's-Hertogenbosch, colloquially known as Den Bosch, is a city and municipality in the Netherlands with a population of 152,968. It is the capital of the province of North Brabant; the city's official name is a contraction of the Dutch des Hertogen bosch—"the Duke's forest". The duke in question was Henry I of Brabant, whose family had owned a large estate at nearby Orthen for at least four centuries, he founded a new town located on some forested dunes in the middle of a marsh. At age 26, he granted's-Hertogenbosch city rights and the corresponding trade privileges in 1185; this is, the traditional date given by chroniclers. The original charter has been lost, his reason for founding the city was to protect his own interests against encroachment from Gelre and Holland. It was soon rebuilt; some remnants of the original city walls may still be seen. In the late 14th century, a much larger wall was erected to protect the expanded settled area. Artificial waterways were dug to serve as a city moat, through which the rivers Dommel and Aa were diverted.

The birthplace and home of one of the greatest painters of the northern Renaissance period, Hieronymus Bosch,'s-Hertogenbosch suffered a catastrophic fire in 1463, which the 13-year-old Bosch witnessed. Until 1520, the city flourished, becoming the second largest population centre in the territory of the present Netherlands, after Utrecht; the city was a center of music, composers, such as Jheronimus Clibano, received their training at its churches. Others held positions there: Matthaeus Pipelare was musical director at the Confraternity of Our Lady; the wars of the Reformation changed the course of the city's history. It became an independent bishopric. During the Eighty Years' War, the city took the side of the Habsburg authorities and thwarted a Calvinist coup, it was besieged several times by Prince Maurice of Orange, stadtholder of most of the Dutch Republic, who wanted to bring's-Hertogenbosch under the rule of the rebel United Provinces. The city was defended by Claude de Berlaymont known as Haultpenne.

In the years of Truce, before the renewed fighting after 1618, the fortifications were expanded. The surrounding marshes made a siege of the conventional type impossible, the fortress, deemed impregnable, was nicknamed the Marsh Dragon; the town was finally conquered by Frederik Hendrik of Orange in 1629 in a Dutch stratagem: he diverted the rivers Dommel and Aa, created a polder by constructing a forty-kilometre dyke and pumped out the water by mills. After a siege of three months, the city had to surrender—an enormous blow to Habsburg geo-political strategy during the Thirty Years' War; this surrender cut the town off from the rest of the duchy and the area was treated by the Republic as an occupation zone without political liberties. After the Peace of Westphalia, the fortifications were again expanded. In 1672, the Dutch rampjaar, the city held against the army of Louis XIV of France. In 1794, French revolutionary troops under command of Charles Pichegru took the city with hardly a fight: in the Batavian Republic, both Catholics and Brabanders at last gained equal rights.

From 1806, the city became part of the Kingdom of Holland and from 1810, it was incorporated into the First French Empire. It was captured by the Prussians in 1814; the next year, 1815, when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was established, it became the capital of North Brabant. Many newer and more modern fortresses were created in the vicinity of the city. A new canal was built, the'Zuid-Willemsvaart', which gave the city an economic impulse. Trade and industry grew; until 1878, it was forbidden to build outside the ramparts. That led to the highest infant mortality in the kingdom. At the end of the 19th century, the conservative city government prevented industrial investment to avoid an increase in the number of workers and the establishment of educational institutions: students were regarded as disorderly; as a result, the relative importance of the city diminished. One of the few official Nazi concentration camp complexes in Western Europe outside Germany and Austria was named after's-Hertogenbosch.

It was known to the Germans as Herzogenbusch. About 30,000 inmates were interned in the complex during this time. In the Netherlands, this camp is known as'Kamp Vught', because the concentration camp was located at a heath near Vught, a village a few kilometres south of's-Hertogenbosch, it occupied by them for over four years. The allies struck back - the railway station was bombed by planes of the Royal Air Force on 16 September 1944; the city was liberated between 24–27 October 1944 during Operation Pheasant by British soldiers of Major-General Robert Knox Ross's 53rd Infantry Division after Major Donald Bremner of the 1st Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment, of 158th Infantry Brigade, had routed the enemy on 23-24 October. The population centres in the municipality are: Bokhoven, Deuteren, Empel, Gewande,'s-

Balata-Tufari National Forest

The Balata-Tufari National Forest is a national forest in the state of Amazonas, Brazil. It was created to support sustainable extraction of forest products such as timber subject to restrictions and regulations defined by law or the responsible agency, ICMBio; the Balata-Tufari National Forest covers parts of the municipalities of Canutama and Tapauá in the state of Amazonas. It has an area of 1,079,669.71 hectares. It is bounded by the Purus River to the west, by the first section of the Trans-Amazonian Highway from Lábrea to Humaitá which cuts across its southern end, by BR-319 to the east; the Mucuim River runs through the forest, flowing north from the Mapinguari National Park, which lies to the south of BR-230. The Mucuim is joined within the forest by the Açuã River, which rises in the Mapinguari National Park. 2.47% of the national forest's area overlaps with the Mapinguari National Park. The national forest is in the Amazon biome, it contains 91.44% open rainforest, 6.45% dense rainforest and 2.11% contact between savannah and rainforest.

About 2000 families live in the forest farmers who own or lease small plots. The Balata-Tufari National Forest and the nearby Iquiri National Forest have great potential not only for sustainable extraction of timber but for products such as oils, nuts and fruits; the Balata-Tufari National Forest was created by decree on 17 February 2005 and is administered by the Chico Mendes Institute for Biodiversity Conservation. It is classed as IUCN protected area category VI with the objective of sustainable multiple use of forest resources and scientific research, with emphasis on methods for sustainable exploitation of native forests; the forest had three areas when created: Gleba Balata with 282,781 hectares, Gleba Tufari with 360,168 hectares and Gleba Jacaré with 159,074 hectares. On 8 May 2008 a fourth area was added, Area 4 with 275,836 hectares; the advisory council was formed on 14 December 2010. An ordinance of 9 January 2012 provided for a consistent and integrated approach to preparing management plans for the conservation units in the BR-319 area of influence.

These are the Abufari Biological Reserve, Cuniã Ecological Station, Nascentes do Lago Jari and Mapinguari national parks, Balata-Tufari, Humaitá and Iquiri national forests, the Lago do Capanã-Grande, Rio Ituxi, Médio Purus and Lago do Cuniã extractive reserves

Kennedy Kithuka

Kennedy Kithuka is a Kenyan cross country and track runner for Texas Tech under head coach Wes Kittley. In 2007, Kennedy Kithuka ran 9:00 3000 metres 4:20 1500 metres 15:10 5000 metres 30:20 10,000 metres Kithuka won NAIA Outdoor Track & Field Championships titles for Wayland Baptist University in the 10 km in 29:31.99 and 5 km in 13:56.82. Kithuka took titles in the Sooner Athletic Conference Championships 3 km Steeplechase and 5 km. Kithuka competed for Wayland Baptist University in National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics Outdoor Track and Field Championships while winning the 3 km in 8:08.53, was runner-up in the mile in 4:08.89, 4th place in the DMR in 10:03.29. Kithuka finished the NAIA national men's outdoor track and field championship for Wayland Baptist University with 8th place in the 10 km in 30:29.69, 3rd place in the 5 km in 14:17.20. Kithuka's indoor season was highlighted with NAIA National Men's Indoor Track And Field Championship 5th-place finish in the 5 km in 14:30.95 and 10th-place finish in the DMR in 10:13.95.

Kithuka won the 2012 NAIA Outdoor Track & Field Championships 10 km in 29:35.85, 5 km in 14:04.72, finished 2nd in the 1500 m in 3:46.72. He notched a personal record at the Mt SAC Relays in 28:18.97 where he was the runner-up and World Standard time in the 5k in 13:28.61. Kithuka's indoor season was capped off with NAIA Indoor Championships titles in the 3000 meters in 8:03.63, DMR in 9:51.31, while finishing 5th in the mile in 4:08.23. In 2012, Kithuka won the individual Big 12 champion, the NCAA Men's Cross Country Championship, was named the National Male Athlete of the Year for cross country. During the indoor, Kithuka won the Big 12 Conference 3,000 meters and 5,000 meters and NCAA Track and Field 5,000 meters championships. In 2013, Kithuka went undefeated and won the individual Big 12 Conference 8k Championship for a second time and only losing to Edward Cheserek of University of Oregon at the NCAA Men's Division I Cross Country Championship. In 2014, Kithuka set personal best in both events: Kithuka would win the Big 12 Conference titles for both the 10k and 5k run.

His track record performance during his 5k clinched the team Big 12 Conference title for Texas Tech. Kithuka lead the 10 km and 5 km at NCAA Outdoor Track and Field Championships and earned All-American in both events &. Kennedy plans to finish his degree and remain in Lubbock, Texas training under his coach John Murray. Kennedy Kithuka served as volunteer assistant coach at Texas Tech. Kennedy Kithuka is a part of Skechers performance Elite team. Kennedy is in the elite road -race April 3 at Carlsbad 5000 where Kithuka placed 12th in 14:12. Kithuka ran 14:26 at Boston Athletic Association 5 km on April 16 in Boston, Massachusetts