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Æsir

In Old Norse, ǫ́ss is a member of the principal pantheon in Norse religion. This pantheon includes Odin, Thor, Baldr and Týr; the second pantheon is known as the Vanir. In Norse mythology, the two pantheons wage war against each other, which results in a unified pantheon; the cognate term in Old English is ōs denoting a deity in Anglo-Saxon paganism. The Old High German is ans, plural ensî; the Gothic language had ans-. The reconstructed Proto-Germanic form is *ansuz; the ansuz rune, ᚫ, was named after the Æsir. Unlike the Old English word god, the term ōs was never adopted into Christian use. Æsir is the plural of áss, óss "god", attested in other Germanic languages, e.g. Old English ōs, Old Dutch ans and Gothic anses "half-gods"; these all stem from Proto-Germanic *ansuz, which itself comes from Proto-Indo-European *h₂énsus "life force" (cf. Avestan aŋhū "lord, it is accepted that this word is further related to *h₂ens- "to engender". Old Norse áss has the accusative æsi and ásu. In genitival compounds, it takes the form ása-, e.g. in Ása-Þórr, besides ás- found in ás-brú "gods' bridge", ás-garðr, ás-kunnigr "gods' kin", ás-liðar "gods' leader", ás-mogin "gods' might", ás-móðr "divine wrath" etc.

Landâs "national god" is a title of Thor, as is allmáttki ás "almighty god", while it is Odin, "the" ás. The feminine suffix -ynja is known from a few other nouns denoting female animals, such as apynja "female monkey", vargynja "she-wolf"; the word for "goddess" is not attested outside Old Norse. The latinization of Danish Aslak as Ansleicus, the name of a Danish Viking converted to Christianity in 864 according to the Miracles de St. Riquier, indicates that the nasalization in the first syllable persisted into the 9th century; the cognate Old English form to áss is ōs, preserved only as a prefix Ōs- in personal names and some place-names, as the genitive plural ēsa. In Old High German, Old Dutch and Old Saxon, the word is only attested in personal and place names, e.g. Ansebert, Ansfrid, Vihans. Jordanes has anses for the gods of the Goths; the interaction between the Æsir and the Vanir has provoked an amount of scholarly theory and speculation. While other cultures have had "elder" and "younger" families of gods, as with the Titans versus the Olympians of ancient Greece, the Æsir and Vanir were portrayed as contemporaries.

The two clans of gods fought battles, concluded treaties, exchanged hostages. An áss like Ullr is unknown in the myths, but his name is seen in a lot of geographical names in Sweden, may appear on the 3rd century Thorsberg chape, suggesting that his cult was widespread in prehistoric times; the names of the first three Æsir in Norse mythology, Vili, Vé and Odin all refer to spiritual or mental state, vili to conscious will or desire, vé to the sacred or numinous and óðr to the manic or ecstatic. A second clan of gods, the Vanir, is mentioned in Norse mythology: the god Njörðr and his children and Freyja, are the most prominent Vanir gods who join the Æsir as hostages after a war between Æsir and Vanir; the Vanir appear to have been connected with cultivation and fertility and the Æsir were connected with power and war. In the Eddas, the word Æsir is used for gods in general, while Asynjur is used for the goddesses in general. For example, in the poem Skírnismál, Freyr was called "Prince of the Æsir".

In the Prose Edda, Njörðr was introduced as "the third among the Æsir", among the Asynjur, Freya is always listed second only to Frigg. In surviving tales, the origins of many of the Æsir are unexplained. There are just three: Odin and his brothers Vili and Vé. Odin's sons by giantesses are counted as Æsir. Heimdallr and Ullr's connection with the Æsir is not mentioned. Loki is a jötunn, Njörðr is a Vanir hostage, but they are ranked among the Æsir. Given the difference between their roles and emphases, some scholars have speculated that the interactions between the Æsir and the Vanir reflect the types of interaction that were occurring between social classes within Norse society at the time. According to another theory, the Vanir may be more archaic than that of the more warlike Æsir, such that the mythical war may mirror a half-remembered religious conflict; this argument was first suggested by Wilhelm Mannhardt in 1877. On a similar note, Marija Gimbutas argues that the Æsir and the Vanir represent the displacement of an indigenous Indo-European group by a tribe of warlike invaders as part of her Kurgan hypothesis.

See her case in The Living Goddess for more details. Another historical theory is that the inter-pantheon interaction may be an apotheosisation of the conflict between the Roman Kingdom and the Sabines; the noted comparative religion scholar Mircea Eliade speculated that this conflict is a version of an Indo-European myth concerning the conflict between and eventual integration of a pantheon of sky/

Massif des Maures

The Massif des Maures is a small mountain range in southeastern France. It is located near Fraxinet and between Hyères and Fréjus, its highest point, at Signal de la Sauvette, is 780 m high. The Massif des Maures is a low mountain range 16 km wide, its highest point is 780 m high. It lies between the River Argens and the River Réal Martin to the north and the Mediterranean coast to the south, the River Durance to the west and the foothills of the Alps to the east, between Hyères and Fréjus; the winters are mild and the amounts of precipitation are low in the summer when many of the streams run dry. The sides of the hills are steep there are few settlements; the detailed geography of the massif is complex. The most northerly ridge carries at its western end the highest points of the massif: the Signal de la Sauvette 780 m and Notre-Dame-des-Anges 767 m peaks. Further south, an intermediate ridge culminates at 648 m not far from the Chartreuse de la Verne; the coastal link reaches only 528 m above Cavalaire-sur-Mer.

The massif is densely clothed with an evergreen forest dominated by cork oak, holm oak, holly sweet chestnut and strawberry tree, on the highest ridges Aleppo pine and stone pine flourish. In the last few decades there have been frequent destructive wildfires, but the cork oak is resistant to these. Shrubs present on the forest floor include myrtle, box, heather and Spanish lavender; this is one of the last places in Europe. Other reptiles include the European green lizard, the ocellated lizard, the grass snake, the European adder and the Aesculapian snake. In thick parts of the forest, wild boars are attracted by the acorns and chestnuts, deer, foxes and the occasional hare roam among the trees. Birds of prey include the horned owl, the tawny owl and the little owl. Massif de l'Esterel Umayyad invasion of Gaul

AD 17

AD 17 was a common year starting on Friday of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Rufus; the denomination AD 17 for this year has been used since the early medieval period, when the Anno Domini calendar era became the prevalent method in Europe for naming years. May 26 – Germanicus returns to Rome as a conquering hero. Emperor Tiberius sends Germanicus to the east. Cappadocia becomes a Roman province. Lucius Aelius Sejanus becomes Praetorian prefect. A civil war begins in Germania. Maroboduus, king of the Marcomanni, is defeated by his Germanic tribes. Tacfarinas, Numidian deserter from the Roman army, begins a guerrilla war against the Romans, he leads his own Musulamii tribe and a coalition of Berbers, attacking the Limes Tripolitanus a fortified zone of the Roman Empire in Africa. Herod Antipas, son of Herod the Great, builds on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, the city Tiberias, in honor of Tiberius. An earthquake in Anatolia destroys damages several other cities.

Publication of the Ab Urbe condita in 142 volumes by Livy. Antiochus III, king of Commagene Archelaus, king of Cappadocia Gaius Julius Hyginus, Roman Latin writer Livy, Roman historian Lucius Vipstanus Gallus, Roman senator Publius Ovidius Naso, Roman poet

United States Navy bureau system

The "bureau system" of the United States Navy was the Department of the Navy's material-support organization from 1842 through 1966. The bureau chiefs were autonomous, reporting directly to the Secretary of the Navy and managing their respective organizations without the influence of other bureaus. In 1966, the bureaus were replaced by unified commands reporting to the Chief of Naval Operations. For the first several decades of the Navy Department's existence, all procurement and material matters were handled directly by the Office of the Secretary of the Navy; as the navy expanded during the War of 1812, it became clear that this system was not sufficient for the service's needs. On February 7, 1815, Congress established a three-member Board of Naval Commissioners to handle material-support matters; as part of the navy secretary's office, the board's jurisdiction extended only logistical matters such as supply and construction. The Secretary of the Navy remained in control of many operational aspects of the navy.

The Board system was unable to provide the navy with the necessary technical and management control. Among other things, naval technology was becoming complex during the first half of the 19th century, required more specialized oversight. In the early 1840s, Congress decided to abolish the Board of Naval Commissioners and replace them with a more specialized bureaucracy based on broad functional areas such as shipbuilding; the first five bureaus were established by Act of Congress on August 31, 1842. They were the: Bureau of Naval Yards and Docks Bureau of Construction and Repairs. By an act of Congress of July 5, 1862, the existing bureaus were increased to eight; as reorganized, these included the: Bureau of Docks. There were a few changes brought about by changes in technology or changing missions; the increasing role of naval aviation, for example, led Congress in 1921 to consolide technical authority under a new Bureau of Aeronautics, with responsibility for the procurement of naval aircraft.

This responsibility had been divided among several other navy bureaus. Other changes were more superficial, as in 1892 when the Bureau of Provisions and Clothing was renamed the Bureau of Supplies and Accounts. World War II brought about several other changes; the Bureau of Ships was established in 1940, through the merger of the Bureau of Construction and Repair and the Bureau of Engineering. In 1942, the Bureau of Navigation was renamed the Bureau of Naval Personnel, to reflect its change in mission. By the postwar period, the following bureaus were in existence: Bureau of Docks; the complexity of post-war weapons systems was promoting a "systems engineering" approach—an approach that did not fit well with the bureau systems' semi-independence. Other problems related to jurisdiction; this particular controversy was resolved in 1959 with the establishment of the Bureau of Naval Weapons, which merged BuAer and BuOrd. The bureau system came to an end in the mid-1960s, in the midst of the Defense Department's overhaul of its entire planning and budgeting system.

The bureaus were replaced with "systems commands," or SYSCOMs, which consolidated their functions into broader "systems." The Bureau of Naval Weapons, for example, was replaced by the Naval Air Systems Command, with responsibility for all aircraft, aerial weapons, related systems, by the Naval Ordnance Systems Command. BuShips was replaced with the Naval Ship Systems Command, with responsibility for all naval shipbuilding. With modifications, the systems-command model remains in place today; the two non-materiel bureaus, Bureau of Naval Personnel and Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, are still in existence. Board of Naval Commissioners Naval Air Systems Command Naval Sea Systems Command which merged Naval Ships Systems Command and Naval Ordnance Systems Command Space and Naval Warfare Systems Command Naval Facilities Engineering Command Naval Supply Systems Command Records of the Bureau of Aeronautics

Georgia Southern Eagles women's basketball

The Georgia Southern Eagles women's basketball team is the basketball team that represents Georgia Southern University in Statesboro, United States. The school's team competes in the Sun Belt Conference and holds matches at Hanner Fieldhouse; the Eagles played in the New South Women's Athletic Conference from 1985 to 1989, the Trans-Atlantic Athletic Conference (now known as the Atlantic Sun Conference from 1989 to 1992 and the Southern Conference from 1992 to 2014 before joining the Sun Belt Conference in 2014. Georgia Southern made it to the NCAA tournament in 1992 and 1993, losing in the First Round to Alabama 102-70 and 101-53 to North Carolina, respectively; as of the end of the 2015-16 season, the Eagles have an all-time record of 642-573. Official website

Jack Haines

John Thomas William Haines was an English professional footballer who played as an inside forward. During his playing career, Haines made over 300 appearances in the Football League, earned one cap for the English national side in 1948. Born in Evesham, Haines moved from Cheltenham Town to Liverpool in 1937, he never made a league appearance for Liverpool, his playing career was interrupted in 1939 by World War II. When play resumed in 1946, Haines moved to Swansea Town, played for Leicester City, West Bromwich Albion, Bradford Park Avenue and Chester, before playing non-league football with Wellington United, Kidderminster Harriers and Evesham Town. During the war, Haines guested for clubs including Wrexham, Doncaster Rovers, Notts County, Bradford Park Avenue and Lincoln City. Haines made his international debut for England on 2 December 1948 against Switzerland, he was never selected again. Profile at Post War English & Scottish Football League A – Z Player's Database Profile at England Stats