Stuyvesant High School
Stuyvesant High School /ˈstaɪvəsənt/, commonly referred to as Stuy /ˈstaɪ/ or Stuyvesant, is one of nine specialized high schools in New York City, United States. Operated by the New York City Department of Education, these schools offer tuition-free accelerated academics to city residents, Stuyvesant is a college preparatory science, technology and mathematics focused liberal arts high school. Admission to Stuyvesant involves passing the Specialized High Schools Admissions Test, each November, about 30,000 eighth and ninth graders take the 2 1⁄2-hour exam, and roughly 800 students, or 2. 7% of applicants, are accepted to Stuyvesant each year. Stuyvesant High School is named after Peter Stuyvesant, the last Dutch governor of New Netherland before the colony was transferred to England in 1664, the school was established in 1904 as a manual training school for boys, hosting 155 students and 12 teachers. In 1907, it moved from its location at 225 East 23rd Street to a building designed by C. B. J.
Snyder at 345 East 15th Street. The building, built in 1905 for $1.5 million, the school became renowned for excellence in math and science, and enrollment continued to grow so that by 1919, admission began to be restricted based on scholastic achievement. Stuyvesant went on a double session plan in 1919 to accommodate the number of students, with some students attending in the morning and others in the afternoon. All students studied a full set of courses and these double sessions ran until 1956. The school implemented a system of entrance examinations starting in 1934, the examination program was expanded to include the newly founded Bronx High School of Science, and was developed with the assistance of Columbia University. During the 1950s, the building underwent a $2 million renovation to update its classrooms, libraries, in 1956, a team of six students designed and began construction of a cyclotron, and a low-power test of the device succeeded six years later. A attempt at full-power operation, knocked out the power to the school, prior to 1969, Stuyvesant did not accept female students.
That year,14 girls were admitted to Stuyvesant and 12 enrolled at the start of September, by 2002, female enrollment had grown to 42%. The act called for an exam to be administered for admission to Brooklyn Tech, Bronx Science. The school building, deteriorated over the years. S, during the 2003–4 school year, Stuyvesant celebrated the 100th anniversary of its founding with a full year of activities. Construction on the new ten-floor, $150 million building located in Lower Manhattan began in 1989, the new building was designed by Cooper, Robertson & Partners. When it opened in 1992, the building was New York Citys first new school building in ten years and. The new building is 0.5 miles from the site of the World Trade Center, the school was evacuated during the attack. Although the smoke coming from the World Trade Center engulfed the building at one point, there was no structural damage to the building
Albany, New York
Albany is the capital of the U. S. state of New York and the seat of Albany County. Roughly 150 miles north of New York City, Albany developed on the west bank of the Hudson River, the population of the City of Albany was 97,856 according to the 2010 census. With a Census-estimated population of 98,4242013, the Capital District is the third-most populous metropolitan region in the state and 38th in the United States. Fortune 500 companies that have offices in Albany include American Express, J. P. Morgan and Chase, Merrill Lynch, General Electric, Goldman Sachs, International Paper, and Key Bank. In the 21st century, the Capital District has emerged as an anchor of Tech Valley. This was the first European settlement in the state, settled by Dutch colonists who built Fort Nassau for fur trading in 1614 and they formed successful relations with both the Mahican and the Mohawk peoples, two major Native American nations in the region. The fur trade attracted settlers who founded a village called Beverwijck near Fort Orange, in 1664 the English took over the Dutch settlements, renaming the city as Albany, in honor of the Duke of Albany, the future James II of England and James VII of Scotland.
The city was chartered in 1686 under English rule. It became the capital of New York State in 1797, following the United States gaining independence in the American Revolutionary War, Albany is one of the oldest surviving settlements of the original British thirteen colonies, and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. Its charter is possibly the longest-running instrument of government in the Western Hemisphere. During the late 18th century and throughout most of the 19th, Albany was a center of trade, Albanys main exports at the time were beer, published works, and ironworks. Beginning in 1810, Albany was one of the ten most populous cities in the United States, in the 20th century, the city opened one of the first commercial airports in the world, the precursor of todays Albany International Airport. During the 1920s a powerful political machine controlled by the Democratic Party arose in the state capital and it marshalled the power of immigrants and their descendants in both cities.
In the early 21st century, Albany has experienced growth in the high-technology industry, Albany has been a center of higher education for over a century, with much of the remainder of its economy dependent on state government and health care services. The city has rebounded from the decline of the 1970s and 1980s. Albany is known for its history, culture, architecture. Albany won the All-America City Award in both 1991 and 2009, Albany is one of the oldest surviving European settlements from the original thirteen colonies and the longest continuously chartered city in the United States. The Hudson River area was inhabited by Algonquian-speaking Mohican, who called it Pempotowwuthut-Muhhcanneuw
The Online Computer Library Center is a US-based nonprofit cooperative organization dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the worlds information and reducing information costs. It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded mainly by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services, the group first met on July 5,1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization. The group hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The goal of network and database was to bring libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the worlds information in order to best serve researchers and scholars. The first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26,1971 and this was the first occurrence of online cataloging by any library worldwide.
Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data, between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States. As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside of Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with networks, organizations that provided training, support, by 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on OCLC Members Council, in early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone, OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world.
WorldCat has holding records from public and private libraries worldwide. org, in October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. The Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988, a browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013, it was replaced by the Classify Service. S. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users and this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. OCLC has produced cards for members since 1971 with its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, e. g. CONTENTdm for managing digital collections, OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years.
In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications and these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organizations website. The most recent publications are displayed first, and all archived resources, membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding
Charles Scribner's Sons
The firm published Scribners Magazine for many years. More recently, several Scribner titles and authors have garnered Pulitzer Prizes, National Book Awards, in 1978 the company merged with Atheneum and became The Scribner Book Companies. In turn it merged into Macmillan in 1984, Simon & Schuster bought Macmillan in 1994. By this point only the book and reference book operations still bore the original family name. The former imprint, now simply Scribner, was retained by Simon & Schuster, as of 2012, Scribner is a division of Simon & Schuster under the title Scribner Publishing Group which includes the Touchstone Books imprint. The president of Scribner as of 2017 is Susan Moldow, the firm was founded in 1846 by Charles Scribner I and Isaac D. Baker as Baker & Scribner. After Bakers death, Scribner bought the remainder of the company, in 1865, the company made its first venture into magazine publishing with Hours at Home. In 1870, the Scribners organized a new firm and Company, after the death of Charles Scribner I in 1871, his son John Blair Scribner took over as president of the company.
His other sons Charles Scribner II and Arthur Hawley Scribner would join the firm and they each served as presidents. When the other partners in the sold their stake to the family. The company launched St. Nicholas Magazine in 1873 with Mary Mapes Dodge as editor and Frank R. Stockton as assistant editor, when the Scribner family sold the magazine company to outside investors in 1881, Scribner’s Monthly was renamed the Century Magazine. The Scribners brothers were enjoined from publishing any magazine for a period of five years, in 1886, at the expiration of this term, they launched Scribners Magazine. The firms headquarters were in the Scribner Building, built in 1893, on lower Fifth Avenue at 21st Street, both buildings were designed by Ernest Flagg in a Beaux Arts style. The childrens book division was established in 1934 under the leadership of Alice Dalgliesh and it published works by distinguished authors and illustrators including N. C. Wyeth, Robert A. Heinlein, Marcia Brown, Will James, Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, as of 2011 the publisher is owned by the CBS Corporation.
Simon & Schuster reorganized their adult imprints into four divisions in 2012, Scribner became the Scribner Publishing Group and would expand to include Touchstone Books which had previously been part of Free Press. The other divisions are Atria Publishing Group, Simon & Schuster Publishing Group, the new Scribner division would be led by Susan Moldow as president. Scott Fitzgerald Thomas Wolfe Simon & Schuster has published thousands of books from thousands of authors and this list represents some of the more notable authors from Scribner since becoming part of Simon & Schuster
The Pulitzer Prize /ˈpʊlᵻtsər/ is an award for achievements in newspaper and online journalism and musical composition in the United States. It was established in 1917 by provisions in the will of American Joseph Pulitzer who had made his fortune as a newspaper publisher, Prizes are awarded yearly in twenty-one categories. In twenty of the categories, each receives a certificate. The winner in the service category of the journalism competition is awarded a gold medal. The Pulitzer Prize does not automatically consider all applicable works in the media, entries must fit in at least one of the specific prize categories, and cannot simply gain entrance for being literary or musical. Works can only be entered in a maximum of two categories, regardless of their properties, each year,102 jurors are selected by the Pulitzer Prize Board to serve on 20 separate juries for the 21 award categories, one jury makes recommendations for both photography awards. For each award category, a jury makes three nominations, the board selects the winner by majority vote from the nominations or bypasses the nominations and selects a different entry following a 75% majority vote.
The board can vote to issue no award, the board and journalism jurors are not paid for their work, the jurors in letters and drama receive a $2,000 honorarium for the year, and each chair receives $2,500. Anyone whose work has been submitted is called an entrant, the jury selects a group of nominated finalists and announces them, together with the winner for each category. However, some journalists who were submitted, but not nominated as finalists. For example, Bill Dedman of msnbc, Dedman wrote, To call that submission a Pulitzer nomination is like saying that Adam Sandler is an Oscar nominee if Columbia Pictures enters Thats My Boy in the Academy Awards. Many readers realize that the Oscars dont work that way—the studios dont pick the nominees and its just a way of slipping Academy Awards into a bio. The Pulitzers dont work that way, but fewer people know that, newspaper publisher Joseph Pulitzer gave money in his will to Columbia University to launch a journalism school and establish the Prize.
It allocated $250,000 to the prize and scholarships and he specified four awards in journalism, four in letters and drama, one in education, and four traveling scholarships. After his death, the first Pulitzer Prizes were awarded June 4,1917, many people have won more than one Pulitzer Prize. Nelson Harding is the person to have won a Prize in two consecutive years, the Pulitzer Prize for Editorial Cartooning in 1927 and 1928. Four prizes Robert Frost, Poetry Eugene ONeill, Drama Robert E, in rare instances, contributors to the entry are singled out in the citation in a manner analogous to individual winners. Journalism awards may be awarded to individuals or newspapers or newspaper staffs, Awards are made in categories relating to journalism, arts and fiction
Francis Frank McCourt was an Irish-American teacher and writer. He won a Pulitzer Prize for his book Angelas Ashes, a memoir of the misery. Frank McCourt was born in New York Citys Brooklyn borough, on 19 August 1930 to Malachy McCourt, an man from Moneyglass, County Antrim. In the midst of the Great Depression, the family moved back to Ireland, unable to find steady work in Belfast or Dublin and beset by Malachy Seniors alcoholism, the McCourt family returned to their mothers native Limerick, where they sank even deeper into poverty. They lived in a slum, the parents and children sharing one bed together. Frank McCourt himself nearly died of fever when he was 11. McCourt related that when he was 11, his father left Limerick to find work in the factories of wartime Coventry, rarely sending back money to support his family. Eventually McCourt recounts that Malachy Senior abandoned Franks mother altogether, leaving her to raise her four surviving children, on the edge of starvation, Franks school education ended at age 13, when the Irish Christian Brothers rejected him.
Frank held odd jobs and stole bread and milk in an effort to provide for his mother, in October 1949, at the age of 19, McCourt left Ireland, using money he had saved from a post office job. Alternatively, in a TV interview McCourt says that one of the people to whom he delivered telegrams was a moneylender from whom, after her death. He took a boat from Cork to New York City, a priest he had met on the ship got him a room to stay in and his job at New York Citys Biltmore Hotel. He earned about $26 a week and sent $10 of it to his mother in Limerick, Brothers Malachy and Michael followed him to New York and so, did their mother Angela. In 1951, McCourt was drafted during the Korean War and sent to Bavaria for two years initially training dogs, as a clerk. Upon his discharge from the U. S. Army, he returned to New York City, where he held a series of jobs on docks, in warehouses and he graduated in 1957 from New York University with a bachelors degree in English. He taught at six New York schools, including McKee Vocational and Technical High School, Ralph R.
In 1967, he earned a degree at Brooklyn College. In a 1997 New York Times essay, McCourt wrote about his experiences teaching immigrant mothers at New York City College of Technology in Brooklyn and it was a bestseller and made him a millionaire. Three years later, a version of Angelas Ashes opened to mixed reviews
Teacher Man is a 2005 memoir written by Frank McCourt which describes and reflects on his teaching experiences in New York high schools and colleges. It is in continuation to his two memoirs, Angelas Ashes and Tis. Frank McCourts pedagogy involves the students taking responsibility for their own learning, especially in his first school, McKee Vocational and Technical High School, much of his early teaching involves telling anecdotes about his childhood in Ireland, which were covered in his earlier books Angelas Ashes and Tis. McCourt taught English as a Second Language and as well as a class of predominantly African-American female students, whom he took to a production of Hamlet. Other highlights include his connection between how a pen works and how a sentence works and his use of such as using students forged excuse notes as a segue to writing with scenarios. He taught from the time he was twenty-seven and continued for thirty years and he spent most of his teaching career at Stuyvesant High School, where he taught English and Creative Writing.
During the time of the book McCourt went to Trinity College to try to take his doctorate, but he ended up leaving his first wife because of the strain
Angelas Ashes, A Memoir is a 1996 memoir by the American author Frank McCourt. The memoir consists of anecdotes and stories of Frank McCourts childhood. The memoir details his early childhood in Brooklyn, New York. It includes McCourts struggles with poverty and his fathers alcoholism, the book was published in 1996, and won the 1997 Pulitzer Prize for Biography or Autobiography. The sequel Tis was published in 1999, followed by Teacher Man in 2005, born in Brooklyn, New York, on 19 August 1930, Frank McCourt is the oldest son of Malachy and Angela Sheehan McCourt. He lives with his parents and four siblings, born in 1931, twins Oliver and Eugene, born in 1932, and a younger sister, Margaret. Following this first tragedy, his family back to Ireland where Oliver and Eugene die within a year of the familys arrival. Angela Sheehan emigrates from Ireland to the U. S. Angela becomes pregnant with Malachys child, under pressure from Angelas cousins and Delia MacNamara, Malachy marries Angela. Malachy does not think the marriage will last and attempts to run away to California, over the next few years, Angela gives birth to Francis, twins Oliver and Eugene, and Margaret, who dies in infancy.
Soon after Margarets death, the McCourt family moves back to Ireland, life in Ireland, specifically in Limerick, during the 1930s and 1940s is described in all its grittiness. The family live in a dilapidated, unpaved lane of houses that flood regularly, the McCourts house is in the farthest part of the lane, near the only outdoor lavatory for the entire lane. Malachy Sr. teaches the children Irish stories and songs, but he is an alcoholic, when he does, he spends his pay in the pubs. His family is forced to live on the dole since he cannot hold down a job for long due to his alcoholism. The father will pick up and spend the welfare payment before Angela can get her hands on it to feed the starving children. For years the family subsists on little more than bread and tea and they are always wondering when their next real meal would be and whether the kids would have shoes for school. Despite all the hardships, many passages of the story are told with heartfelt humor, Franks father eventually finds a job at a defense plant in Coventry, yet he squanders his pay rather than sending money back to his struggling family.
As there are few jobs for women, their mother is forced to ask for help from the Church and they live in fear of not going to heaven, unless they pray or worship as often as prescribed by the Church. Sometimes and his brothers scavenge for lumps of coal or peat turf for fuel, or steal bread to survive, they occasionally steal leftover food from restaurants at the end of the day
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
A memoir is a collection of memories that an individual writes about moments or events, both public or private, that took place in the subjects life. The assertions made in the work are understood to be factual, while memoir has historically been defined as a subcategory of biography or autobiography since the late 20th century, the genre is differentiated in form, presenting a narrowed focus. A biography or autobiography tells the story of a life, while a memoir often tells a story from a life, such as touchstone events, the author of a memoir may be referred to as a memoirist or a memorialist. Memoirs have been written since the ancient times, as shown by Julius Caesars Commentarii de Bello Gallico, in the work, Caesar describes the battles that took place during the nine years that he spent fighting local armies in the Gallic Wars. His second memoir, Commentarii de Bello Civili is an account of the events took place between 49 and 48 BC in the civil war against Gnaeus Pompeius and the Senate.
Over the latter half of the 18th through the mid-20th century and these authors wrote as a way to record and publish their own account of their public exploits. Authors included politicians or people in society and were joined by military leaders. An exception to these models is Henry David Thoreaus 1854 memoir Walden, twentieth-century war memoirs became a genre of their own, from the First World War, Ernst Jünger and Frederic Mannings Her Privates We. With the advent of inexpensive digital book production in the first decade of the 21st century, memoirs written as a way to pass down a personal legacy, rather than as a literary work of art or historical document, are emerging as a personal and family responsibility. With the expressed interest of preserving history through the eyes of those who lived it, the Veterans History Project, for example, compiles the memoirs of those who have served in a branch of the United States Armed Forces – especially those who have seen active combat. Association of Personal Historians Diary Fake memoirs Histoire de ma vie Journal Last will and testament
New York University
New York University is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City. Founded in 1831, NYU is considered one of the worlds most influential research universities, University rankings compiled by Times Higher Education, U. S. News & World Report, and the Academic Ranking of World Universities all rank NYU amongst the top 32 universities in the world. NYU is a part of the creativity and vibrancy that is Manhattan, located with its core in Greenwich Village. Among its faculty and alumni are 37 Nobel Laureates, over 30 Pulitzer Prize winners, over 30 Academy Award winners, alumni include heads of state, eminent mathematicians, media figures, Olympic medalists, CEOs of Fortune 500 companies, and astronauts. NYU alumni are among the wealthiest in the world, according to The Princeton Review, NYU is consistently considered by students and parents as a Top Dream College. Albert Gallatin, Secretary of Treasury under Thomas Jefferson and James Madison, declared his intention to establish in this immense, a system of rational and practical education fitting and graciously opened to all.
A three-day-long literary and scientific convention held in City Hall in 1830 and these New Yorkers believed the city needed a university designed for young men who would be admitted based upon merit rather than birthright or social class. On April 18,1831, an institution was established, with the support of a group of prominent New York City residents from the merchants, bankers. Albert Gallatin was elected as the institutions first president, the university has been popularly known as New York University since its inception and was officially renamed New York University in 1896. In 1832, NYU held its first classes in rented rooms of four-story Clinton Hall, in 1835, the School of Law, NYUs first professional school, was established. American Chemical Society was founded in 1876 at NYU and it became one of the nations largest universities, with an enrollment of 9,300 in 1917. NYU had its Washington Square campus since its founding, the university purchased a campus at University Heights in the Bronx because of overcrowding on the old campus.
NYU had a desire to follow New York Citys development further uptown, NYUs move to the Bronx occurred in 1894, spearheaded by the efforts of Chancellor Henry Mitchell MacCracken. The University Heights campus was far more spacious than its predecessor was, as a result, most of the universitys operations along with the undergraduate College of Arts and Science and School of Engineering were housed there. NYUs administrative operations were moved to the new campus, but the schools of the university remained at Washington Square. In 1914, Washington Square College was founded as the undergraduate college of NYU. In 1935, NYU opened the Nassau College-Hofstra Memorial of New York University at Hempstead and this extension would become a fully independent Hofstra University. In 1950, NYU was elected to the Association of American Universities, in the late 1960s and early 1970s, financial crisis gripped the New York City government and the troubles spread to the citys institutions, including NYU
In English-speaking countries, a blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs non-agricultural manual labour. Often something is physically being built or maintained, in contrast, the white-collar worker typically performs work in an office environment and may involve sitting at a computer or desk. A third type of work is a worker whose labour is related to customer interaction, entertainment. Many occupations blend blue, white or pink industry categorizations, blue-collar work is often paid hourly wage-labor, although some professionals may be paid by the project or salaried. There is a range of payscales for such work depending upon field of specialty. Industrial and manual workers wear durable canvas or cotton clothing that may be soiled during the course of their work. Navy and light blue colors conceal potential dirt or grease on the clothing, helping him or her to appear cleaner. For the same reason, blue is a color for boilersuits which protect a workers clothing. Some blue collar workers have uniforms with the name of the business or the name embroidered or printed on it.
Historically the popularity of the color blue among manual labourers contrasts with the popularity of white shirts worn by people in office environments. The blue collar/white collar color scheme has socio-economic class connotations, this distinction has become blurred with the increasing importance of skilled labour, and the relative increase in low-paying white-collar jobs. The term blue collar was first used in reference to trades jobs in 1924, Alden, a higher level academic education is often not required for many blue-collar jobs. However, certain fields may require specialized training, licensing or certification as well as a school diploma or GED. With the information revolution, Western nations have moved towards a service, many manufacturing jobs have been offshored to developing nations which pay their workers lower wages. This offshoring has pushed formerly agrarian nations to industrialized economies and concurrently decreased the number of jobs in developed countries. Due to this economic osmosis, the rust belt has experienced high unemployment, blue-collar can be used as an adjective to describe the environment of the blue-collar worker such as a blue-collar neighborhood, restaurant, or bar