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Ælfheah of Canterbury

Ælfheah was an Anglo-Saxon Bishop of Winchester Archbishop of Canterbury. He became an anchorite before being elected abbot of Bath Abbey, his reputation for piety and sanctity led to his promotion to the episcopate and to his becoming archbishop. Ælfheah furthered the cult of Dunstan and encouraged learning. He was captured by Viking raiders in 1011 during the Siege of Canterbury and killed by them the following year after refusing to allow himself to be ransomed. Ælfheah was canonised as a saint in 1078. Thomas Becket, a Archbishop of Canterbury, prayed to him just before his own murder in Canterbury Cathedral. Purportedly born in Weston on the outskirts of Bath, Ælfheah became a monk early in life, his birth took place around 953. He first entered the monastery of Deerhurst, but moved to Bath, where he became an anchorite, he rose to become abbot of Bath Abbey. The 12th century chronicler William of Malmesbury recorded that Ælfheah was a monk and prior at Glastonbury Abbey, but this is not accepted by all historians.

Indications are that Ælfheah became abbot at Bath by 982 as early as around 977. He shared authority with his predecessor Æscwig after 968. Due to the influence of Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury, Ælfheah was elected Bishop of Winchester in 984, was consecrated on 19 October that year. While bishop he was responsible for the construction of a large organ in the cathedral, audible from over a mile away and said to require more than 24 men to operate, he built and enlarged the city's churches, promoted the cult of Swithun and his own predecessor, Æthelwold of Winchester. One act promoting Æthelwold's cult was the translation of Æthelwold's body to a new tomb in the cathedral at Winchester, which Ælfheah presided over on 10 September 996. Following a Viking raid in 994, a peace treaty was agreed with one of Olaf Tryggvason. Besides receiving danegeld, Olaf converted to Christianity and undertook never to raid or fight the English again. Ælfheah may have played a part in the treaty negotiations, it is certain that he confirmed Olaf in his new faith.

In 1006 Ælfheah succeeded Ælfric as Archbishop of Canterbury, taking Swithun's head with him as a relic for the new location. He went to Rome in 1007 to receive his pallium—symbol of his status as an archbishop—from Pope John XVIII, but was robbed during his journey. While at Canterbury he promoted the cult of Dunstan, ordering the writing of the second Life of Dunstan, which Adelard of Ghent composed between 1006 and 1011, he introduced new practices into the liturgy, was instrumental in the Witenagemot's recognition of Wulfsige of Sherborne as a saint in about 1012.Ælfheah sent Ælfric of Eynsham to Cerne Abbey to take charge of its monastic school. He was present at the council of May 1008 at which Wulfstan II, Archbishop of York, preached his Sermo Lupi ad Anglos, castigating the English for their moral failings and blaming the latter for the tribulations afflicting the country. In 1011 the Danes again raided England, from 8–29 September they laid siege to Canterbury. Aided by the treachery of Ælfmaer, whose life Ælfheah had once saved, the raiders succeeded in sacking the city.

Ælfheah was held captive for seven months. Godwine and the king's reeve, Ælfweard were captured but the abbot of St Augustine's Abbey, Ælfmær, managed to escape. Canterbury Cathedral was burned by the Danes following Ælfheah's capture. Ælfheah refused to allow a ransom to be paid for his freedom, as a result was killed on 19 April 1012 at Greenwich, reputedly on the site of St Alfege's Church. The account of Ælfheah's death appears in the E version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle:... the raiding-army became much stirred up against the bishop, because he did not want to offer them any money, forbade that anything might be granted in return for him. They were drunk, because there was wine brought from the south, they seized the bishop, led him to their "hustings" on the Saturday in the octave of Easter, pelted him there with bones and the heads of cattle. Ælfheah was the first Archbishop of Canterbury to die a violent death. A contemporary report tells that Thorkell the Tall attempted to save Ælfheah from the mob about to kill him by offering everything he owned except for his ship, in exchange for Ælfheah's life.

Some sources record that the final blow, with the back of an axe, was delivered as an act of kindness by a Christian convert known as "Thrum." Ælfheah was buried in St Paul's Cathedral. In 1023 his body was moved by King Cnut with great ceremony. Thorkell the Tall was appalled at the brutality of his fellow raiders, switched sides to the English king Æthelred the Unready following Ælfheah's death. Pope Gregory VII canonised Ælfheah in 1078, with a feast day of 19 April. Lanfranc, the first post-Conquest archbishop, was dubious about some of the saints venerated at Canterbury, he was persuaded of Ælfheah's sanctity, but Ælfheah and Augustine of Canterbury were the only pre-conquest Anglo-Saxon archbishops kept on Canterbury's calendar of saints. Ælfheah's shrine, which had become neglected, was rebuilt and expanded in the early 12th century under Anselm of Canterbury, instrumental in retaining Ælfheah's name in the church calendar. After the 1174 fire in Canterbury

Double hashing

Double hashing is a computer programming technique used in conjunction with open-addressing in hash tables to resolve hash collisions, by using a secondary hash of the key as an offset when a collision occurs. Double hashing with open addressing is a classical data structure on a table T, it uses one hash value as an index into the table and repeatedly steps forward an interval until the desired value is located, an empty location is reached, or the entire table has been searched. Unlike the alternative collision-resolution methods of linear probing and quadratic probing, the interval depends on the data, so that values mapping to the same location have different bucket sequences. Given two random and independent hash functions h 1 and h 2, the i th location in the bucket sequence for value k in a hash table of | T | buckets is: h = mod | T |. H 1 and h 2 are selected from a set of universal hash functions. Double hashing approximates a random distribution; the secondary hash function h 2 should have several characteristics: it should never yield an index of zero it should cycle through the whole table it should be fast to compute it should be pair-wise independent of h 1 The distribution characteristics of h 2 are irrelevant.

It is analogous to a random-number generator - it is only necessary that h 2 be ’’relatively prime’’ to |T|. In practice, if division hashing is used for both functions, the divisors are chosens as primes. Let n be the number of elements stored in T T's load factor is α = n / | T |; that is, start by randomly and independently selecting two universal hash functions h 1 and h 2 to build a double hashing table T. All elements are put in T by double hashing using h 1 and h 2. Given a key k, the -st hash location is computed by: h = mod | T |. Let T have fixed load factor α: 1 > α > 0. Bradford and Katehakis showed the expected number of probes for an unsuccessful search in T, still using these chosen hash functions, is 1 1 − α regardless of the distribution of the inputs. Pair-wise independence of the hash functions suffices. Like all other forms of open addressing, double hashing becomes linear as the hash table approaches maximum capacity; the usual heuristic is to limit the table loading to 75% of capacity.

Rehashing to a larger size will be necessary, as with all other open addressing schemes. Peter Dillinger's PhD thesis points out that double hashing produces unwanted equivalent hash functions when the hash functions are treated as a set, as in Bloom filters: If h 2 = − h 2 and h 1 = h 1 + k ⋅ h 2 ( x

James Keith Louden

James Keith Louden was an American industrial engineer, business executive, management author. He served as the 4th president of the Society for Advancement of Management in the year 1941-1942, was the recipient of the 1949 Gilbreth Medal. Louden was born in Pennsylvania in 1905, son of George T. Louden and Minnie M. Louden, he obtained his BSc in Business Administration from Ohio State University in 1928. After his graduation in 1928 Louden started as industrial engineer with the Fostoria Glass Company until 1933, he was industrial engineer at the Buckeye Steel Castings Company from 1928 to 1933, supervisor in the quality control department of Owens-Illinois Glass Company from 1936 to 1939. In 1939 Louden had joined the National Supply Company in Pittsburgh, where he was appointed Director of Industrial Engineering. From 1942 to 1947 he was production manager at the Armstrong Cork Company, from 1947 to 1955 he served in several management positions at the York Corporation, which became in his days a division of the BorgWarner corporation.

Next, from 1957 to 1961 he served in multiple executive functions at the Lebanon Steel Foundry in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. From 1971 to 1994 he was president of Inc.. In the year 1941-1942 Louden served as president of the Society for Advancement of Management as successor of Myron Henry Clark, was succeeded by Percy S. Brown. In the years 1968-1970 he served as president of the American Management Association as successor of Alexander Trowbridge, was succeeded by James L. Hayes. In 1949 he was awarded the annual Gilbreth Medal by the Society for the Advancement of Management. In 1956 he received the Worcester Reed Warner Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Louden, J. Keith, J. Wayne Deegan. Wage incentives. Wiley, 1959. Joseph M. Juran and J. Keith Louden, The corporate director. 1966. Louden, J. Keith, Jack Zusman. Effective director in action. Amacom, 1975. Louden, J. Keith. Managing at the top: roles and responsibilities of the chief executive. Amacom, 1977. Louden, J. Keith; the director: professional's guide to effective board work.

Amacom, 1982. Keith Louden knew it all - Shareholder Forum

Palace Chapel (Buda Castle)

The medieval Palace Chapel in Buda Castle was built in the 15th century by King Sigismund as the lower chapel of the former Castle Church. The Gothic chapel, which survived the destruction of the 1686 siege, was buried under a Baroque terrace for centuries. After its reconstruction in 1963 became part of the exhibition of the Budapest History Museum; the first chapel in Buda Castle was built in the 14th century during the reign of Louis I of Hungary. The chapel was mentioned in the Chronicle of Eberhard Windecke. Windecke claimed that Charles II of Hungary was attacked by his murderers in 1386 in a room from which the royal chapel could be seen: "konig Karle von Nopols erslagen zü Ofen in der vesten in der stuben, do man sicht in die capell." The chapel was mentioned in the Chronicle of Lorenzo de Monacis, written around 1390. King Sigismund rebuilt the old Anjou palace during the first decades of the 15th century, he erected a splendid Gothic church in place of the former chapel. Its façade was facing towards the inner palace courtyard, the long chancel was projecting from the eastern side of the palace.

The chancel was built upon a lower church, a solution, necessitated by the lack of space on the narrow plateau. It had an 11 m long chancel. Two-storeyed royal chapels were not uncommon in medieval Europe; the flamboyant Royal Church of Buda Castle was similar to the more famous Sainte-Chapelle in Paris. The archeological research proved the dating of the church, because 15th century strata were discovered under the intact brick floor of the lower church. In November 1489 Sultan Bayezid II sent the relics of John the Almoner to King Matthias Corvinus; the King placed the relics in the Royal Chapel, re-dedicated and embellished with Renaissance furniture. In 1526 Buda was plundered by the Ottoman Turks after the Battle of Mohács; the relics were carried to Pressburg where they are still kept today. A surviving church inventory from 1530 still shows the wealth of furnishings. King John Zápolya converted the lower church into a bastion; the large Gothic windows were walled up, only the new, rectangular loopholes were left open.

In 1541 the Ottoman Turks captured Buda without fight and the Royal Church ceased to be a place of Christian worship. The upper church was destroyed in the 1686 siege of Buda and the ruins were demolished in 1715; the vault of the lower church fell down and the interior was filled with rubbish. The remains were buried under the new Baroque terrace for two centuries; the ruins of the lower church were discovered by archeologists in 1949-50. The remains were buried in 1953 because of conceptional disputes about the possible reconstruction; the chapel was reconstructed by 1963. It was re-consecrated in 1990. History of Buda Castle Medieval Royal Palace History section: Miklós Horler: Budapest műemlékei I, Bp: 1955, pp. 259–292 Post-war reconstruction: László Gerő: A helyreállított budai vár, Bp, 1980, pp. 182–187

M. Christina Armijo

Maria Christina Armijo is an inactive Senior United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of New Mexico. Born in Las Vegas, New Mexico, Armijo graduated from the University of New Mexico with her Bachelor of Arts degree in 1972 and from University of New Mexico School of Law with a Juris Doctor in 1975. Armijo's grandfather was a well-known figure in New Mexico, he served as the District Attorney and became one of the longest serving judges in the history of New Mexico, serving in the Fourth Judicial District of New Mexico more than 35 years until his death. Armijo was a staff attorney of Sandoval County Legal Services, New Mexico from 1976 to 1978 where she served, among others, indigent Native Americans, she was in private practice in New Mexico from 1978 to 1996. In 1996, Armijo was appointed by Governor Gary Johnson to the New Mexico Court of Appeals. Following her appointment, she won election to the seat, making her one of only a handful of Republicans to win a statewide judicial office in New Mexico, the first Latina to serve as an appellate judge in New Mexico.

While serving on the Court of Appeals, Judge Armijo authored more than 50 opinions and participated in many more. Judge Armijo's service on the Court of Appeals ended in November 2001 when she was appointed to the United States District Court. In 2001, Armijo was nominated to the United States District Court for the District of New Mexico by President George W. Bush on September 4, 2001 to a new seat created by 114 Stat. 2762. Armijo was confirmed by the Senate on November 6, 2001 on a Senate vote and received her commission on November 12, 2001, she became Chief Judge of the court on October 1, 2012. As Chief Judge, she received praise for steering the court through the federal budget sequestration that struck shortly after she became chief. Under her leadership, the court worked cooperatively to consolidated the federal bankruptcy court into the Domenici federal courthouse saving taxpayers $1 million per year. During her tenure as chief, the U. S. District Court filled eight part-time magistrate judge positions.

One important initiative by Armijo is reaching out to young people to help them understand the court system and to foster an interest in the study of law and the legal system. She assumed senior status on February 7, 2018. Judge Armijo has been known to call out improper behavior in attorneys appearing before her and, according to the Almanac of the Federal Judiciary, tends to be well prepared for hearings and expects attorneys to be prepared as well. During her time as a federal judge, Armijo has demonstrated a strong interest in historical research. In 2012, she published in the New Mexico Law Review an article about the first and only woman to be subjected to capital punishment in New Mexico in 1861. In 2017, Judge Armijo presented the U. S. Senator Dennis Chavez Lecture at the University of New Mexico School of Law; this endowed lecture was established to celebrate and further Senator Chavez's legacy on civil rights and civil liberties. Chavez, who served in the U. S. Senate from 1935 until his death in 1962, was the first native born Hispanic senator in the history of the United States.

Judge Armijo's lecture focused on the various ideals of citizenship, including its status as entailing not only sacred rights but responsibilities. She focused on the importance of equal rights among citizens, she highlighted efforts of Senator Chavez to advocate for equal rights of military veterans who were members of minority groups, such as his effort to secure military rank advancement for prisoners of war, such as those veterans, many of whom who were New Mexicans, held in captivity for more than 40 months following the Bataan Death March. M. Christina Armijo at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center

Kevin of Glendalough

Saint Kevin is an Irish saint, known as the founder and first abbot of Glendalough in County Wicklow, Ireland. His feast day is 3 June, his life is not well-documented. There is a late medieval Latin Vita, preserved among the records of the Franciscan Convent in Dublin, edited by John Colgan as part of the Acta Sanctorum Hiberniae. According to this account, Kevin was of the son of Coemlog and Coemell of Leinster; this account stated he was born in 498 AD at the Fort of the White Fountain and baptized by Saint Cronan of Roscrea. His given name Coemgen means "fair-begotten", or "of noble birth". A tradition cited in the 17th century makes Kevin the pupil of Saint Petroc of Cornwall, who had come to Leinster about 492; this tradition is not found in the extant late medieval and early modern hagiography of the saint and appears to be based in a Vita breviora which the Bollandist editors obtained from Henry Fitzsimon, but, no longer extant. The Vita contains a number of legends, which according to Colgan's co-editor Francis Baert are of "doubtful veracity" but were kept in the 17th-century edition for as they were assumed to date still to the medieval period.

For example, the text includes an infancy legend involving a white cow said to have come to his parents' house every morning and evening and supplied the milk for the baby. Glendalough, or the Glen of two Lakes, is one of the most important sites of monastic ruins in Ireland. Before the arrival of St. Kevin this glen would have been desolate and remote and would have been ideal for a secluded retreat. Kevin was ordained by Bishop Lugidus and, following his ordination, he moved on to Glendalough in order to avoid the company of his followers, he lived as a hermit in a cave, to which he was led, by an angel. St. Kevin's Bed can best be described as a man-made cave cut in the rock face close to the edge of the mountain, it overlooks the upper lake from a height of about 30 feet. The approach to the cave is difficult, with access to it through a rectangular space and a short passageway 3 ft. high and 2½ ft. wide. The inner or main part of the cave is just 4 less than 3 ft. high. It is reasonable to assume that the cave could only have been used as a sleeping place, would have been impossible for an adult to stand upright in, so it is quite that St Kevin only used it as his bed, or a place for pious prayer or meditation.

Dr. Leask expresses the opinion that this cave was constructed long before Kevin's time and it was the first and oldest piece of work to be undertaken by man in the glen. There is a legend which claims that St Laurence O'Toole used the "bed" as he made penitential visits to Glendalough during the season of Lent. Michael Dwyer, the famous Wicklow rebel, is reputed to have taken shelter in the "bed" while he was on the run from British soldiers; the story goes that he escaped capture one morning by diving into the lake and swimming to the opposite side. Today, it is dangerous to try to approach the "bed" from the side of Lugduff mountain. Visitors, in the interests of their own safety, should be content with a distant view of it. Kevin lived the life of a hermit there with an extraordinary closeness to nature, his companions were the birds all around him. He lived as a hermit for seven years wearing only animal skins, sleeping on stones and eating sparingly, he spent his time in prayer. Disciples were soon attracted to Kevin and a further settlement enclosed by a wall, called Kevin's Cell, was established nearer the lakeshore.

By 540 Saint Kevin's fame as a teacher and holy man had spread wide. Many people came to seek his guidance. In time Glendalough grew into a renowned seminary of saints and scholars and the parent of several other monasteries. In 544, Kevin went to the Hill of Uisneach in County Westmeath to visit Sts. Columba and Cannich, he proceeded to Clonmacnoise, where St. Cieran had died three days before. Having established his community, he retired into solitude for four years, only returned to Glendalough at the earnest entreaty of his monks; until his death around 618, Kevin presided over his monastery in Glendalough, living his life by fasting and teaching. St Kevin is one of the patron saints of the diocese of Dublin, he belonged to the second order of Irish saints. Glendalough, with its seven churches, became one of the chief pilgrimage destinations in Ireland. Kevin of Glendalough was canonized by Pope Pius X on 9 December 1903. One of the most known poems of the Nobel prizewinner Seamus Heaney,'St Kevin and the Blackbird', relates the story of Kevin holding out his hand with trance-like stillness while a blackbird builds a nest in it, lays eggs, the eggs hatch and the chicks fledge.

A series of paintings by the Welsh artist Clive Hicks-Jenkins around 2009 depicted the story of Kevin and the blackbird, by way of Heaney's poem. Kevin is remembered in popular culture as an ascetic; this is commemorated in a folk song about him which describes a legend claiming that he drowned a woman who attempted to seduce him. This was made popular by The Dubliners; the opening verse is as follows: "In Glendalough, there lived an auld saint, renowned for his learning and piety, his manners were curious and quaint, he looked upon girls with asperity." The independent film-maker Kevin Smith refers irreverently to his namesake "Saint Kevin" and the key events of his life