Valby is one of the 10 official districts of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is in the southwestern corner of Copenhagen Municipality, has a mixture of different types of housing; this includes apartment blocks, terraced housing, areas with single-family houses and allotments, plus the remaining part of the old Valby village, around which the district has formed, intermingled with past and present industrial sites. Valby Hill marks the boundary between Valby and the more central and urban neighbouring Vesterbro district; the expression "west of Valby Hill" is in Danish used as a metonym for "the provinces" or "outside Copenhagen". Separated from the rest of Copenhagen by Vestre Cemetery, Denmark's largest cemetery, towards Vesterbro/Kongens Enghave and Søndermarken-Frederiksberg Gardens towards Frederiksberg, the Carlsberg brewery site, areas of low density, Valby retains a certain air of'independence', or isolation today. With the progressing redevelopment of the Carlsberg area into a new lively, high-density neighbourhood, this is to change.
Other former industrial sites are under redevelopment and Valby is today one of the districts in Copenhagen with the fastest growing population. Valby covers an area of 9.23 km² and has a population of 46,161, giving a population density of 5,002 per km². The district is bounded by Kongens Enghave and Vesterbro to the east, Frederiksberg to the north, Vanløse to the north-east and Hvidovre Municipality to the west, while Kalvebod Beach, the shallow-watered area just south of Copenhagen Harbour, separates it from the island of Amager to the south; the most distinctive geographical features of the district are Valby Hill in its north-eastern corner and Harrestrup Å which marks its western boundary. Valby borders on Damhus Lake in its extreme north-western corner; the Danshøj tumulus, along with many other archeological finds in the area, provides evidence that the Valby area has been inhabited since ancient times. Modern Valby has developed around the two villages of Vigerslev; the first recorded mention of the name Valby is from 1186, as Walbu, but the history of both settlements goes back longer.
Valby means "village/house on the plain". In the early Middle Ages both villages came under Utterslev, a Crown estate which included most of the area around Havn, the small market town which became Copenhagen. In 1167, Valdemar I granted both Havn and the Utterslev estate to the Bishop's Seat of Roskilde but in 1417 the villages came under the Crown once again when King Eric VII made Copenhagen a royal possession. Both during the civil war leading up to the Reformation and during the Assault on Copenhagen in the Second Northern War, Valby was faced with complete destruction, leading to deep poverty for the communities. In 1682, Valby had 25 houses with no more land than a modest garden; the produce from this intensely cultivated area was, in fierce competition with the Amager farmers, sold on the market at Amagertorv in Copenhagen, where King Christian IV had granted the Valby farmers trading privileges. At the time, the Valby community did not have its own church but instead, since 1628, belonged to Hvidovre Parish.
In 1675, Hvidovre Church was extended with a Valby nave, both to bring symmetry into the design and to accommodate a wish among the citizens of Valby not to mingle with the Hvidovre farmers. In the 17th century, the road to Roskilde was taken through Valby and an inn opened; the first holder of the license was Hans Pedersen Bladt, a skillful merchant, elected mayor of Copenhagen in 1675. Valby profited from the proximity of Frederiksberg Palace, constructed from 1699 to 1703 atop Valby Hill as a new summer residence for King Frederick IV; the royal presence in the area brought along more activity in the village. It is said that Queen Marie Sophie, consort of King Frederick VI rode through Valby, handing out candy to the children. In 1721, the king granted the community new trading privileges and a Rytterskole, a precursor of the Danish public school, was built the following year. Valby became associated with raising poultry which the Valby women sold beside the Caritas Well on Gammeltorv in Copenhagen.
The trade took place on Wednesdays and Saturdays, which were market days, until 1857. In 1776, the road to Roskilde was given a new course, a direct continuation of Vesterbrogade across Valby Hill, with the effect that it passed Valby by to the detriment of the inn and other businesses. Instead Valby began to develop into an area where members of the bourgeoisie took up summer residency, a practice which spread from adjoining Frederiksberg. One of the first to arrive in Valby proper was the actor James Price who spent his first summer there in 1795, shortly after his arrival in Denmark, he was followed by other members of the bourgeoisie. When the first railway out of Copenhagen opened in 1847, a 30 km rail line to Roskilde, it had an intermediate station east of where Valby station lies today; the station was meant to serve leisure trips to nearby Frederiksberg. The station was closed in 1864 when the second main station in Copenhagen opened and the railway was rerouted through Frederiksberg station instead.
During the construction of the new railway, when the tracks were dug through Valby Hill, a natural spring was discovered. This attracted the brew master J. C. Jacobsen to the site and he founded his Carlsberg Brewery in 1847 on the eastern slopes of the hill. In 1882, Carl Jacobsen, J. C. Jacobsen's son, opened his own brewery at a neighbouring site after a controversy with his father. Over the following decades both breweries grew and were merged. Carl Jaco
Emdrup is a neighbourhood straddling the border between the Bispebjerg and Østerbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is located between Utterslev Mose in the west and the Helsingør Motorway in the east, just south of the border with Gladsaxe and Gentofte municipalities. Emdrup is a residential neighbourhood, boasting a combination of apartment buildings and areas with single-family detached home. Emdrup station is located on the Farum radial of the S-train system. AU Campus Emdrup, Aarhus University's Copenhagen campus, is situated just north of the station; the most important greenspaces are Lake Emdrup with its small lakeside park in the east, Utterslev Mose in the west and Emdrupparken with sport facilities in the north. Emdrup is first mentioned in a popal letter from 1186; the name is derived from the suffix - thorp. In 1718, Christian Møinichen established the country house Emdrupgård. Emdrup began to grow in the late 19th century, it belonged to the civil parish of Brønshøj, merged with Copenhagen in 1901.
In 1943, the first Adventure Playground in the world, opened in Emdrup, inspired by the Danish landscape architect Carl Theodor Sørensen and in cooperation with the Copenhagen schoolteacher Hans Dragehjelm. The playground is still in operation. Aarhus University's AU Campus Emdrup is located at the intersection of Tuborgvej and Emdrupvej, just north of Emdrup station and west of Lake Emdrup.. It was created when the Danish University of Education was merged with the university in 2007 and us under expansion. Copenhagen Technical College has a campus in Emdrup. Emdrup School on Lersø Parkallé was built in 1939-43; the Danish School of Media and Journalism has a campus in Emdrup, known as The Media School. In 1921, KFUMs Boldklub moved to Emdrupparken, where a new club house was built in 1943 to design by the architect Arne Jacobsen. KFUM was one of several small Copenhagen clubs. Emdrup Hallen is an indoor sports venue from 2009, it is used for handball and badminton. Atelierhusene known as Kunstnerbyen, is a development of terraced housing dedicated to provide affordable living and working space for artists.
It is located on the east side of Utterslev Mose and consists of three terraces, each with 7 houses, surrounding a small green space with a lake. The former country house Søholm is situated on the north shore of Lake Emdrup, it is from 1807 and was designed by Christian Frederik Hansen who designed Church of Our Lady, Copenhagen Court House and the second Christiansborg Palace. Håndværkerforeningen's charitable housing development Haandværkerhaven was designed by Henning Hansen after he won an architectural competition in 1936. Emdrup Church was designed by Christian N. Christiansen. Lake Emdrup is located in the eastern part of Emdrup, it was created. Emdrup station is located on the Farum radial of the S-train network, it is served by the H trains. The Helsingør Motorway and Tuborgvej, part of the Ring 2 ring road, are the main arteries in the area
Nørrebro station is a railway station on the S-train’s Ring line in Copenhagen, Denmark. It serves the outer end of the Nørrebro district; the planned City Circle Line would see underground trains of the Copenhagen Metro begin serving the station as well. Media related to Nørrebro Station at Wikimedia Commons
Grundtvig's Church is located in the Bispebjerg district of Copenhagen, Denmark. It is a rare example of expressionist church architecture. Due to its unusual appearance, it is one of the best known churches in the city; the commission for the construction of a church to be named after the Danish philosopher and hymn writer N. F. S. Grundtvig was decided through a competition, won by Peder Vilhelm Jensen-Klint in 1913; the foundation of the new church was only laid after World War I, on 8 September 1921, Grundtvig's birthday. Building took place from 1921 to 1926 when the tower section was completed, leading to the initial inauguration of the so-called Tower Church in 1927. Further work on the interior and on adjacent buildings continued until 1940 and was completed by Klint's son Kaare Klint after his father's death in 1930; the church stands at the centre of a residential development in yellow brick, designed by Jensen-Klint in harmony with the church. Jensen-Klint's design for Grundtvig's Church is a synthesis of architectural styles.
In preparation for the project, the architect studied many Danish village churches those on the island of Zealand with stepped gables. Their traditional building techniques and decoration inspired his design. Klint merged the modern geometric forms of Brick Expressionism with the classical vertical of Gothic architecture; the most striking feature of the building is its west facade, reminiscent of a westwork or of the exterior of a church organ. It includes the 49 m tall bell tower; the imposing facade with its strong verticality guides one's eyes towards the sky. The bottom half of the tower is simple brick while the upper reaches present the appearance of one solid, rippling surface. Klint decorated the nave with a version of the stepped gables common on Danish churches, but reinterpreted by doubling the apex; the nave was designed with generous dimensions: the triple-aisled hall church is 76 m long in total and 35 m wide. The interior, inspired by Gothic architecture and comparable in size to Copenhagen cathedral, fits a congregation of 1,440.
Some five million yellow bricks, a typical Danish building material, were used for the edifice. In its floor plan, the interior resembles that of a typical Gothic church with a nave, two lateral aisles and a small transept, its proportions are Gothic: a long, narrow nave, an high ceiling, the columns which rise up to pointed arches and the ribbed groin vaults above the nave and aisles. But it is the yellow brick and the lack of ornamentation which contribute to the Gothic verticality while adhering to the minimalist modern aesthetic; the church has two organs. The one on the north side of the nave near the chancel was built in 1940 by Marcussen & Søn, the facade being designed by Kaare Klint, it has two manuals and a pedalboard. The much larger Marcussen instrument at the western end of the nave was added in 1965 with a facade designed by Kaare Klint's son, Esben Klint, it has four manuals and a pedalboard. The largest of its pipes weighs 425 kg and, with a length of 32 feet, is the longest organ pipe in Scandinavia.
The scheme included the construction of a number of buildings collectively known as On the Hill on each side of the church, placing it in a symmetrical context to enhance its visual impact. Designed by Jensen-Klint in collaboration with Vilhelm Wittrup, Charles I. Schou and Georg Gøssel, the buildings contain the parish hall and apartments and were built from 1924 to 1926. A long tree-lined road leads through Bispebjerg cemetery directly towards the church and the flanking buildings, creating a viewing axis similar to those of the Baroque period; the church is open to visitors all year, not just at the times of services. The great Marcussen organ is used for concerts; the church is equipped with a wheelchair stair lift for the disabled people. Hallgrímskirkja in Reykjavík, begun a few years after Grundtvig's Church, is a comparable synthesis of Gothic and modern stylistic elements. Harkær, Kaare Klint, Klintiana. Renderings in the Danish National Art Library
Axeltorv is a public square in central Copenhagen, located across the street from Tivoli Gardens' main entrance on Vesterbrogade. Axeltorv was inaugurated on 8 November 1917; the grounds were part of Farigmagsvej and used as a plaza in front of the main entrance to Copenhagen's second Central Station, built in 1864. The site had for decades been dominated by National Scala, an entertainment venue situated on the eastern corner of the street. On the opposite corner was a small round pavilion, Centralpavilionen, which sold lottery tickets; the square was established when the street was moved to its current location in connection with the opening of the Boulevard Line. It takes its name after Copenhagen's founder, whose Danish name was Axel. Axelborg was completed in 1920. A bank headquarters, it now houses the Danish Agriculture and Food Council; the Circus Building is from 1886. The Palads Cinema opened in the former central station in 1912 but its current building is from 1917; the former Copenhagen Waterworks, built on a site between the Boulevard Line and Studiestræde, though visible from the square has its address on Axeltorv.
The Scala Building was demolished in 2012. An office complex designed by Lundgaard & Tranberg consisting of five cylinders of varying height and interconnected by skyways, positioned on a one-storey plinth, now stands on the site; the project has proposed a renovation of the square that will enhance Fortification Ring's character of being a "green belt"surrounding the city centre. A 12.5 metre long water basin with nine bronze amphoras was installed in the square in 1991. It was designed by Mogens Møller in collaboration with the architect Mogens Breyen and is called Zodiac. Robert Jacobsen's sculpture De Syv Aksler was installed in front of the Palads Cinema in 1987, it commemorates the escape of Jews from Denmark during World War II. It consists of seven abstract iron sculptures on a cobbled plinth. Kai Nielsen's sculpture of Ursus and the Bull was positioned on the roof of the Palads Cinema in 1917 but was not gilded until 1949. Source Source
Copenhagen is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. As of July 2018, the city has a population of 777,218, it forms the core of the wider urban area of the Copenhagen metropolitan area. Copenhagen is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand; the Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by road. A Viking fishing village established in the 10th century in the vicinity of what is now Gammel Strand, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a regional centre of power with its institutions and armed forces. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century, the city underwent a period of redevelopment; this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. After further disasters in the early 19th century when Horatio Nelson attacked the Dano-Norwegian fleet and bombarded the city, rebuilding during the Danish Golden Age brought a Neoclassical look to Copenhagen's architecture.
Following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing and businesses along the five urban railway routes stretching out from the city centre. Since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure; the city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark. Copenhagen's economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö, forming the Øresund Region. With a number of bridges connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterised by parks and waterfronts. Copenhagen's landmarks such as Tivoli Gardens, The Little Mermaid statue, the Amalienborg and Christiansborg palaces, Rosenborg Castle Gardens, Frederik's Church, many museums and nightclubs are significant tourist attractions.
The largest lake of Denmark, Arresø, lies around 27 miles northwest of the City Hall Square. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, Copenhagen Business School and the IT University of Copenhagen; the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC Brøndby football clubs; the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world; the Copenhagen Metro launched in 2002 serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train, the Lokaltog and the Coast Line network serves and connects central Copenhagen to outlying boroughs. To relieve traffic congestion, the Fehmarn Belt Fixed Link road and rail construction is planned, because the narrow 9-9.5 mile isthmus between Roskilde Fjord and Køge Bugt forms a traffic bottleneck. The Copenhagen-Ringsted Line will relieve traffic congestion in the corridor between Roskilde and Copenhagen.
Serving two million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the busiest airport in the Nordic countries. Copenhagen's name reflects its origin as a place of commerce; the original designation in Old Norse, from which Danish descends, was Kaupmannahǫfn, meaning "merchants' harbour". By the time Old Danish was spoken, the capital was called Køpmannæhafn, with the current name deriving from centuries of subsequent regular sound change. An exact English equivalent would be "chapman's haven". However, the English term for the city was adapted from Kopenhagen. Although the earliest historical records of Copenhagen are from the end of the 12th century, recent archaeological finds in connection with work on the city's metropolitan rail system revealed the remains of a large merchant's mansion near today's Kongens Nytorv from c. 1020. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century; the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen.
These finds indicate. Substantial discoveries of flint tools in the area provide evidence of human settlements dating to the Stone Age. Many historians believe the town dates to the late Viking Age, was founded by Sweyn I Forkbeard; the natural harbour and good herring stocks seem to have attracted fishermen and merchants to the area on a seasonal basis from the 11th century and more permanently in the 13th century. The first habitations were centred on Gammel Strand in the 11thcentury or earlier; the earliest written mention of the town was in the 12th century when Saxo Grammaticus in Gesta Danorum referred to it as Portus