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"Hello, World!" program

A "Hello, World!" program is a computer program that outputs or displays the message "Hello, World!". Such a program is simple in most programming languages, is used to illustrate the basic syntax of a programming language, it is the first program written by people learning to code. It can be used as a sanity test to make sure that a computer language is installed, that the operator understands how to use it. While small test programs have existed since the development of programmable computers, the tradition of using the phrase "Hello, World!" as a test message was influenced by an example program in the seminal 1978 book The C Programming Language. The example program in that book prints "hello, world", was inherited from a 1974 Bell Laboratories internal memorandum by Brian Kernighan, Programming in C: A Tutorial: In the above example, the main function defines where the program should start executing; the function body consists of a single statement, a call to the printf function, which stands for "print formatted".

This function will cause the program output whatever is passed to it as the parameter, in this case the string hello, followed by a newline character. The C language version was preceded by Kernighan's own 1972 A Tutorial Introduction to the Language B, where the first known version of the program is found in an example used to illustrate external variables: The program prints hello, world! on the terminal, including a newline character. The phrase is divided into multiple variables because in B, a character constant is limited to four ASCII characters; the previous example in the tutorial printed hi! on the terminal, the phrase hello, world! was introduced as a longer greeting that required several character constants for its expression. The Jargon File claims that "Hello, World!" Originated instead with BCPL. This claim is supported by the archived notes of the inventors of BCPL, Brian Kernighan at Princeton and Martin Richards at Cambridge. "Hello, World!" Programs vary in complexity between different languages.

In some languages scripting languages, the "Hello, World!" program can be written as a single statement, while in others there can be many more statements required. For example, in Python, to print the string Hello, World! Followed by a newline, one need only write print. In contrast, the equivalent code in C++ requires the import of the input/output software library, the manual declaration of an entry point, the explicit instruction that the output string should be sent to the standard output stream. Programming languages that give the programmer more control over the machine will result in more complex "Hello, World" programs; the phrase "Hello World!" has seen various deviations punctuation and casing, such as the presence of the comma and exclamation mark, the capitalization of the leading H and W. Some devices limit the format to specific variations, such as all-capitalized versions on systems that support only capital letters, while some esoteric programming languages may have to print a modified string.

For example, the first non-trivial Malbolge program printed "HEllO WORld", this having been determined to be good enough. Other human languages have been used as the output; some languages change the functionality of the "Hello, World!" program while maintaining the spirit of demonstrating a simple example. Functional programming languages, such as Lisp, ML and Haskell, tend to substitute a factorial program for "Hello, World!", as functional programming emphasizes recursive techniques, whereas the original examples emphasize I/O, which violates the spirit of pure functional programming by producing side effects. Languages otherwise capable of printing "Hello, World!" may be used in embedded systems, where text output is either difficult or nonexistent. For devices such as microcontrollers, field-programmable gate arrays, CPLDs, "Hello, World!" may thus be substituted with a blinking LED, which demonstrates timing and interaction between components. The Debian and Ubuntu Linux distributions provide the "Hello, World!" program through their software package manager systems, which can be invoked with the command hello.

It serves as a simple example of installing a software package. For developers, it provides an example of creating a.deb package, either traditionally or using debhelper, the version of hello used, GNU Hello, serves as an example of writing a GNU program. Variations of the "Hello, World!" program that produce a graphical output have been shown. Sun demonstrated a "Hello, World!" program in Java based on scalable vector graphics, the XL programming language features a spinning Earth "Hello, World!" using 3D computer graphics. Mark Guzdial and Elliot Soloway have suggested that the "hello, world" test message may be outdated now that graphics and sound can be manipulated as as text. "Time to hello world" is the time it takes to author a "Hello, World!" program in a given programming language. This is one measure of a programming language's ease-of-use; the concept has been extended beyond programming languages to APIs, as a measure of how simple it is for a new developer to get a basic example working.

St. Paul's Church, Mangalore

St. Paul's Church is an Anglican church in Mangalore, India. St. Paul's Church is located at the south-west corner of the Nehru Maidan in Mangalore, it was the first Protestant church to be raised in the South Kanara region. St. Paul's was a garrison church, raised by the British India army of the Madras Government, built using prison labour. St. Paul's is an imposing structure amidst the chaos of the fish market, service bus stand, the State Bank of India. In 1568, Admiral Diego de Silvera of the Portuguese fleet conquered the fort of Mangalore, went on to build a Portuguese Fort of St. Sebastian. Portuguese rule continued till 1763. In 1768, Mangalore was captured by the British India Army during the First Anglo-Mysore War, before being transferred back to Tippu Sultan in 1784 as per the Treaty of Mangalore. After, the fall of Tippu Sultan in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War of 1799 at Seringapatam, Mangalore once again fell into British Control, annexed into the Madras Presidency. In June 1799, Capt. Thomas Munro was appointed as the first Collector of Canara region, by the Governor-General of India Richard Wellesley, on the personal recommendation of his brother Col. Arthur Wellesley.

Mangalore went to become a strategically important port for the East India Company, hence a small army unit was maintained to preserve law and order in the Canara region, for guarding the border passes into Mysore Princely State. The army unit was further strengthened after the Coorg rebellion of 1837, when Mangalore was attacked; the fortification of Mangalore resulted in a need for the church to meet the spiritual and moral needs of the British soldiers and citizens. Hence, in 1841, Rev. R W Whitford, garrison chaplain appealed to the Government of Madras to construct a church in Mangalore, accepted. In 1842, Rev. Alfred Fennell succeeded Rev. Whitford; the church building was completed in 1842, consecrated by George Spencer, Church of England, Bishop of Madras, on 5 January 1843. The construction site of the St. Paul's Church, was at the Fort St Sebastian, the main seat of British power in Canara, on a 0.5-acre plot. The initial budget was ₨ 5,128, was to accommodate 120 people. However, as a result of rising costs and insufficient funds it was decided to reduce the capacity of the church building to 100.

The building works were initiated in 1842 by Rev. Alfred Fennel, the church building was completed and was furnished before the arrival of Bishop Spencer to Mangalore, was consecrated on 5 January 1843; the final cost of construction was ₨ 7,215. The church was constructed using prison labour. After construction, the internal area of the church is 57 by 25 feet, with sufficient place allowed for the pulpit, sanctuary and clergy stall, could seat nearly 100 people. Extensive repairs to the church were undertaken in 1897; the church tower of St. Paul's has a clock, with two dials; the clock was made in the Mangalore workshop of the Basel Mission, installed by its German missionaries. The clock continues to function accurately. After the demolition of clock tower in Hampankatta, the clock tower of St. Paul's is the only remaining clock tower in Mangalore; the German missionaries of the Basel Mission worshipped in St. Paul's Church until 1862, when the Balmatta Hill Shanti Church was established. In 1947, after Indian Independence, St. Paul's became part of the Church of South India, under the CSI North Kerala Diocese.

In 1971, it was transferred to the Karnataka Southern Diocese. It presently has around 115 families as members, strives to meet the spiritual needs of locals, domestic and foreign visitors. In 2003, a community hall, located at the rear of the church, was inaugurated by Rev. C. L. Furtado, CSI Bishop of Mangalore. St. Paul's Cemetery is located on Old Kent Road, near the railway tracks of the Mangalore Central Station, is the resting place of many officers of the East India Company and British citizens. A notable grave is that Brigadier General John Carnac, Commander-in-Chief of forces at Bengal, who in 1761 defeated Shah Zaddar, died in Mangalore, aged 84, on 29 November 1800; the church records the officers of the East India Company who died in battle from 1855, burial records from 1859. Penny, Frank; the church in Madras: being the history of the ecclesiastical and missionary action of the East India Company in the Presidency of Madras in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 3. London: John Murray.

Pp. 96–100. Basel Mission. "St. Paul's Church, Mangalore". Basel Mission Archives. Nineteenth-century picture of the church

Ross Bagdasarian Jr.

Ross Dickran Bagdasarian is an American actor, voice actor and record producer, known for his work on the Alvin and the Chipmunks franchise. He is the son of Ross Bagdasarian, he is called Ross Bagdasarian Jr. to distinguish himself from his father, but he does not share his father's name. Bagdasarian was born in Fresno, the son of Armenuhi and Ross Bagdasarian Sr, he is of Armenian descent. As a child, he worked with his father on The Alvin Show by helping edit and coordinate the soundtracks and falsetto voice-overs of The Chipmunks. Bagdasarian went to law school but after his father's death in 1972, succeeded him as the President of Bagdasarian Productions, which had fallen into obscurity after significant success between 1958 and the late 1960s, his wife Janice Karman, whom he married in 1979, is co-president. Bagdasarian and Karman live in Montecito, California. Under Bagdasarian's supervision, new Chipmunks records were created shortly after his marriage to Karman, including Chipmunk Punk.

In 1981, the Chipmunks returned to television in the cartoon special A Chipmunk Christmas. Two years Ruby-Spears Productions' Alvin and the Chipmunks Saturday morning cartoon series debuted on NBC. Based on that series, a feature film, The Chipmunk Adventure was released in 1987. Bagdasarian voices Alvin and Dave Seville, Karman voices Theodore and The Chipettes. Bagdasarian and Karman hold tight creative and financial control over the Chipmunk franchise, reviewing each and every business contract in great detail. In the mid-90s, Bagdasarian bought the Chipmunk rights from brother Adam and sister Carol, to take complete control. Bagdasarian licensed the rights to the Chipmunk characters to Universal Pictures in 1996, resulting in a string of Universal-produced direct-to-video films. Four years he and Karman sued them for breach of contract, claiming that Universal failed to properly utilize and merchandise the characters and hence resulting in a loss of royalties to Bagdasarian; the case was decided in Bagdasarian's favor.

"For us, it was a custody battle", Karman said. "They realized'OK, these two are fighting for their kids'." History at Chipmunks.com Ross Bagdasarian Jr. on IMDb