used to change files such as configuration files, documentation files and programming language source code. There are important differences between rich text. Plain text consists of character representation; each character is represented by a fixed-length sequence of one, two, or four bytes, or as a variable-length sequence of one to four bytes, in accordance to specific character encoding conventions, such as ASCII, ISO/IEC 2022, UTF-8, or Unicode. These conventions define many printable characters, but non-printing characters that control the flow of the text, such space, line break, page break. Plain text contains no other information about the text itself, not the character encoding convention employed. Plain text is stored in text files, although text files do not store plain text.
In the early days of computers, plain text was displayed using a monospace font, such that horizontal alignment and columnar formatting were sometimes done using whitespace characters. For compatibility reasons, this tradition has not changed. Rich text, on the other hand, may contain metadata, character formatting data, paragraph formatting data, page specification data. Rich text can be complex. Rich text can be saved in binary format, text files adhering to a markup language, or in a hybrid form of both. Text editors are intended to open and save text files containing either plain text or anything that can be interpreted as plain text, including the markup for rich text or the markup for something else. Before text editors existed, computer text was punched into cards with keypunch machines. Physical boxes of these thin cardboard cards were inserted into a card-reader. Magnetic tape and disk "card-image" files created from such card decks had no line-separation characters at all, assumed fixed-length 80-character records.
An alternative to cards was punched paper tape. It could be created by some teleprinters; the first text editors were "line editors" oriented to teleprinter- or typewriter-style terminals without displays. Commands effected edits to a file at an imaginary insertion point called the "cursor". Edits were verified by typing a command to print a small section of the file, periodically by printing the entire file. In some line editors, the cursor could be moved by commands that specified the line number in the file, text strings for which to search, regular expressions. Line editors were major improvements over keypunching; some line editors could be used by keypunch. Some common line editors supported a "verify" mode in which change commands displayed the altered lines; when computer terminals with video screens became available, screen-based text editors became common. One of the earliest full-screen editors was O26, written for the operator console of the CDC 6000 series computers in 1967. Another early full-screen editor was vi.
Written in the 1970s, it is still a standard editor on Linux operating systems. Written in the 1970s was the UCSD Pascal Screen Oriented Editor, optimized both for indented source code as well as general text. Emacs, one of the first free and open source software projects, is another early full-screen or real-time editor, one, ported to many systems. A full-screen editor's ease-of-use and speed motivated many early purchases of video terminals; the core data structure in a text editor is the one that manages the string or list of records that represents the current state of the file being edited. While the former could be stored in a single long consecutive array of characters, the desire for text editors that could more insert text, delete text, undo/redo previous edits led to the development of more complicated sequence data structures. A typical text editor uses a gap buffer, a linked list of lines, a piece table, or a rope, as its sequence data structure; some text editors are simple, while others offer broad and complex functions.
For example and Unix-like operating systems have the pico editor, but many include the vi and Emacs editors. Microsoft Windows systems come with the simple Notepad, though many people—especially programmers—prefer other editors with more features. Under Apple Macintosh's classic Mac OS there was the native SimpleText, replaced in Mac OS X by TextEdit, which combines features of a text editor with those typical of a word processor such as rulers and multiple font selection; these features are not available but must be switched by user command, or through the program automatically determining the file type. Most word processors can read and write files in plain text format, allowing them to open files saved from text editors. Saving these files from a word processor, requires ensuring the file is written in plain text format, that any text encoding or BOM settings won'
Dooble is a free and open-source Web browser, created to improve privacy. Dooble is available for FreeBSD, Linux, OS X, OS/2, Windows. Dooble uses Qt for its user interface and abstraction from the operating system and processor architecture; as a result, Dooble should be portable to any system that supports OpenSSL, POSIX threads, Qt, SQLite, other libraries. Dooble is implemented in order to improve privacy and usability. Dooble includes a simple bookmarking system. Users may modify bookmarks via a bookmarks browser and a popup that's accessible from the location widget. Along with standard cookie management options, Dooble provides a mechanism that automatically removes cookies. If permitted, Dooble will remove undesired HTTP cookies. Dooble Web Browser provides according to the News Portal Hongkiat an "easy to use download manager". Dooble integrates the distributed search engine YaCy. Most of the data that Dooble retains is stored using authenticated encryption. Dooble does not encode file associations and user settings.
If Dooble exits prematurely, the user may restore previous tabs and windows at the next authenticated session. Some Web sites employ iFrames. Since this technology may raise privacy issues with some users, Dooble provides a means of blocking external content; the first version was released in September, 2008. The current version was released on January 25, 2018. Dooble is available on Nokia's N900. Dooble has been rated as the ninth of ten "top" Linux browsers by Jack Wallen. Dooble further has been announced. PCWorld reviews Dooble on the feature side as "rendering even on image-heavy sites.". The Guardian Newspaper recommends Dooble as an alternative browser against surveillance: "Try out a privacy-focused browser such as Dooble.". List of web browsers List of web browsers for Unix and Unix-like operating systems Comparison of web browsers Qt Timeline of web browsers Web browser history Add-On Links Official website Maemo Release Package