The'Ndrangheta is an Italian Mafia-type organized crime syndicate based in the region of Calabria, dating back to the 19th century. A US diplomat estimated that the organization's narcotics trafficking and money laundering activities accounted for at least 3% of Italy's GDP in 2010. Since the 1950s, the organization has spread towards Northern worldwide. According to a 2013 "Threat Assessment on Italian Organised Crime" of Europol and the Guardia di Finanza, the'Ndrangheta is among the richest and most powerful organised crime groups in the world. In 1861 the prefect of Reggio Calabria noticed the presence of so-called camorristi, a term used at the time since there was no formal name for the phenomenon in Calabria. Since the 1880s, there is ample evidence of'Ndrangheta-type groups in police reports and sentences by local courts. At the time they were being referred to as the picciotteria, onorata società or camorra and mafia; these secret societies in the areas of Calabria rich in olives and vines were distinct from the anarchic forms of banditry and were organized hierarchically with a code of conduct that included omertà – the code of silence – according to a sentence from the court in Reggio Calabria in 1890.

An 1897 sentence from the court in Palmi mentioned a written code of rules found in the village of Seminara based on honour, violence and mutual assistance. In the folk culture surrounding'Ndrangheta in Calabria, references to the Spanish Garduña appear. Aside from these references, there is nothing to substantiate a link between the two organizations; the Calabrian word'Ndrangheta derives from Greek ἀνδραγαθία andragathía for "heroism" and manly "virtue" or ἀνδράγαθος andrágathos, compound words of ἀνήρ, anḗr, i.e. man and ἀγαθός, agathós, i.e. good, meaning a courageous man. In many areas of Calabria the verb'ndranghitiari, from the Greek verb andragathízesthai, means "to engage in a defiant and valiant attitude". Though in recorded use earlier, the word'Ndrangheta was brought to a wider audience by the Calabrian writer Corrado Alvaro in the Corriere della Sera in September 1955; until 1975, the'Ndrangheta restricted their Italian operations to Calabria involved in extortion and blackmailing.

Their involvement in cigarette contraband expanded their scope and contacts with the Sicilian Mafia and the Neapolitan Camorra. With the arrival of large public works in Calabria, skimming of public contracts became an important source of income. Disagreements over how to distribute the spoils led to the First'Ndrangheta war killing 233 people; the prevailing factions began to kidnap rich people located in northern Italy for ransom. A high-profile target was John Paul Getty III, kidnapped for ransom in July 1973, had his severed ear mailed to a newspaper in November, released in December following the negotiated payment of $2.2 million by Getty's grandfather, J. Paul Getty; the Second'Ndrangheta war raged from 1985 to 1991. The bloody six-year war between the Condello-Imerti-Serraino-Rosmini clans and the De Stefano-Tegano-Libri-Latella clans led to more than 600 deaths; the Sicilian Mafia contributed to the end of the conflict and suggested the subsequent set up of a superordinate body, called La Provincia, to avoid further infighting.

In the 1990s, the organization started to invest in the illegal international drug trade importing cocaine from Colombia. Deputy President of the regional parliament of Calabria Francesco Fortugno was killed by the'Ndrangheta on 16 October 2005 in Locri. Demonstrations against the organization ensued, with young protesters carrying banderoles reading "Ammazzateci tutti!", Italian for "Kill us all". The national government started a large-scale enforcement operation in Calabria and arrested numerous'ndranghetisti including the murderers of Fortugno. The'Ndrangheta has expanded its activities to Northern Italy to sell drugs and to invest in legal businesses which could be used for money laundering. In May 2007 twenty members of'Ndrangheta were arrested in Milan. On 30 August 2007, hundreds of police raided the town of San Luca, the focal point of the bitter San Luca feud between rival clans among the'Ndrangheta. Over 30 men and women, linked to the killing of six Italian men in Germany, were arrested.

Since 30 March 2010, the'Ndrangheta has been considered an organisation of mafia-type association according to 416 bis under the Italian penal code. On 9 October 2012, following a months-long investigation by the central government, the City Council of Reggio Calabria headed by Mayor Demetrio Arena was dissolved for alleged ties to the group. Arena and all the 30 city councilors were sacked to prevent any "mafia contagion" in the local government; this was the first time. Three central government-appointed administrators will govern the city for 18 months until new elections; the move came after unnamed councilors were suspected of having ties to the'Ndrangheta under the 10-year centre-right rule of Mayor Giuseppe Scopelliti.'Ndrangheta infiltration of political offices is not limited to Calabria. On 10 October 2012, the commissioner of Milan's regional government in charge of public housing, Domenico Zambetti of People of Freedom, was arrested on accusations he paid the'Ndrangheta in exchange for an election victory and to extort favours and contracts from the housing official, including construction tenders for the World Expo 2015 in Milan.

The probe of alleged vote-buying underscore

Brenda Cooper

Brenda Cooper is an author and futurist who resides in Kirkland, where she is the Chief Information Officer of the city of Kirkland. She has written ten novels. Brenda was educated at California State University, where she earned a BA in Management Information Systems, she is pursuing an MFA at StoneCoast, a program of the University of Southern Maine. Brenda lives in Washington with her family and three dogs. Building Harlequin's Moon, written with Larry Niven. Mayan December POST Silver Ship The Silver Ship and the Sea Reading the Wind Wings of Creation Ruby's Song The Creative Fire The Diamond Deep The Glittering Edge Edge of Dark Spear of Light Brin, David, ed.. "Street Life in the Emerald City". Chasing Shadows. Tor Books. Pp. 196–207. ISBN 978-0765382580. McPhail, Mike, ed.. "Along the Northern Border". Defending the Future. ESpec Books. ASIN B01MU2H4BC. Schvartsman, Alex, ed.. "The Hand on the Cradle". Humanity 2.0. Phoenix Pick. ISBN 978-1612423098. Schmidt, Brian Thomas, ed.. "Iron Pegasus". Mission Tomorrow.

Baen. ISBN 978-1476780948. "Star of Humanity". Cracking the Sky. Fairwood Press. April 22, 2015. ISBN 978-1933846507. "Entropy and Emergence". Cracking the Sky. Fairwood Press. April 22, 2015. ISBN 978-1933846507. "The Robots' Girl". Analog. 130. April 2010. Henry Gee, ed.. "Mind Expeditions". "Tea with Jillian". Nature Magazine. December 2011. "Star of Humanity". Fairwood Press. August 2015. Sheila Williams, ed.. "Biology at the End of the World". Asimov’s Magazine. "The War of the Flowers". Strange Horizons. January 2004. "Visitors". 2016. "Extinction". 2016. "The Multiple Universe Poems". September 2009. "Raising Horses in the Rain". Spring 2001. Endeavor Award The Silver Ship and the Sea Edge of Dark Authors Website

Lalkamal Bhowmick

Lalkamal Bhowmick is an Indian footballer who plays as a midfielder for Pathachakra in the Calcutta Football League. He was there for four years, before joining Eveready. Following that he joined Mohun Bagan, he spent four seasons at Mohun Bagan. He was voted the best young player of the Year for the 2007 I-League season for his excellent performances for Bagan. In December 2008 he scored in the group stage of the Federation Cup, Mohun Bagan went on to win the tournament; as of September 2012 he was playing for Prayag United in the I-League. He only played 9 games for United in the 2013-14 season due to injury. In May 2014 Bhowmick announced, he left United because of the club's financial troubles. In February 2013 he was named in the India national football team squad for the upcoming 2014 AFC Challenge Cup qualifiers. Http://