Moldova the Republic of Moldova, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Romania to the west and Ukraine to the north and south. The capital city is Chișinău. Most of the Moldovan territory was a part of the Principality of Moldavia from the 14th century until 1812, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Ottoman Empire and became known as Bessarabia. In 1856, southern Bessarabia was returned to Moldavia, which three years united with Wallachia to form Romania, but Russian rule was restored over the whole of the region in 1878. During the 1917 Russian Revolution, Bessarabia became autonomous and the independent Moldavian Democratic Republic until it was integrated into Romania in 1918 following a vote of its assembly; the decision was disputed by Soviet Russia, which in 1924 allowed the establishment, within the Ukrainian SSR, of a Moldavian autonomous republic on partial Moldovan-inhabited territories to the east of the Dniester. In 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia to the Soviet Union, leading to the creation of the Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, which included the greater part of Bessarabia and the westernmost strip of the former MASSR.
On 27 August 1991, as the dissolution of the Soviet Union was under way, the Moldavian SSR declared independence and took the name Moldova. The Constitution of Moldova was adopted in 1994; the strip of the Moldovan territory on the east bank of the Dniester river has been under the de facto control of the breakaway government of Transnistria since 1990. Due to a decrease in industrial and agricultural output following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the service sector has grown to dominate Moldova's economy and is over 60% of the nation's GDP, its economy is the poorest in Europe in per capita terms and has the lowest Human Development Index in the continent. Moldova is the least visited country in Europe by tourists with only 11,000 annually recorded visitors from abroad. Moldova is a parliamentary republic with a president as head of state and a prime minister as head of government, it is a member state of the United Nations, the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the GUAM Organization for Democracy and Economic Development, the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and aspires to join the European Union.
The name "Moldova" is derived from the Moldova River. The origin of the name of the river remains unclear. According to a legend recounted by Moldavian chroniclers Dimitrie Cantemir and Grigore Ureche, Prince Dragoș named the river after hunting an aurochs: following the chase, the prince's exhausted hound Molda drowned in the river; the dog's name, given to the river, extended to the Principality. For a short time in the 1990s, at the founding of the Commonwealth of Independent States, the name of the current Republic of Moldova was spelled "Moldavia". After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the country began to use Moldova; the name Republic of Moldova is designated by the United Nations. The prehistory of Moldova covers the period from the Upper Paleolithic which begins with the presence of Homo sapiens in the area of Southeastern Europe some 44,000 years ago and extends into the appearance of the first written records in Classical Antiquity in Greece. In 2010 N. K. Anisjutkin discovered Oldowan flint tools at Bayraki.
During the Neolithic stone-age era, Moldova's territory stood at the centre of the large Cucuteni–Trypillia culture that stretched east beyond the Dniester River in Ukraine and west up to and beyond the Carpathian Mountains in Romania. The people of this civilization, which lasted from 5500 to 2750 BC, practised agriculture, raised livestock and made intricately-designed pottery. In antiquity, Moldova's territory was inhabited by Dacian tribes. Between the 1st and 7th centuries AD, the south was intermittently under the Roman, Byzantine Empires. Due to its strategic location on a route between Asia and Europe, the territory of modern Moldova was invaded many times in late antiquity and the early Middle Ages, including by Goths, Avars, Magyars, Cumans and Tatars. Friar William of Rubruck, who visited the court of the Great Khan in the 1250s, listed "the Blac", or Vlachs, among the peoples who paid tribute to the Mongols, but the Vlachs' territory is uncertain. Rubruck described "Blakia" as "Assan's territory" south of the Lower Danube, showing that he identified it with the northern regions of the Second Bulgarian Empire.
The Bolohoveni, a Vlach population, is mentioned by the Hypatian Chronicle in the 13th century. The chronicle shows that this land is bordered on the principalities of Halych and Kiev. Archaeological research identified the location of 13th-century fortified settlements in this region. Alexandru V. Boldur identified Voscodavie, Voloscovti, Volcovti and their other towns and villages between the middle course of the rivers Nistru/Dniester and Nipru/Dnieper; the Bolohoveni disappeared from chronicles after their defeat in 1257 by Daniel of Galicia's troops. In the early 13th century, the Brodniks, a possible Slavic–Vlach vassal state of Halych, were present, alongside the Vlachs, in much of the region's territory. On the border between Halych and the
The Basque Mountains are a mountain range situated in the northern Iberian Peninsula. Geographically it is considered as the eastern section of the larger Cantabrian Range; the range runs through western Navarre. The Basque Mountains are a transitional range between two major ones, the Cantabrian range to the west and the Pyrenees to the east. Geologists call the area "The Basque threshold" and some consider that the Cantabrian Mountains and the Pyrenees are a single greater range and the Basque Mountains are just part of both. There are two parallel sub-ranges running from west to the inner one and the coastal one. In between them there is a 500 m high plateau called "Llanada Alavesa" where Vitoria-Gasteiz is located. East of the Llanada a narrow valley called Burunda and its follow-up Barranca separate the two ranges, with Urbasa-Andia located to the south and Aralar to the north; the valley harbours major infrastructures linking Pamplona. The Basque coastal range forms the water divide of the Mediterranean and Atlantic basins, the climate north of the range is milder and oceanic, typical of the so-called green Spain, while to the south of the coastal range and in the inner range winters are cold and snowy and summers drier and hotter than in the northern range, in general the climate in the Basque municipalities south of this range is more Mediterranean with some Continental traits, showing less precipitation and much colder winters than those coastal municipalities north of the range.
The snow cover is irregular during the winter season. From November to April snow cover can be found in the Basque Mountains above 700 m AMSL, but the changing weather conditions of the Bay of Biscay can bring great accumulations of snow and a sudden rise of temperatures can melt it in a few days due to the Foehn wind effect; this sudden melting can cause flooding problems, specially in the plains of northern Alava. It is a range of moderate height. In the inner range the main massifs from west to east are: Sierra Salvada Mounts of Vitoria, the most important is Kapildui Izki Urbasa, a 1,000 m high plateau Andía, with the impressive Beriain In the coastal range its main massifs from west to east are: Gorbea 1,481 m, maximum height of Biscay. Urkiola, Anboto being its highest peak. Elgea Aizkorri Altzania, the Aratz is the maximum height. Aralar, its most known peak being Txindoki The range is entirely limestone, but other materials can be found; the slopes are gentle, but there are many limestone peaks and cliffs in which vultures dwell.
There is abundant oceanic climate vegetation, like beeches, oaks and other like the Cantabrian Holm Oaks and the Pinus radiata, the last one artificially introduced for plantation. Pyrenees Cantabrian Range Geography of Spain Basque mountains list
Aizkorri or Aitzgorri is a massif, the highest one of the Basque Autonomous Community with 1,551 m AMSL at its highest point. The massif is formed by a crest of limestone summits aligned north-west to south-east all in a row at the south of the province of Gipuzkoa, namely Artzanburu, Arbelaitz, Aitxuri and Aizkorri. Despite its lower height, this summit is the most popular one; the Aizkorri massif is one of the most conspicuous geological formations on the Basque Mountains range. The mountain range is delimited at either end by the San Adrian passes. On the one end the massif stretches west to the Aloña massif, on the other one to the Altzania massif; the major Madrid-Irun railway cuts its way through the northern steep slopes of the mountain range, with two train stops, i.e. Otzaurte and Zegama Apeadero hardly operating any longer. Nowadays, Zegama Apeadero is well known for providing access to one hard northern trail mounting up rather straight to a central pass by Andreaitz; the initial mud track going up west peters out into a narrow trail at a major crossroads after taking a turn south-west.
Signals are abandoned and the trail penetrates straight into an open beech forest, where traces of the trail can go unnoticed. At the final stage of the ascension, the path winds up. At this point, autochthonous forest and steep slopes are left behind, yielding to a distinctive karst and grazing landscape, yet the main ascension route comes from the south-west, from the Sanctuary of Arantzazu, where a beaten trail goes up through a thick forest of beeches and ends at the Urbia meadows. From there, the route climbs up to the summits. Way-marking will be found. Another access point lies on the Medieval road crossing it. At the southern exit of the tunnel, after a 50-metre walk, from a clearing a trail penetrates unnoticed up the forest on the right, so beginning a 30-odd minute uphill struggle with loose pebbles all along. At this point, an opening affords a beautiful view onto the north and the trail cuts along the verge of several limestone cliffs on its way north-west. In another 30 minutes, the Aizkorri summit may be attained.
A stark refuge hut and the Santo Cristo hermitage lie by the summit. The Zegama-Aizkorri Marathon, a popular cross-country endurance race, takes place in spring along a loop circuit around the Aizkorri massif. Adding to the appeal of the range, the whole Aizkorri and Aratz area was declared the Aizkorri-Aratz Natural Park in 2006. Natural Parks of Gipuzkoa
Aramaio is a town and municipality located in the province of Álava, in the Basque Country, northern Spain. ARAMAYONA in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Information available in Spanish
Gorbea or Gorbeia is a mountain and massif, the highest in Biscay and Alava, with a height of 1,481 m AMSL. The massif covers a wide area between the two provinces; the main mountain is a round grass-covered summit where a 20-metre-tall metallic cross has been constructed to reach the altitude of 1,500 m. Other important mountains of the massif are the Lekanda and Aldamin limestone peaks. Part of the massif is delimited North by the high karstic plateau of Itxina, an intrincate landscape of limestone full of shafts and caves such as Supelegor; the Atxular's Eye cave is the only walking access to the plateau. The South is delimited by the Berretín mountain and the lush forests of Zuia The entire massif has been enclosed in a natural park of 200 km2 created by the Basque Government in 1994 to preserve the local flora of beech and oak and fauna of wild boar and deer; the main access points for the mountain are Murgia from Areatza from Biscay. The peak of the Gorbea measures 1.482 meters. It is one of the five “bocineros” mountains of Biscay where general meetings are announced with stakes.
It is between Biscay's frontier. It is accessible from all its slopes and it is surrounded of a natural environment, used for agriculture and other type of rural works; this land was inhabited since the beginning of prehistoric life. This place, conserved apart of the civilization, forms the Natural Park of Gorbea; this park is near Urquiola Natural Park. Both of them have a variety of plants diversity, it has always been so popular for Basque mountaineers. One of the traditions of this mountain is to trek the mountain the last day of the year and the first one, but the most important reference of Gorbea is the cross with the virgin Begoña. Near it, there is mailbox. In 1899, Pope Leo XIII ordered crosses built on the highest Christian mountains as a sign of the new century. Due to the importance of Catholicism in the Basque Country the crosses were built. Therefore, the commission of the Basque Country directed by Ceánuri decided to build the cross on the highest mountain of the Basque Country, Gorbea.
It was agreed to build a cross of 33.33 meters and it was supposed to be opened in 1900 but it was not possible. After that, in 1901, the work started. However, the budget was only 300 euros. On 12 November 1901, the cross was opened. However, most shepherds expected that the cross would fall within a few days, they were right. By the next month, the cross had fallen. No sooner had the first cross fallen down; this time, the cross had the same height as the first one but it was stronger. 22 month after, the second cross was opened and in the first of October 1903 the cross was blessed with water from the river Jordan. But it was not going to endure for many years. In fact, on 12 February 1906, the cross was pulled down by a gale. In 1907, work began on the third cross. However, the design was much simpler and it was not as tall as the two earlier ones; this one was 17.23 metres long and its structure was similar to the Eiffel tower. Its base is square and it has 4 feet, 2 in Alava and 2 in Biscay; the structure is strong.
This time, it was more stable and done by experienced architects. The 4 feet are joined at the top, it has good across in the top pointing the East and the West. At the base, a flame is represented as the light, it was built by Palacio. On 23 June 1963, the religious complex was supplemented with the image of the Virgin Begoña, installed by the Alpine Group Baskonia. Ascension route to Gorbea from Murua Ascension route to Gorbea from Barazar
Province of Burgos
The province of Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. It is bordered by the provinces of Palencia, Vizcaya, Álava, La Rioja, Soria and Valladolid, its capital is the city of Burgos. The Cartularies of Valpuesta from the monastery Santa María de Valpuesta, in Burgos, are considered to be the oldest known documents containing words written in the Spanish language. Since 1964, archaeologists have been working at numerous areas of the Archaeological Site of Atapuerca, where they have found ancient hominid and human remains, the former dating to more than one million years ago, with artefacts from the Palaeolithic and Bronze Ages of man; the site has been designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The province has an area of 14,300 km² and a population of 375,000 of whom nearly half live in the capital; the other locations higher than 20,000 inhabitants apart from Burgos are Miranda de Ebro and Aranda de Duero, both industrialized.
The Sierra de la Demanda, the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, is located in Burgos Province. The most important rivers in the province are the Duero; the river Duero leads to the Atlantic Ocean at Porto, Portugal. Planted near it is a notable vineyard, Ribera de Duero; the north and south-east of the province are mountainous. The Ebro flows to the Mediterranean Sea. In Valpuesta the oldest texts in the Spanish language has been found. Transportation is developed through a wide net of roads. Besides, the province is served by the Burgos Airport, will receive High-speed rail AVE around 2016. In the Bureba Pass area, archaeologists have found evidence of occupation by hominids and humans for more than one million years. Discoveries have included the earliest hominid skull in Europe; the Celtiberian region that became Burgos was inhabited by the Morgobos, Turmodigi and also the Pellendones, the last inhabitants of the northern part of the Celtiberian region. According to the Greek historian Ptolemy, the principal cities included: Brabum, Deobrigula, Ambisna Segiasamon and Verovesca.
Under Roman colonization, it was part of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Tarraconensis. In the fifth century, the Visigoths drove back the Suevi. In the eighth century, the Arabs occupied all of Castiles. Alfonso III the Great, king of León reconquered the area around the middle of the ninth century, built many castles for the defence of Christendom; the area was reconquered. The region came to be known as Castile, i.e. "land of castles". In the eleventh century, Burgos became the capital of the Kingdom of Castile; the province of Burgos is divided in 10 comarcas. Merindades Valle del Rudrón Ebro La Bureba Montes de Oca Alfoz de Burgos Sierra de la Demanda Odra y Pisuerga Arlanza Ribera del Duero The province of Burgos is divided into 371 municipalities, being the Spanish province with the highest number, although many of them have fewer than 100 inhabitants. List of municipalities in Burgos Media related to Province of Burgos at Wikimedia Commons Website of the Autonomous Community of Castile and León Website of the Province of Burgos delegation
A municipality is a single administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and regional laws to which it is subordinate. It is to be distinguished from the county, which may encompass rural territory or numerous small communities such as towns and hamlets; the term municipality may mean the governing or ruling body of a given municipality. A municipality is a general-purpose administrative subdivision, as opposed to a special-purpose district; the term is derived from French Latin municipalis. The English word municipality derives from the Latin social contract municipium, referring to the Latin communities that supplied Rome with troops in exchange for their own incorporation into the Roman state while permitting the communities to retain their own local governments. A municipality can be any political jurisdiction from a sovereign state, such as the Principality of Monaco, to a small village, such as West Hampton Dunes, New York.
The territory over which a municipality has jurisdiction may encompass only one populated place such as a city, town, or village several of such places only parts of such places, sometimes boroughs of a city such as the 34 municipalities of Santiago, Chile. Powers of municipalities range from virtual autonomy to complete subordination to the state. Municipalities may have the right to tax individuals and corporations with income tax, property tax, corporate income tax, but may receive substantial funding from the state. In various countries, municipalities are referred to as "communes", notably in Romance languages such as French commune, Italian comune, Romanian comună, Spanish comuna, in Germanic languages such as German Kommune, Swedish kommun, Faroese kommuna, Norwegian, Danish kommune. However, in Moldova and Romania exist both municipalities and communes, a commune may be part of a municipality. Similar terms include Spanish ayuntamiento called municipalidad, Polish gmina, Dutch/Flemish Gemeente and Luxembourgish Gemeng.
In Australia, the term local government area is used in place of the generic municipality. Here, the "LGA Structure covers only incorporated areas of Australia. Incorporated areas are designated parts of states and territories over which incorporated local governing bodies have responsibility." In Canada, municipalities are local governments established through provincial and territorial legislation within general municipal statutes. Types of municipalities within Canada include cities, district municipalities, municipal districts, parishes, rural municipalities, townships and villes among others; the Province of Ontario has different tiers of municipalities, including lower and single tiers. Types of upper tier municipalities in Ontario include regional municipalities. Nova Scotia has regional municipalities, which include cities, districts, or towns as municipal units. In India, a Municipality or Nagar Palika is an urban local body that administers a city of population 100,000 or more. However, there are exceptions to that, as Municipality were constituted in urban centers with population over 20,000, so all the urban bodies which were classified as Municipality were reclassified as Municipality if their population was under 100,000.
Under the Panchayati Raj system, it interacts directly with the state government, though it is administratively part of the district it is located in. Smaller district cities and bigger towns have a Municipality. Municipality are a form of local self-government entrusted with some duties and responsibilities, as enshrined in the Constitutional Act,1992. In the United Kingdom, the term was used until the 1972 Local Government Act came into effect in 1974 in England and Wales, until 1975 in Scotland and 1976 in Northern Ireland, "both for a city or town, organized for self-government under a municipal corporation, for the governing body itself; such a corporation in Great Britain consists of a head as a mayor or provost, of superior members, as aldermen and councillors". Since local government reorganisation, the unit in England, Northern Ireland and Wales is known as a district, in Scotland as a council area. A district can retain its district title. In Jersey, a municipality refers to the honorary officials elected to run each of the 12 parishes into which it is subdivided.
This is the highest level of regional government in this jurisdiction. In Trinidad and Tobago, "municipality" is understood as a city, town, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. A town may be awarded borough status and on may be upgraded to city status. Chaguanas, San Fernando, Port of Spain and Point Fortin are the 5 current municipalities in Trinidad and Tobago. In the United States, "municipality" is understood as a city, village, or other local government unit, formed by municipal charter from the state as a municipal corporation. In a state law contex