European Russia

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Russia in Europe and Asia with current administrative divisions (de facto boundaries[* 1]).

Russia is not proportionately populated between the smaller western portion (almost 25%) of the country that is considered part of Europe, and the larger eastern portion (more than 75%) that is part of Asia. European Russia contains about 77% of the country's population (110,000,000 people out of about 144,000,000) in an area comprising almost 4 million km2 (1.54 million mi2); an average of 27.5 persons per km2 (70 per mi2).[1]:6[1]:10 This territory makes up 38% of Europe. Its eastern border is defined by the Ural Mountains and in the south, it is defined by the border with Kazakhstan. This area includes Moscow and Saint Petersburg, the two largest cities in Russia.

The eastern portion of Russia, mostly Siberia, is part of Asia and makes up more than 75% of the territory with 22% of the country's population at 2.5 people per km2 (6.5 per mi2).[1]:6


Ethnic map of European Russian Empire prior to the outbreak of World War I.

The term “European Russia” was used in the Russian Empire to refer to traditional East Slavic territories under Russian control, including what is now Belarus and most of Ukraine (Dnieper Ukraine).[citation needed]

Administrative alignment[edit]

Administrative districts (on a large scale called Federal Districts) do not exactly line up with European Russia, but they are decent approximations, depending on exactly how Europe is defined. There are two major trends, one to use administrative divisions north of the terminus of the Ural River, and one to draw an imaginary line from the Ural River, through the city of Yekaterinburg.[citation needed]

The following administrative districts are overwhelmingly European:

Federal districts of Russia.
Name of district Area
2017 Population
Population Density Continent Notes
Central Federal District 650,200 39,209,582 59.658 Europe
Southern Federal District[* 1] 447,900 16,428,458 33.46 Predominantly Europe
Northwestern Federal District 1,687,000 13,899,310 8.25 Europe*
Volga Federal District 1,037,000 29,636,574 28.63 Predominantly Europe*
North Caucasian Federal District 170,400 9,775,770 56.58 Predominantly Europe
Sum of 6 Federal Districts (see notes) 3,992,500 108,949,694 27.22 Predominantly Europe*
Ural Federal District 1,818,500 12,345,803 6.86 Mostly Asia*
  1. ^ a b Includes the Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol which are de-facto administrated by Russia, but recognized as part of Ukraine by most of the international community.

Sources: Population: Jan 1, 2015 Estimate, Federal State Statistics Service Russia (xls)


  • Sum of 6 Federal Districts does not account for the following:
    • Volga Federal District has 4 raions entirely in Asia, 1 mostly Asia, 1 bisected, 2 cities bisected, 1 settlement fully in Asia, which sum to 280,000 people and 30,000 km² in Asia (as defined by the Ural River)
    • Ural Federal District has roughly 200,000 people and 1,700 km² in Europe (West of the Ural River). If an imaginary line is extended from the end of the Ural River towards Yekaterinburg, where Europe/Asia divider signs exist, some very roughly 1.7 million people in the Federal District would be deemed "in Europe".
    • Similarly, the same imaginary line if straight, could include parts of very sparsely populated Northwestern Federal District, but this is commonly ignored.


  1. ^ a b c Vishnevsky, Anatoly (15 August 2000). "Replacement Migration: Is it a solution for Russia?" (PDF). EXPERT GROUP MEETING ON POLICY RESPONSES TO POPULATION AGEING AND POPULATION DECLINE /UN/POP/PRA/2000/14. United Nations Population Division, Department of Economic and Social Affairs. pp. 6, 10. Retrieved 2008-01-14. 

Coordinates: 55°N 40°E / 55°N 40°E / 55; 40