the entire wiki with video and photo galleries
find something interesting to watch in seconds
click links in text for more info
Books Online: The History of Rome. Book 4. Page 1
by Theodor Mommsen
This monumental work was published in 1854. The author was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature and acclaimed as “the greatest living master of the art of historical writing”. Book 4 covers Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, the rise of Gaius Marius, and the senatorial reaction. All dates in the text are ab urbe condita (from the founding of Rome, 753 BC).
Previous 1 3 322

Page 1 · Chapter I. The Subject Countries Down to the Times of the Gracchi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Chapter I. The Subject Countries Down to the Times of the Gracchi (Page 1)

Chapter II. The Reform Movement and Tiberius Gracchus (Page 38)

Chapter III. The Revolution and Gaius Gracchus (Page 55)

Chapter IV. The Rule of the Restoration (Page 72)

Chapter V. The Peoples of the North (Page 94)

Chapter VI. The Attempt of Marius at Revolution and the Attempt of Drusus at Reform (Page 110)

Chapter VII. The Revolt of the Italian Subjects, and the Sulpician Revolution (Page 128)

Chapter VIII. The East and King Mithradates (Page 156)

Chapter IX. Cinna and Sulla (Page 182)

Chapter X. The Sullan Constitution (Page 206)

Chapter XI. The Commonwealth and Its Economy (Page 234)

Chapter XII. Nationality, Religion, and Education (Page 252)

Chapter XIII. Literature and Art (Page 267)

Chapter I

The Subject Countries Down to the Times of the Gracchi

The Subjects

With the abolition of the Macedonian monarchy the supremacy of Rome not only became an established fact from the Pillars of Hercules to the mouths of the Nile and the Orontes, but, as if it were the final decree of fate, it weighed on the nations with all the pressure of an inevitable necessity, and seemed to leave them merely the choice of perishing in hopeless resistance or in hopeless endurance. If history were not entitled to insist that the earnest reader should accompany her through good and evil days, through landscapes of winter as well as of spring, the historian might be tempted to shun the cheerless task of tracing the manifold and yet monotonous turns of this struggle between superior power and utter weakness, both in the Spanish provinces already annexed to the Roman empire and in the African, Hellenic, and Asiatic territories which were still treated as clients of Rome. But, however unimportant and subordinate the individual conflicts may appear, they have collectively a deep historical significance; and, in particular, the state of things in Italy at this period only becomes intelligible in the light of the reaction which the provinces exercised over the mother-country.

Spain

Except in the territories which may be regarded as natural appendages of Italy–in which, however, the natives were still far from being completely subdued, and, not greatly to the credit of Rome, Ligurians, Sardinians, and Corsicans were continually furnishing occasion for "village triumphs"–the formal sovereignty of Rome at the commencement of this period was established only in the two Spanish provinces, which embraced the larger eastern and southern portions of the peninsula beyond the Pyrenees. We have already(1) attempted to describe the state of matters in the peninsula. Iberians and Celts, Phoenicians, Hellenes, and Romans were there confusedly intermingled. The most diverse kinds and stages of civilization subsisted there simultaneously and at various points crossed each other, the ancient Iberian culture side by side with utter barbarism, the civilized relations of Phoenician and Greek mercantile cities side by side with an incipient process of Latinizing, which was especially promote by the numerous Italians employed in the silver mines and by the large standing garrison. In this respect the Roman township of Italica (near Seville) and the Latin colony of Carteia (on the bay Of Gibraltar) deserve mention–the latter being the first transmarine urban community of Latin tongue and Italian constitution. Italica was founded by the elder Scipio, before he left Spain (548), for his veterans who were inclined to remain in the peninsula–probably, however, not as a burgess-community, but merely as a market-place.(2) Carteia was founded in 583 and owed its existence to the multitude of camp-children–the offspring of Roman soldiers and Spanish slaves–who grew up as slaves de jure but as free Italians de facto, and were now manumitted on behalf of the state and constituted, along with the old inhabitants of Carteia, into a Latin colony. For nearly thirty years after the organizing of the province of the Ebro by Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus (575, 576)(3) the Spanish provinces, on the whole, enjoyed the blessings of peace undisturbed, although mention is made of one or two expeditions against the Celtiberians and Lusitanians.

Previous 1 3 322

YouTube Videos [show more]
Lusitanians [videos]
The Lusitanians (or Latin: Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to 
Lusitanians - Statues of Lusitanian warriors in the National Archaeology Museum in Lisbon, Portugal.
Lusitanians - Lusitanian lunula from Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)
Statues of Lusitanian warriors in the National Archaeology Museum in Lisbon, Portugal.
Lusitanian lunula from Miranda do Corvo (Portugal)
Lusitanians - Statue of Viriatus, the Lusitanian leader during the Lusitanian War (155 to 139 BCE).
Lusitanians - Falcata, a fourth-century BC sword
Statue of Viriatus, the Lusitanian leader during the Lusitanian War (155 to 139 BCE).
Falcata, a fourth-century BC sword
Celts [videos]
The Celts (see pronunciation of Celt for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval 
Celts - Celtic stele from Galicia, 2nd century: “APANA·AMBO(-) / LLI·F(ilia)·CELTICA / '''SUPERTAM'''(''arica'') / (castello) MAIOBRI /  AN(norum)·XXV· H(ic)·S(ita)·E(st) /  APANUS·FR(ater)· F(aciendum)·C(uravit)”
Celts - Triskelion and spirals on a Galician torc terminal, Museum of Castro de Santa Tegra, A Guarda
Celtic stele from Galicia, 2nd century: “APANA·AMBO(-) / LLI·F(ilia)·CELTICA / '''SUPERTAM'''(''arica'') / (castello) MAIOBRI / AN(norum)·XXV· H(ic)·S(ita)·E(st) / APANUS·FR(ater)· F(aciendum)·C(uravit)”
Triskelion and spirals on a Galician torc terminal, Museum of Castro de Santa Tegra, A Guarda
Celts - Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of tribal territories
Celts - The Roman republic and its neighbours in 58 BC
Principal sites in Roman Britain, with indication of tribal territories
The Roman republic and its neighbours in 58 BC
Phoenicia [videos]
Phoenicia (UK: or US: ; from the Ancient Greek: Φοινίκη, Phoiníkē meaning either "purple country" or "land of palm 
Phoenicia - Image: Map of the Achaemenid Empire
Phoenicia - Cover of a Phoenician anthropoid sarcophagus of a woman, made of marble, 350–325 BC, from Sidon, now in the Louvre
Image: Map of the Achaemenid Empire
Cover of a Phoenician anthropoid sarcophagus of a woman, made of marble, 350–325 BC, from Sidon, now in the Louvre
Phoenicia - Sarcophagus of Eshmunazor II (5th century BC), Phoenician King of Sidon found near Sidon, in southern Lebanon
Phoenicia - Assyrian warship (probably built by Phoenicians) with two rows of oars, relief from Nineveh, c. 700 BC
Sarcophagus of Eshmunazor II (5th century BC), Phoenician King of Sidon found near Sidon, in southern Lebanon
Assyrian warship (probably built by Phoenicians) with two rows of oars, relief from Nineveh, c. 700 BC
Greeks [videos]
The Greeks or Hellenes (Greek: Έλληνες, Éllines [ˈelines]) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern 
Greeks - Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.
Greeks - Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Hoplites fighting. Detail from an Attic black-figure hydria, ca. 560 BC–550 BC. Louvre, Paris.
Alexander the Great, whose conquests led to the Hellenistic Age.
Greeks - Bust of Cleopatra VII. Altes Museum, Berlin.
Greeks - Statues of Saints Cyril and Methodius, missionaries of Christianity among the Slavic peoples, Třebíč, Czech Republic.
Ancient Rome [videos]
In historiography, ancient Rome refers to the Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th 
Ancient Rome - Image: Spqrstone
Ancient Rome - According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf
Image: Spqrstone
According to legend, Rome was founded in 753 BC by Romulus and Remus, who were raised by a she-wolf
Ancient Rome - Etruscan painting; dancer and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, in Tarquinia, Italy
Ancient Rome - This bust from the Capitoline Museums is traditionally identified as a portrait of Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman bronze sculpture, 4th to late 3rd centuries BC
Etruscan painting; dancer and musicians, Tomb of the Leopards, in Tarquinia, Italy
This bust from the Capitoline Museums is traditionally identified as a portrait of Lucius Junius Brutus, Roman bronze sculpture, 4th to late 3rd centuries BC
Italica [videos]
Italica (Spanish: Itálica; north of modern-day Santiponce, 9 km NW of Seville, Spain) was an elaborate Roman city in 
Italica - The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000
Italica - The 2nd-century Venus found in 1940 near the theatre (Archeological Museum of Seville).
The Roman amphitheatre at Italica seated 25,000
The 2nd-century Venus found in 1940 near the theatre (Archeological Museum of Seville).
Italica - Route of aqueduct
Italica - Image: Ancient Roman theatre in Itálica 02
Route of aqueduct
Image: Ancient Roman theatre in Itálica 02
Seville [videos]
Seville (Spanish: Sevilla [seˈβiʎa], locally [seˈβi(ɟ)ʝa] (listen)) is the capital and largest city of the 
Seville - Clockwise from top: St. Mary of the See Cathedral and Giralda, Plaza de España in the Maria Luisa Park, Metropol Parasol, the Isabel II ("Triana") bridge and the Torre del Oro.
Seville - View of the Giralda from the Patio de Banderas (Courtyard of Flags), historic square with remains of Roman, Moorish and Castilian periods.
Clockwise from top: St. Mary of the See Cathedral and Giralda, Plaza de España in the Maria Luisa Park, Metropol Parasol, the Isabel II ("Triana") bridge and the Torre del Oro.
View of the Giralda from the Patio de Banderas (Courtyard of Flags), historic square with remains of Roman, Moorish and Castilian periods.
Seville - Courtyard of the Maidens in the Alcázar of Seville
Seville - Seville in the 16th century
Courtyard of the Maidens in the Alcázar of Seville
Seville in the 16th century
Bay of Gibraltar [videos]
The Bay of Gibraltar (also known as Gibraltar Bay or Bay of Algeciras) is a bay at the southern end of the Iberian 
Bay of Gibraltar - Image: Bay of Gibraltar
Bay of Gibraltar - Map of the promotory of Gibraltar and the Bay of Gibraltar (circa 1750).
Image: Bay of Gibraltar
Map of the promotory of Gibraltar and the Bay of Gibraltar (circa 1750).
Bay of Gibraltar - Common Dolphins, Gibraltar area
Bay of Gibraltar - CEPSA oil refinery at San Roque.
Common Dolphins, Gibraltar area
CEPSA oil refinery at San Roque.
Constitution of Italy [videos]
The Constitution of the Italian Republic (Italian: Costituzione della Repubblica Italiana) was enacted by the 
Constitution of Italy - The provisional head of state, Enrico De Nicola, signing the Constitution by virtue of Provision XVIII, on 27 December 1947.
Constitution of Italy - One of three original copies, now in the custody of Historical Archives of the President of the Republic.
The provisional head of state, Enrico De Nicola, signing the Constitution by virtue of Provision XVIII, on 27 December 1947.
One of three original copies, now in the custody of Historical Archives of the President of the Republic.
Constitution of Italy - Swearing in of President Sergio Mattarella in front of a joint session of Parliament at Palazzo Montecitorio, seat of the Chamber of Deputies.
Constitution of Italy - Senate hall at Palazzo Madama.
Swearing in of President Sergio Mattarella in front of a joint session of Parliament at Palazzo Montecitorio, seat of the Chamber of Deputies.
Senate hall at Palazzo Madama.
Ebro [videos]
The Ebro (Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: [ˈeβɾo]) or Ebre (Catalan: [ˈeβɾə, ˈeβɾe]) is one of the most important rivers 
Ebro - Image: Valle del Ebro
Ebro - The Ebro River in Zaragoza
Image: Valle del Ebro
The Ebro River in Zaragoza
Ebro - The source of the Ebro in Fontibre.
Ebro - The Ebro River delta from space
The source of the Ebro in Fontibre.
The Ebro River delta from space
Pillars of Hercules [videos]
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειοι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hirqul, 
Pillars of Hercules - The European Pillar of Hercules: the Rock of Gibraltar (foreground), with the North African shore in the background.
Pillars of Hercules - Jebel Musa, one of the candidates for the North African Pillar of Hercules, as seen from Tarifa, at the other shore of the Strait of Gibraltar.
The European Pillar of Hercules: the Rock of Gibraltar (foreground), with the North African shore in the background.
Jebel Musa, one of the candidates for the North African Pillar of Hercules, as seen from Tarifa, at the other shore of the Strait of Gibraltar.
Pillars of Hercules - Pillars of Hercules from Mediterranean Sea: left the Jebel Musa, right the Rock of Gibraltar
Pillars of Hercules - Modern conjectural depiction of the lost western section of the Tabula Peutingeriana, showing a representation of the Pillars of Hercules (Columne Ercole).
Pillars of Hercules from Mediterranean Sea: left the Jebel Musa, right the Rock of Gibraltar
Modern conjectural depiction of the lost western section of the Tabula Peutingeriana, showing a representation of the Pillars of Hercules (Columne Ercole).
Nile [videos]
The Nile (Arabic: النيل‎, Egyptian Arabic en-Nīl, Standard Arabic an-Nīl; Coptic: ⲫⲓⲁⲣⲱ, P(h)iaro; Ancient Egyptian: 
Nile - The river in Uganda
Nile - The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite
The river in Uganda
The Nile at Dendera, as seen from the SPOT satellite
Nile - The Nile near Beni Suef
Nile - Composite satellite image of the White Nile
The Nile near Beni Suef
Composite satellite image of the White Nile
Italy [videos]
Italy (I-tə-lee; Italian: Italia [iˈtaːlja] (listen)), officially the Italian Republic (Italian: Repubblica 
Italy - Hera Temple in Paestum, among the world's largest and best-preserved Doric temples
Italy - Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait, c. 1512. Royal Library, Turin
Hera Temple in Paestum, among the world's largest and best-preserved Doric temples
Leonardo da Vinci, the quintessential Renaissance man, in a self-portrait, c. 1512. Royal Library, Turin
Italy - Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, opening a new era in the history of humankind
Italy - The Altare della Patria in Rome, built in honor of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy
Christopher Columbus discovered America in 1492, opening a new era in the history of humankind
The Altare della Patria in Rome, built in honor of Victor Emmanuel, the first king of a unified Italy
Spain [videos]
Spain (Spanish: España [esˈpaɲa] (listen)), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Spanish: Reino de España), is a country 
Spain - Lady of Elche
Spain - Celtic castro in Galicia
Celtic castro in Galicia
Spain - Toledo, capital of the Visigothic Kingdom
Spain - Reccared I and bishops. Council III of Toledo, 589. Codex Vigilanus, fol. 145, Biblioteca del Escorial.
Sardinian people [videos]
The Sardinians, or also the Sards (Sardinian: Sardos or Sardus; Italian and Sassarese: Sardi; Catalan: Sards or Sardos; 
Sardinian people - Depiction of Sardus Pater in a Roman coin (59 a.C.)
Sardinian people - Fragment of pottery with human figures, Ozieri culture
Depiction of Sardus Pater in a Roman coin (59 a.C.)
Fragment of pottery with human figures, Ozieri culture
Sardinian people - View of Cagliari from " Civitates orbis terrarum" (1572)
Sardinian people - Montevecchio mine
View of Cagliari from " Civitates orbis terrarum" (1572)
Montevecchio mine
Pyrenees [videos]
The Pyrenees (Spanish: Pirineos [piɾiˈneos], French: Pyrénées [piʁene], Aragonese: Pirineus, Catalan: Pirineus 
Pyrenees - Central Pyrenees
Pyrenees - Composite satellite image of the Pyrenees (NASA)
Central Pyrenees
Composite satellite image of the Pyrenees (NASA)
Pyrenees - Pico de Aneto, the highest mountain of the Pyrenees
Pyrenees - Pic de Bugatet in the Néouvielle massif
Pico de Aneto, the highest mountain of the Pyrenees
Iberians [videos]
The Iberians (Latin: Hibērī, from Greek: Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among 
Iberians - The Lady of Elx, 4th century BC, polychrome stone bust from L'Alcúdia, Elche, Spain
Iberians - Ancient silver vessel from the Tivissa Treasure, c. 500 BC. Archaeology Museum of Catalonia
The Lady of Elx, 4th century BC, polychrome stone bust from L'Alcúdia, Elche, Spain
Ancient silver vessel from the Tivissa Treasure, c. 500 BC. Archaeology Museum of Catalonia
Iberians - Iberian relief, Mausoleum of Pozo Moro, 6th century BC, showing Hittite influence
Iberians - Horseman from Iberian pottery, Alicante
Iberian relief, Mausoleum of Pozo Moro, 6th century BC, showing Hittite influence
Horseman from Iberian pottery, Alicante
Celtiberians [videos]
The Celtiberians were a group of Celts inhabiting the central-eastern Iberian Peninsula during the final centuries BC. 
Celtiberians - Ethnology of the Iberian Peninsula c. 200 BC, based on the map by Portuguese archeologist Luís Fraga
Celtiberians - Territory of the Celtiberi with possible location of tribes
Ethnology of the Iberian Peninsula c. 200 BC, based on the map by Portuguese archeologist Luís Fraga
Territory of the Celtiberi with possible location of tribes
Celtiberians - Bronze Celtiberian fibula representing a warrior (3rd–2nd century BC)
Celtiberians - Botorrita plaque: one of four bronze plates with inscriptions.
Bronze Celtiberian fibula representing a warrior (3rd–2nd century BC)
Botorrita plaque: one of four bronze plates with inscriptions.
Rome [videos]
Rome (ROHM; Italian: Roma [ˈroːma] (listen), Latin: Rōma) is the capital of Italy and a special comune (named Comune 
Rome - Clockwise from top: the Colosseum, St. Peter's Basilica, Castel Sant'Angelo, Ponte Sant'Angelo, Trevi Fountain and the Pantheon
Rome - Roman representation of Tiber as a god, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Roman representation of Tiber as a god, Capitoline Hill in Rome
Rome - Palatine Hill
Rome - Capitoline Wolf suckles the infant twins Romulus and Remus
Orontes River [videos]
The Orontes (Ancient Greek: Ὀρόντης) or Asi (Arabic: العاصي‎, ‘Āṣī; Turkish: Asi) is a northward-flowing river which 
Orontes River - Orontes River in Hama, Syria
Orontes River - Orontes River in Hama, Syria, 1914
Orontes River in Hama, Syria
Orontes River in Hama, Syria, 1914
Orontes River - The Norias of Hama, dating from the 14th century
Orontes River - Map of the Orontes river.  White lines are country borders, river names are italic on a blue background, current cities or major towns have white backgrounds, orange background for other places of significance.
The Norias of Hama, dating from the 14th century
Map of the Orontes river. White lines are country borders, river names are italic on a blue background, current cities or major towns have white backgrounds, orange background for other places of significance.
Corsicans [videos]
The Corsicans (Corsican, Italian and Ligurian: Corsi; French: Corses) are the native people and ethnic group 
Corsicans - Ancient tribes of Corsica
Corsicans - Filitosa, Statue menhir
Ancient tribes of Corsica
Corsicans - Corsican cuisine.
Corsicans - The commercial and territorial expansion of the Republic of Pisa
Corsican cuisine.
The commercial and territorial expansion of the Republic of Pisa
Ligures [videos]
The Ligures (singular Ligus or Ligur; English: Ligurians, Greek: Λίγυες) were an ancient Indo-European people who 
Ligures - The Roman Regio IX Liguria.
Ligures - The eastern hemisphere in the 3rd Century BC, prior to the Roman Republic's incorporation of Liguria (upper right).
The Roman Regio IX Liguria.
The eastern hemisphere in the 3rd Century BC, prior to the Roman Republic's incorporation of Liguria (upper right).
Ligures - Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul, 391–192 BC.
Ligures - Iron Age groups within the Italian peninsula. Liguria is located in the upper left corner of the map.
Peoples of Cisalpine Gaul, 391–192 BC.
Iron Age groups within the Italian peninsula. Liguria is located in the upper left corner of the map.