Æthelred the Unready

Æthelred II, known as the Unready, was King of the English from 978 to 1013 and again from 1014 until his death. His epithet does not derive from the modern word "unready", but rather from the Old English unræd meaning "poorly advised". Æthelred was the son of Queen Ælfthryth. He came to the throne at about the age of 12, following the assassination of his older half-brother, Edward the Martyr, his brother's murder was carried out by supporters of his own claim to the throne, although he was too young to have any personal involvement. The chief problem of Æthelred's reign was conflict with the Danes. After several decades of relative peace, Danish raids on English territory began again in earnest in the 980s. Following the Battle of Maldon in 991, Æthelred paid Danegeld, to the Danish king. In 1002, Æthelred ordered. In 1013, King Sweyn Forkbeard of Denmark invaded England, as a result of which Æthelred fled to Normandy in 1013 and was replaced by Sweyn. However, he returned as king for two years after Sweyn's death in 1014.

Æthelred's 37-year combined reign was the longest of any Anglo-Saxon king of England, was only surpassed in the 13th century, by Henry III. Æthelred was succeeded by his son, Edmund Ironside, but he died after a few months and was replaced by Sweyn's son, Cnut. Another of Æthelred's sons, Edward the Confessor, became king in 1042. Æthelred's first name, composed of the elements æðele, "noble", ræd, "counsel, advice", is typical of the compound names of those who belonged to the royal House of Wessex, it characteristically alliterates with the names of his ancestors, like Æthelwulf, Ælfred and Eadgar.Æthelred's notorious nickname, Old English Unræd, is translated into present-day English as "The Unready". The Anglo-Saxon noun unræd means "evil counsel", "bad plan", or "folly", it was most used in reference to decisions and deeds, but once in reference to the ill-advised disobedience of Adam and Eve. The element ræd in unræd is the same element in Æthelred's name that means "counsel", thus Æþelræd Unræd is an oxymoron: "Noble counsel, No counsel".

The nickname has been translated as "ill-advised", "ill-prepared", thus "Æthelred the ill-advised". Because the nickname was first recorded in the 1180s, more than 150 years after Æthelred's death, it is doubtful that it carries any implications as to the reputation of the king in the eyes of his contemporaries or near contemporaries. Sir Frank Stenton remarked that "much that has brought condemnation of historians on King Æthelred may well be due in the last resort to the circumstances under which he became king." Æthelred's father, King Edgar, had died in July 975, leaving two young sons behind. The elder, was illegitimate, was "still a youth on the verge of manhood" in 975; the younger son was Æthelred, whose mother, Ælfthryth, Edgar had married in 964. Ælfthryth was the daughter of Ordgar, ealdorman of Devon, widow of Æthelwold, Ealdorman of East Anglia. At the time of his father's death, Æthelred could have been no more than 10 years old; as the elder of Edgar's sons, Edward – a young man given to frequent violent outbursts – would have succeeded to the throne of England despite his young age, had not he "offended many important persons by his intolerable violence of speech and behaviour."

In any case, a number of English nobles took to opposing Edward's succession and to defending Æthelred's claim to the throne. Both boys, Æthelred were too young to have played any significant part in the political manoeuvring which followed Edgar's death, it was the brothers' supporters, not the brothers themselves, who were responsible for the turmoil which accompanied the choice of a successor to the throne. Æthelred's cause was led by his mother and included Ælfhere, Ealdorman of Mercia and Bishop Æthelwold of Winchester, while Edward's claim was supported by Dunstan, the Archbishop of Canterbury and Oswald, the Archbishop of York among other noblemen, notably Æthelwine, Ealdorman of East Anglia, Byrhtnoth, ealdorman of Essex. In the end, Edward's supporters proved the more powerful and persuasive, he was crowned king at Kingston upon Thames before the year was out. Edward reigned for only three years. Though little is known about Edward's short reign, it is known that it was marked by political turmoil.

Edgar had made extensive grants of land to monasteries which pursued the new monastic ideals of ecclesiastical reform, but these disrupted aristocratic families' traditional patronage. The end of his firm rule saw a reversal of this policy, with aristocrats recovering their lost properties or seizing new ones; this was opposed by Dunstan, but according to Cyril Hart, "The presence of supporters of church reform on both sides indicates that the conflict between them depended as much on issues of land ownership and local power as on ecclesiastical legitimacy. Adherents of both Edward and Æthelred can be seen appropriating, or recovering, monastic lands." Favour for Edward must have been strong among the monastic communities. When Edward was killed at Æthelred's estate at Corfe Castle in Dorset in March 978, the job of recording the event, as well as reactions to it, fell to monastic writers. Ste

Theodore Abrahamson

Theodore Abrahamson was a dairy farmer and politician. He was Mayor of Tigerton, Wisconsin. Abrahamson was born in Lyngdal and received his early education in Norway. After immigrating to the United States, he worked as a dairy farmer, he was the founder and owner of a milk house company. Abrahamson was President of Tigerton, Wisconsin from 1948 to 1964, was a member of the Shawano County, Wisconsin Board from 1936 to 1939 and from 1956 to 1964. Abrahamson was elected to the State Assembly in 1958 and re-elected in 1960 and 1962, he represented Shawano counties. Abrahamson and his wife Severina had a daughter, they resided in Tigerton, Wisconsin


Lincang is a prefecture-level city located in the southwest of Yunnan province, People's Republic of China. Lincang covers latitude 23° 05′-25° 02′ N and longitude 98° 40′-100° 33′ E, thus straddling the Tropic of Cancer in the southern part of its administrative area, or prefecture, it is situated on the middle to lower reaches of the Mekong, known as the Lancang in China, the Salween, or the Nu. Bordering prefectures are Pu'er to the southeast, Baoshan and Dali to the northwest, it borders Burma's Shan State. Elevations within the prefecture range from 450 to 3,504 metres. Located at an altitude of above 1,450 m and within 30 arc minutes to the north of the Tropic of Cancer, Lincang has a mild humid subtropical climate, with muddled distinction between the seasons and daytime temperatures remaining warm year-round. Highs reach a minimum in December. June through September accounts for nearly 70% of the annual rainfall of 1,148.9 mm and during this time, some rainfall occurs on most days, pushing relative humidity above 80% and there is a marked reduction in sunshine.

With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 22% in July to 73% in January, the city receives 2,105 hours of bright sunshine annually. Lincang is the mountainous home of the Wa ethnic minority and was seen as too "wild" to be worth settling by neighboring powers, notably British Burma and ancient China; this may have had some connection to the Wa's image as head-hunters. Mineral resources mined and extracted in the Lincang area include coal and uranium. Lincang is home to the world's oldest cultivated tea tree, some 3,200 years old, in the village of Jinxiu, Xiaowan town, of Fengqing County. Lincang Airport Lincang City Official Website