John of Austria

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"Don John of Austria" redirects here. For the opera by Isaac Nathan, see Don John of Austria (opera).
For other people named John of Austria, see John of Austria (disambiguation).

John of Austria (24 February 1547 – 1 October 1578), in English traditionally known as Don John of Austria, in Spanish as Don Juan de Austria[1] and in German as Ritter Johann von Österreich, was an illegitimate son of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. He became a military leader in the service of his half-brother, King Philip II of Spain and is best known for his naval victory at the Battle of Lepanto in 1571 against the Ottoman Empire.

Life[edit]

Early years[edit]

Born in the Free imperial city of Regensburg, Upper Palatinate, John of Austria was the product of a brief liaison between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor (a widower since 1539) and Barbara Blomberg, a burgher's daughter and singer.

The date of his birth is unknown, with some sources indicating that he was born in the year 1545 and others, like G. Parker or P. Pierson, in 1547. Pierson makes mention that some contemporaries affirmed that he was born in 1545, but that the oldest evidence found in France with regards to public ceremonies, supports the date of 1547. It is likely that John of Austria was conceived in May 1546, when Emperor Charles V was then in Regensburg, which would make it probable that he was born in or around the 24 February 1547. It is possible that John had deliberately chosen the 24th of February as his birthday, which was the month and day of his father Charles V's birth. Shortly after giving birth, Barbara Blomberg was quickly married to Hieronymus Kegel (Jerôme Pyramus Kegel), a court functionary in Brussels. John of Austria's original name as a child, "Geronimo" or "Jeromín", was an allusion to his stepfather.

Charles V then decided that his son should be raised in Spain away from his mother. His Majordomo, Luis de Quijada, had reached an agreement (which was signed in Brussels on 13 June 1550) with Francisco Massy, a violist of the imperial court, and married to a Spanish woman, Ana de Medina. In exchange for an annual income of 50 ducats, the couple had agreed to raise the child. In mid-1551 they together had arrived in Leganés, where Ana de Medina had property.

In the summer of 1554, the boy was taken to the castle of Luis de Quijada in Villagarcía de Campos, Valladolid. His wife, Magdalena de Ulloa, took charge of his education, assisted by the Latin teacher Guillén Prieto, the chaplain García de Morales and the squire Juan Galarza.

Charles V wrote a codicil, dated 6 June 1554, in which he recognized: "For since I was in Germany, after being widowed, I had a natural child of one unmarried woman, named Geronimo".[2] In the summer of 1558, Charles V had ordered Luis de Quijada, his wife Magdalena de Ulloa, and Jeromín to relocate to the village of Cuacos de Yuste. The Emperor was already residing nearby at the Monastery of Yuste. From that time forward, and until his own death in September of that year, Charles V saw his son (now an 11 year old boy) several times. In his last will of 1558, the Emperor officially recognized Jeromín as his son, and had requested that the child would be renamed John, honoring his late mother (and Jeromín's grandmother) Queen Joanna I of Castile,[a] Charles also made the provision that John should enter the clergy and pursue an ecclesiastical career.[3]:22

Charles V's only surviving legitimate son and heir, now King Philip II after his father's abdication, was then outside of Spain. Rumors had spread about the paternity of the child, which de Quijada had denied, and he wrote to the Emperor asking for instructions. Charles V replied with a note written by his personal secretary Eraso, in whose erasures and amendments were expressed, the Emperor's thoughts about how best to deal with such a delicate matter. It was recommended to wait for Philip II's return to Spain. Joanna, Dowager Princess of Portugal and Regent of the Kingdom during the absence of her brother Philip II, asked to see the child, which she did in Valladolid in May 1559, coinciding with an Auto-da-fé then taking place.

Philip II returned from Brussels in 1559, aware of his father's will. Once he had settled in Valladolid, he had summoned de Quijada to bring along Jeromín to a hunt. The first meeting between the two of them took place on 28 September in the Monastery of Santa María de La Santa Espina.[4] When the King appeared, Luis de Quijada told Jeromín to dismount and make proper obeisance to his master. When Jeromín did so, Philip II asked him if he knew the identity of his father. When the boy did not know, the King embraced him and explained that they had the same father and thus were brothers. Philip II, however, was strict regarding protocol: although Jeromín was a member of the House of Habsburg, he was not to be addressed as "your Highness", the form reserved for royals and sovereign princes. In formal style he was "your excellency", the address used for a Spanish grandee, and known as Don Juan de Austria. John did not live in a royal palace, but rather maintained a separate household with Luis de Quijada as the head. King Philip II had allowed John the incomes allocated to him by Charles V, so that he might maintain the status proper to a son of an emperor and brother to the king. In public ceremonies, John stood, walked or rode behind the royal family, but ahead of the grandees.[3][5]

Formative years[edit]

Portrait, ca. 1559-60 by Alonso Sánchez Coello.
Portrait, ca. 1560 by Alonso Sánchez Coello.
John of Austria in armour, by Alonso Sánchez Coello, 1567.

John de Austria completed his education at the University of Alcalá de Henares (now the Complutense University), where he attended with his two young nephews, who were about his same age: Prince Carlos (son and heir of Philip II) and Alessandro Farnese, Prince of Parma (son of Charles V's other acknowledged illegitimate child, Margaret of Austria, Duchess of Parma). They all had Honorato Hugo (disciple of Juan Luis Vives) as a teacher. In 1562, the "House of Don John of Austria" appears in the budget of the Royal House, assigning to him 15,000 ducats, the same amount allocated to his half-sister Joanna, Dowager Princess of Portugal, with whom John had a close relationship.

At the University of Alcalá de Henares, John began his preparation for his future ecclesiastical career. It was there in 1562, that Prince Carlos had suffered a fractured skull which had a deleterious effect on his personality.

In 1565, Alessandro Farnese left Alcalá de Henares to reside in Brussels, where his mother Margaret of Parma was Governor of the Spanish Netherlands. Alessandro had married Maria of Portugal while in Brussels. It was said that John had learned from Alessandro how to be a philanderer. In time, John would acknowledge two illegitimate daughters, one in Spain, the other in Naples.[3][5]

In addition, John of Austria actively participated in court ceremonies: at the baptisms of his nieces, Philip II's daughters, Isabella Clara Eugenia and Catherine Michelle. John would be the one assigned to carry the infantas to the baptismal font.

In 1565, the Ottoman Empire had attacked the island of Malta. To defend itself, a fleet was gathered at the port of Barcelona. John had asked Philip II for permission to join the navy, but he was denied. In spite of this, John had left the court and travelled to Barcelona, but was not able to reach the fleet in time. Only a letter from his brother King Philip II made John give up his efforts to continue to rendezvous with the fleet of García Álvarez de Toledo y Osorio, 4th Marquis of Villafranca del Bierzo, then located in Italy.

Since John had no real inclination for the ecclesiastical career planned by their father, Charles V, Philip II decided to appoint John of Austria Captain General of the Sea. As would happen throughout his life, Philip II would surround John with trusted advisers, such as Álvaro de Bazán, 1st Marquis of Santa Cruz (Admiral) and Luis de Requesens y Zúñiga (Vice admiral).

Prince Carlos, probably because of his uncle's position, and also due to the friendship they had for years, confided to John of Austria his plans to flee Spain and to travel towards the Spanish Netherlands from Italy. Prince Carlos needed John's help to acquire a galley that would ferry him to Italy. In exchange for his assistance, the Prince had promised John the Kingdom of Naples. John told the Prince that he would give him an answer, and went immediately afterwards to the El Escorial to report it to the King.

Philip II returned to Madrid on 17 January 1568, and the following day, Sunday, the whole royal family attended Mass. Prince Carlos called John of Austria to his rooms, to obtain his decision. Prince Carlos concluded from John's reply that he was not going to help him and that he might have been betrayed by him. Carlos then drew his sword and attacked his uncle, John, who was able to defend himself until servants came and sequestered the Prince to his rooms. The arrest of Prince Carlos motivated John of Austria to wear mourning attire, but the King ordered him to take it away.

John returned to the Mediterranean to take charge of the fleet. After meeting with his advisers in Cartagena on 2 June 1568, he went out to sea to fight the corsairs. This he did for a period of three months as he sailed across to North Africa, along the coast, and landed at Oran, and Melilla.

Prince Carlos died on 24 July 1568, after being kept in solitary confinement for six months. Upon hearing the news of the Prince's death, John then took the fleet back to Cartagena and made his way towards Madrid. After a meeting with the King, he then visited with his foster mother, Magdalena de Ulloa, and after retired for a time to the Franciscan convent of El Abrojo, in Laguna de Duero.

Rebellion of the Alpujarras[edit]

A decree dated 1 January 1567 forced the moriscos who lived in the Kingdom of Granada, particularly in the Alpujarras area, to abandon their customs, language, dresses, and religious practices altogether. The application of the rule caused that, as early as April 1568, an open revolt was planned. At the end of that year, almost two hundred towns began the revolt.

The king deposed Iñigo López de Mendoza, 3rd Marquis of Mondejar and appointed John of Austria Captain General, that is, supreme commander of the royal forces. Philip II placed John in the care of trustworthy advisors, including Luis de Requesens. On 13 April 1569 John arrived in Granada, where he built his forces with care, learning about logistics and drill. Luis de Requesens and Álvaro de Bazán patrolled the coast with their galleys, limiting aid and reinforcements from Barbary.

The deportation policy aggravated the situation. To achieve greater effectiveness, John asked his half-brother for permission to go on the offensive. The King granted his request and John left Granada at the head of a large and well-supplied army. After clearing rebels from near by Granada, he then marched east through Guadix, where veteran troops from Italy joined him, bringing his total troop strength to 12,000. At the end of the year 1569 he had managed to pacify Güéjar, and in late January 1570 put under siege the stronghold of Galera. The siege at Galera had stalled, as it was a difficult fortress to take. John ordered a general assault, making use of artillery and strategically set mines. On 10 February 1570, he entered the village, and had it levelled to the ground with salt ploughed into its soil. Between 400 and 4500 inhabitants were killed, and 2000 to 4500 survivors were sold into slavery.[6][7] He then marched on the fortress of Serón, where he was shot in the head, and his foster father Luis de Quijada was wounded, dying a week later, on 25 February, in Caniles. Soon after John took the town of Terque, which dominated the entire middle valley of the Almería river.

In May 1570, John had negotiated a peace with El Habaquí. In the summer and fall of 1570 the last campaigns were carried out to subdue the rebels. In February 1571, Philip II signed the decree of expulsion of all the moriscos from the Kingdom of Granada. John's letters described the forced exile of entire families, women and children, as the greatest "human misery" that can be portrayed.

The War of Cyprus and Battle of Lepanto[edit]

Battle of Lepanto.
The Victors of Lepanto (from left: Don Juan de Austria, Marcantonio Colonna, Sebastiano Venier).

The War of Cyprus became the focus of Spain’s attention after Pope Pius V sent an envoy to urge Philip to join with him and Venice in a Holy League against the Turks. Philip II agreed and negotiations opened in Rome. Among Philip's terms was the appointment of John as commander-in-chief of the Holy League armada. While he agreed that Cyprus should be relieved, he was also concerned to recover control of Tunis, where Turks had overthrown the regime of Philip's client Muslim ruler. Tunis posed an immediate threat to Sicily, one of Philip II's kingdoms. Philip II also had in mind the eventual conquest of Algiers, whose corsairs posed a constant nuisance to Spain. Charles V had tried, and failed, to take it in the course of the Algiers expedition (1541).[3]

While John finished the pacification of Granada, negotiations dragged on in Rome. In the summer of 1570 Philip sailed for Cyprus under the pope's admiral Marcantonio Colonna. In charge of Philip's contingent was the Genoese Gian Andrea Doria, a great-nephew of the renowned Andrea Doria. On reaching the Turkish coast in September, Colonna and the Venetians wished to press on to Cyprus while Doria argued that the season had grown too late. Then news arrived that Nicosia, the capital of Cyprus, had fallen, and only the port of Famagusta held out. Sickness hit the Venetian fleet and a consensus grew that it was best to return to port. The weather turned ugly and while Doria reached port in good order, the Venetians were storm-battered. Among the Christian allies, animosities became open while the Turks tightened their siege of Famagusta.[8]:122

The Venetians repaired their galley fleet and readied six heavily armed galleasses. The Pope hired twelve galleys from the Grand Duke of Tuscany. The dukes of Savoy and Parma also provided galleys, and Alexander Farnese sailed in one. When the League was formally signed in May, John was designated commander-in-chief and given his many instructions by Philip. With the instructions came a warning not to involve himself with women, which, among other instructions, were ignored by John. It was late July before he sailed with the Spanish squadron from Barcelona, and mid-September before the entire Holy League armada got underway from Messina. Don John was determined to fight, rallying allies and quelling their mutual suspicions.[8]:133

John found the Turkish fleet at Lepanto in the Gulf of Corinth. After some debate, the Turks chose to fight, even though they had been at sea all summer and disbanded some of their people. They had the larger fleet, nearly 300 to John's 207 galleys and six galleasses. On 7 October 1571, the Turkish fleet emerged into the Gulf of Patras and took battle formation. Bringing his fleet through islets known as the Curzolaris (now mostly lost to the silting of the shoreline), John deployed his armada into a left wing under Venetian command, a right wing under Doria, a powerful center or main battle under himself, and a strong rear guard under the Marquis of Santa Cruz. In all four formations were galleys from each of the participating states. Two galleasses each were assigned to the wings and center. Around noon the battle commenced. The cannonade of the galleasses disrupted the Turkish formations as they pressed to the attack, and the bigger and more numerous guns of the Christian allies did devastating damage as the Turkish right and center closed to board. In the seesaw fighting on decks, the allies prevailed. Among their wounded was the 24-year-old Miguel de Cervantes, future writer of Don Quixote. Cervantes later wrote a description of the courage of the Christian combatants.[8]:150

The Turkish remaining under Uluj Ali, the governor general of Algiers and their best admiral, tried to outmaneuver Doria's wing, drawing it away from the League center. When a gap appeared between Doria and the center, Uluj Ali made a quick turn about and aimed at the gap, smashing three galleys of the Knights of Malta on John's right flank. John came around smartly while the Marquis of Santa Cruz hit Uluj Ali hard with his rear guard. Uluj Ali himself and maybe half his wing escaped. The victory was near total, with the Turkish fleet destroyed and thousands of veterans lost. The League's losses were hardly negligible, with over 13,000 dead, However, in the aftermath the Holy league forces managed to liberate over ten thousand Christian slaves, a mild compensation for their losses.[9] In the evening a storm broke and the victors had to head for port, while sporadic Greek uprisings were ruthlessly suppressed by the Turks. During and after the battle of Lepanto, John was addressed in letters and in person with "Highness" and "Prince". This was in contradiction to the initial protocol and address by Philip. There are no records to indicate if Philip gave Don John these honours.[3][5]

Tunisia and Italy[edit]

Coat of arms of John of Austria. Being the illegitimate son of Charles V, in his coat the partitions of the armories of his father were modified. It consisted of a divided shield in which the arms of Castile and Leon were placed in a cut and not quartered (repeated in four quarters), as usual. To the sinister, departures, Aragon and Aragon-Sicily. On the whole, in escusón, Austria and Duchy of Burgundy. In the coat of arms of John of Austria did not incorporate the blazons of Granada, Franche-Comté, Brabant, Flanders and Tyrol that appeared in the coat of arms of his father. On the outside, surrounding the shield, the necklace of the Order of the Golden Fleece.[10]

The victory of Lepanto transformed John of Austria into a hero in the European context. At the same time reinforced his main ambition: he wanted a Kingdom of his own, as well as the treatment of Highness which was systematically denied to him.

In 1572, a delegation of Albanians offered John the throne. He consulted with his brother, who indicated to him that he declined the offer, but that did not leave the relations with them. With the permission of the King, John dedicated the following months (July–October) to find Uluj Ali, survivor of Lepanto, without success, because he, aware of the naval superiority of the Spanish navy, knew how to avoid it.

The following year, the Republic of Venice signed the peace separately with the Ottoman Empire. The Holy League was formally broken, and John replaced in his ships the flag of the League by the one of Castile. Now the Spanish navy could follow their own objectives, and John didn't waste the opportunity: he asked for authorization to undertake the conquest of Tunisia. From La Goulette, stronghold occupied by an ally of the Spaniards, he took Tunisia in a rapid campaign in October 1573.

Again appeared the possibility for a Kingdom of his own, this time conquered by himself. His ambitions weren't unknown, for Pope Gregory XI himself addressed King Philip II in early 1574, asking that John could be invested with the title of King of Tunisia. The answer was negative, although the Spanish monarch assured that the merits of his half-brother could be properly rewarded.

It was evident that Philip II didn't fully trust in his half-brother's intentions. He used his secretary, Antonio Pérez, as a means to know and control John's ambitions. Pérez provided funds for the fleet, and was credited with securing him the position of Vicar General in Italy. The permanence of John in Italy, however, favored that Uluj Ali recovered Tunisia. At this moment, the ambition of John of Austria was already another: the Catholic invasion of England, the marriage with Mary, Queen of Scots and thus obtain a Kingdom of its own; this plan seemed to counted with the support of the Pope and the English Catholics. Even at one point Queen Elizabeth I send an envoy to him about the possibility of a marriage with herself, of which John promptly informed Philip II, who expressed his disapproval.

John wanted to go to Madrid to deal with the matter personally. But the King ordered him to remain as Vicar General in Italy, where he developed a policy of pacifying the cities in question. He traveled all over the Italian peninsula, from Sicily to Lombardy. At the end of the year, John's personal secretary, Juan de Soto, was replaced by Juan de Escobedo, secretary of the Treasury Council from 1566 and a person linked to Antonio Pérez, who in this way sought to know more in detail John's acts and thoughts. In addition, Philip II knew for years the content of the supposedly private correspondence between Antonio Pérez and John of Austria, because he supervised and even corrected it, encouraging criticism of himself, in order to know the thoughts and plans of his half-brother.

The Low Countries[edit]

Engraving of John of Austria.
The Joyous Entry of John of Austria into Brussels, 1 May 1577. Print from 'The Wars of Nassau' by W. Baudartius, Amsterdam 1616.

In the meanwhile, the problems in the Low Countries intensified. The policy of hard repression carried out by Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba was followed by the moderated one of Luis de Requesens. But Requesens died on 5 May 1576, circumstance used by William I, Prince of Orange to enliven the rebellion. The Council of State that temporarily ruled the territory, urged the King to appoint a new Governor immediately and be of the royal family.

The choice was obvious: Philip II ordered John of Austria to go immediately to the Low Countries as Governor; however, he disobeyed the royal order and instead went to Madrid, to know the possibilities of the English plan, the support that his brother was going to offer him and under what conditions he would go to Brussels. Felipe II again rejected his request to grant him the title of Infante of Castile and with it the coveted treatment of Royal Highness, but, in return, accepted his suggestion of a unique command in his hands. On a possible invasion of England, Philip II didn't manifest conclusively.

John of Austria took advantage of the stay in Spain to see his foster-mother Magdalena de Ulloa. It was she who disguised him for the next stage of his journey: he would go to the Low Countries, but not from Italy, but through France. To do this, she dressed him as a Moorish servant of an Italian nobleman, Ottaviano Gonzaga. He crossed France and arrived in Luxembourg, the only loyal province. There, in November 1576, he met his mother, Barbara Blomberg, for the first time. After that conversation, Barbara Blomberg (who had always refused to live in Spain), agreed to go to the Peninsula, where she was assigned a house and an income until her death in 1597.

The old Tercios of Flanders, who had not received their payment for months, sacked the city of Antwerp on a terrible day that created the worst possible situation upon the arrival of John of Austria to the Low Countries. He was instructed, above all, to follow the policy of Requesens and be conciliatory. In order to be recognized as Governor and that the rebels respected the Catholic faith, he agreed to license his troops, the departure of the old Tercios to Spain or Lombardy, as well as to respect the Flemish freedoms. He signed the called Perpetual Edict on 17 February 1577. By May it seemed that the situation had been pacified and John of Austria was able to enter triumphantly in Brussels.

Faced with this situation of peace, John de Austria wanted to return to Madrid to discuss the English affair. In June 1577 he sent his secretary Juan de Escobedo, whom he trusted, so that, through Antonio Pérez, he could either return to Spain or obtain resources to invade England. The King rejected John's return to Spain. At that moment, circumstances worsened in Flanders. In July 1577, John broke the pact and replaced Namur's troops with Germans ones. In August he ordered the return of the Tercios who were in Milan, because thanks to the West Indies Fleet, who arrived to Seville in August 1577, Philip II had funds to pay them.

In September, William I of Orange raised his ultimatum: John had to hand over all the cities, license his troops and retire to Luxembourg. Far from acceding to the request, he waited for the arrival of the Tercios, led by his old friend and nephew Alessandro Farnese.

Last months and death[edit]

The arrival of the Tercios allowed John to undertake a military offensive. On 31 January 1578, the old Tercios defeated the States General at the Battle of Gembloux, thus making much of the Southern Low Countries return to the obedience of the King; all Luxembourg and Brabant were reconquered. However, this victory was insufficient. Soon John found himself desperately in need of money. Two armies invaded the Spanish Flanders: a French one, under the command of Francis, Duke of Anjou, who from the South took Mons, and another, led by Juan Casimiro and financed by the Queen Elizabeth I of England, from the East. John urged his secretary Escobedo, who was in Spain, to ask Philip II for money to pay the troops. In the Councils of State and War, the Duke of Alba warned of the risky situation, without men and without money. In this situation the assassination of Escobedo took place on 31 March 1578. The current historiography maintains that it was planned by Antonio Pérez with the approval of the King, who considered it necessary for the monarchy. The concrete arguments of the secretary to convince Philip II are unknown, but historians point out that they must involve around the John's ambitions and the possibility that he decided on his own the invasion of England, or formed an alliance with the Dutch rebels or even returned to Spain with the leadership of the troops to overthrow Felipe II. There is no evidence of any of these possibilities in the documentation, but in 1578 John of Austria's main concern was the constant need for troops and money to wage war in Flanders. On hearing the death of his secretary, John wrote to the King, and in that letter it's evident that he understood what had happened, and that no reinforcements of Spain could be expected.

The tomb of Don Juan of Austria in San Lorenzo de El Escorial.

John's writings of that time reveal the state of depression in which he fell that summer, while his illness progressed (typhus or typhoid fever). Some days he should remained in bed. His health worsened at the end of September, being in his camp around the besieged Namur. On 28 September he appointed his nephew Alessandro Farnese as successor in the government of the Low Countries and wrote to his half-brother asking him to respect this appointment and to allow him to be buried next to their father.

John of Austria died on 1 October 1578. His body was dissected,[11] returned to Spain, reassembled and placed by Philip to rest in the unfinished crypt of the Escorial, not far from their father. His tomb was later covered by a 19th-century lying statue of singular beauty, work of Ponciano Ponzano and Giuseppe Galeotti; there John is depicted in armor, and as a curiosity it must be pointed out that for not dying in combat, he is represented with his gauntlets removed.

Relationships and descendants[edit]

The following women are confirmed to have had a relationship with John of Austria:[5]

  • Maria of Mendoza (1545 – 22 April 1570), lady-in-waiting of Joanna of Austria, Princess of Portugal and daughter of Diego Hurtado of Mendoza, Prince of Melito and 1st Duke of Francavilla.[12] They had one daughter:[3][5]
  • Anne of Toledo, with whom he had no known children.[3][5]
  • Zenobia Sarotosia (born ca. 1540), daughter of Vincenzo Sarastrosio and Violante Garofano.[13] They had one son:
    • Unnamed (born and died in 1574); reportedly died at childbirth, although it was rumoured that Philip II had a hand in his death.[3][5]
  • Diana Falangola (born 1556), daughter of Scipione Falagona, Lord of Fagnano.[14] They had a daughter:
    • Juana of Austria (11 September 1573, Naples – 7 February 1630, Militello),[3][5] who married at Palermo on 20 April 1603 with Francesco Branciforte, 2nd Prince of Pietrapersia. They had five daughters:[15]
      • Margherita Branciforte d'Austria (11 January 1605, Naples – 24 January 1659, Rome), Princess of Butera; married with Federico Colonna, 5th Duke of Tagliacozzo, with whom she had one son:
        • Antonio Colonna, Prince of Pietrapersia (1619 – 1623).[16]
      • Flavia Branciforte d'Austria (3 June 1606, Naples – 24 May 1608, Naples).
      • Caterina Branciforte d'Austria (4 May 1609, Naples – 6 June 1613, Naples).
      • Elisabetta Branciforte d'Austria (9 December 1611, Naples – 7 August 1615, Naples).
      • Anna Branciforte d'Austria (6 July 1615, Naples – 1 September 1615, Naples).

In literature[edit]

Don John is a villain in William Shakespeare's 1599 play Much Ado About Nothing. He is listed in the roles as "illegitimate brother to Don Pedro", Prince of Aragon.[17]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ When Charles V was born in 1500, his mother wanted to him to be called John in honor of her late brother John, Prince of Asturias, but her husband Philip the Handsome, Archduke of Austria instead called him Charles to honor his own maternal grandfather, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Don" is a Spanish honorific, equivalent to English Sir, not a name. "Austria" refers not to the country but to the Habsburg dynasty then commonly known as "Casa de Austria".
  2. ^ Juan Antonio Vilar Sánchez: Carlos V: Emperador y hombre (in Spanish), ed. EDAF, Madrid 2015 ISBN 978-84-414-3586-5
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i Stirling-Maxwell, William (1883). Don John of Austria, or Passages from the history of the sixteenth century, 1547-1578 (PDF). London: Longmans, Green, and Co. 
  4. ^ La Santa Espina, un oasis en los Torozos. Nuestra Historia: El Pueblo (in Spanish) [retrieved 26 December 2016].
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h Petrie, Charles (1967). Don John of Austria. New York: Norton. 
  6. ^ Pendrill, Collin (2002). Spain 1474-1700: The Triumphs and Tribulations of Empire. 9780435327330: Heinemann. p. 77. 
  7. ^ Carr, Matthew (2013). Blood and Faith: The Purging of Muslim Spain. The New Press. ISBN 9781595585240. 
  8. ^ a b c Thubron, Collin (1981). The Venetians. Time-Life UK. ISBN 9780705406338. 
  9. ^ Meyer, G.J. (2010). The Tudors. Random House Publishing Group. p. 489. ISBN 9780440339144. 
  10. ^ Menéndez Pidal y Navascués, Faustino, Hugo: El escudo, p. 227, in: Menéndez Pidal y Navascués, Faustino; O'Donnell y Duque de Estrada, Hugo; Lolo, Begoña: Símbolos de España (in Spanish), Madrid: Centro de Estudios Políticos y Constitucionales, 1999. ISBN 84-259-1074-9
  11. ^ His heart was placed in a casket and sealed by a marble plaque in a wall near the high altar in St Aubin's Cathedral, Namur.
  12. ^ María Ana de Mendoza in: geneall.net [retrieved 8 June 2016].
  13. ^ Zenobia Sarotosia in: geneall.net [retrieved 8 June 2016].
  14. ^ Diana Falangola in: geneall.net [retrieved 8 June 2016].
  15. ^ Branciforte in: tribalpages.com [retrieved 8 June 2016].
  16. ^ Antonio Colonna, prince of Pietrapersia in: geneall.net [retrieved 8 June 2016].
  17. ^ Shakespeare, William. Much Ado About Nothing. Ed. Claire McEachern. London: Arden. 2006.
  18. ^ Goddard, Gloria (2006-07-25). The Last Knight Of Europe: The Life Of Don John Of Austria. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. ISBN 1-4286-6206-5. 
  19. ^ de Wohl, Louis (1956). The Last Crusader: A Novel about Don Juan of Austria. ISBN 978-1586174149. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Fernand Braudel, The Mediterranean and the Mediterranean World in the Age of Philip II. 2 vols. New York, Harper, 1972, translated from La Méditerranée et le monde méditerranéen à l'époque de Philippe II, 2nd éd., Paris: 1966
  • Capponi, Niccolò, Victory of the West: The Great Christian-Muslim Clash at the Battle of Lepanto (2006)
  • Coloma, Luis, The Story of Don John of Austria, trans. Lady Moreton, New York: 1912. John Lane Company.
  • Dennis, Amarie. Don Juan of Austria. Madrid, privately printed, 1966. A sensitive study of Don John, by an American long resident in Spain, it rests mainly on contemporary sources and has a lively treatment of Lepanto.
  • Essen, Léon van der. Alexandre Farnèse, Prince de Parme, Gouverneur Général des Pays-Bas (1578–92), 5 vols., Brussels, 1933–35
  • Guilmartin, J.F. Gunpowder and Galleys (revised edition, 2003)
  • Petrie, Sir Charles. Don John of Austria. New York: 1967.
  • Stirling-Maxwell, William. Don John of Austria. 2 vols. London: 1883.
  • Törne, P. O. de, Don Juan d'Autriche et les projets de conquête de l'Angleterre (1928)

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Luis de Zúñiga y Requesens
Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands
1576–1578
Succeeded by
Alexander Farnese
and Margaret of Parma