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√Čamon de Valera

Éamon de Valera was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland. His political career spanned over half a century, from 1917 to 1973, he led the introduction of the Constitution of Ireland. Prior to de Valera's political career, he was a Commandant at Boland's Mill during the 1916 Easter Rising, he was arrested, sentenced to death but released for a variety of reasons, including the public response to the British execution of Rising leaders. He returned to Ireland after being jailed in England and became one of the leading political figures of the War of Independence. After the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, de Valera served as the political leader of Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin until 1926, when he, along with many supporters, left the party to set up Fianna Fáil, a new political party which abandoned the policy of abstentionism from Dáil Éireann. From there, de Valera went on to be at the forefront of Irish politics until the turn of the 1960s, he took over as President of the Executive Council from W. T. Cosgrave and Taoiseach, with the passing of the Constitution of Ireland in 1937.

He served as Taoiseach on three different occasions. He remains the longest serving Taoiseach by total days served in the post, he resigned in 1959 upon his election as President of Ireland. By he had been Leader of Fianna Fáil for 33 years, he, along with older founding members, began to take a less prominent role relative to newer ministers such as Jack Lynch, Charles Haughey and Neil Blaney, he would serve as President of Ireland from two full terms in office. De Valera's political beliefs evolved from militant Irish republicanism to strong social and economic conservatism, he has been characterised by a stern, devious demeanour. His roles in the Civil War have portrayed him as a divisive figure in Irish history. Biographer Tim Pat Coogan sees his time in power as being characterised by economic and cultural stagnation, while Diarmaid Ferriter argues that the stereotype of de Valera as an austere and backward figure was manufactured in the 1960s and is misguided. Éamon de Valera was born on 14 October 1882 in New York City, the son of Catherine Coll, from Bruree, County Limerick, Juan Vivion de Valera, described on the birth certificate as a Spanish artist born in 1853 in the Basque Country, Spain.

He was born at the Nursery and Child's Hospital, Lexington Avenue, a home for destitute orphans and abandoned children. His parents were married on 18 September 1881 at St Patrick's Church in Jersey City, New Jersey, but archivists have not located any marriage certificate or any birth, baptismal, or death certificate information for anyone called Juan Vivion de Valera. On de Valera's original birth certificate, his name is given as George de Valero and his father is listed as Vivion de Valero. Although he was known as Edward de Valera before 1901, a fresh birth certificate was issued in 1910, in which his first name was changed to Edward and his father's surname given as "de Valera"; as a child, he was known as "Eddie" or "Eddy". According to Coll, Juan Vivion died in her child in poor circumstances. Éamon was taken to Ireland by his uncle Ned at the age of two. When his mother remarried in the mid-1880s, he was not brought back to live with her, but was reared by his grandmother, Elizabeth Coll, her son Patrick and her daughter Hannie, in County Limerick.

He was educated locally at Bruree National School, County Limerick and C. B. S. Charleville, County Cork. Aged sixteen, he won a scholarship, he was not successful in enrolling at two colleges in Limerick, but was accepted at Blackrock College, Dublin, at the instigation of his local curate. He played rugby at Blackrock and Rockwell College for the Munster rugby team around 1905, he remained a lifelong devotee of rugby, attending international matches towards the end of his life when he was nearly blind. At the end of his first year at Blackrock College he was student of the year, he won further scholarships and exhibitions and in 1903 was appointed teacher of mathematics at Rockwell College, County Tipperary. It was here that de Valera was first given the nickname "Dev" by a teaching colleague, Tom O'Donnell. In 1904, he graduated in mathematics from the Royal University of Ireland, he studied for a year at Trinity College Dublin but, owing to the necessity of earning a living, did not proceed further and returned to teaching, this time at Belvedere College.

In 1906, he secured a post as a teacher of mathematics at Carysfort Teachers' Training College for women in Blackrock, Dublin. His applications for professorships in colleges of the National University of Ireland were unsuccessful, but he obtained a part-time appointment at Maynooth and taught mathematics at various Dublin schools, including Castleknock College and Belvedere College. There were occasions when de Valera contemplated the religious life like his half-brother, Fr. Thomas Wheelwright, but he did not pursue this vocation; as late as 1906, when he was 24 years old, he approached the President of Clonliffe Seminary in Dublin for advice on his vocation. De Valera was throughout his life portrayed as a religious man, in death asked to be buried in a religious habit, his biographer, Tim Pat Coogan, speculated that questions surrounding de Valera's legitimacy may have been

Howard Colvin

For the character on the HBO television series The Wire, see Howard "Bunny" Colvin. Sir Howard Montagu Colvin was a British architectural historian who produced two of the most outstanding works of scholarship in his field: A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 and The History of the King's Works. Born in Sidcup, Colvin was educated at University College London. In 1948, he became a Fellow of St John's College, Oxford where he remained until his death in 2007, he was a member of the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England 1963–76, the Historic Buildings Council for England 1970–84, the Royal Fine Art Commission 1962–72, other official bodies. He is most notably the author of A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 which appeared in its original form in 1954. Yale University Press produced a third edition in 1995, he had just completed his work on the fourth edition at the time of his death. On first publication this reference work of heroic scale became the standard in its field: it "changed the face of English architectural history", according to David Watkin.

In the revised edition, Colvin expanded the range to include Welsh architects as well. The work includes every building within its time range with which the name of an architect can be associated, based on documentary evidence from extensive archival research, both by him and a growing network of correspondents, he was an enemy of attributions based on style alone. This resulted in an index, an architectural gazetteer, which gives a comprehensive listing of architectural books published in Britain, listed by author; the prefatory essay, "The Practice of Architecture, 1600–1840", is divided into two sections, covering the building trades and the architectural profession, both contributions to the broader social history of Britain. He was general editor, wrote large parts, of the official multi-volume study of all the buildings with which the Crown had been associated through history, The History of the King's Works. Colvin's work in government parallels his academic achievement. Just as he rose to become the acknowledged authority within academia, he rose via membership of the bodies listed above and others to be Chair of the committee of English Heritage that dealt with Britain's built environment.

His most famous coup was to lead a campaign which succeeded in inducing the Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson to alter the 1984 Budget so as to save Calke Abbey for the nation. Colvin was knighted in 1995, he served as president of the Society of Architectural Historians of Great Britain 1979–81. Colvin married Christina Edgeworth Butler in 1943, they had two sons. Colvin's research papers and correspondence associated with the Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840 are held in the archives of the Paul Mellon Centre in London; these arrived along with a number of architectural history publications including country house guidebooks which were bequeathed to the Paul Mellon Centre's library. London: HMSO Vol. 1-2: The Middle Ages, R. Allen Brown, H. M. Colvin, A. J. Taylor ISBN 0-11-670571-X Vol. 3: 1485-1660, part 1, H. M. Colvin, D. R. Ransome, John Summerson ISBN 0-11-670568-X Vol. 4: 1485-1660, part 2, H. M. Colvin, D. R. Ransome, John Summerson ISBN 0-11-670832-8 Vol. 5: 1660-1782, H. M. Colvin, J. Mordaunt Crook, Kerry Downes, John Newman ISBN 0-11-670571-X Vol. 6: 1782-1851, J. Mordaunt Crook, M.

H. Port ISBN 0-11-670286-9 Plans 5–7 ISBN 0-11-671116-7 A History of Deddington, Oxfordshire. London: SPCK. 1963. Unbuilt Oxford. Yale University Press. 1983. ISBN 0-300-03126-2; the Canterbury Quadrangle, St. John's College, Oxford. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 1988. ISBN 0-19-920159-5. Architecture and the After-Life. New Haven: Yale University Press. 1991. ISBN 0-300-05098-4. A Biographical Dictionary of British Architects, 1600–1840. New Haven: Yale University Press. 2008. ISBN 978-0-300-12508-5. Entries for Charles Long, 1st Baron Farnborough and Isaac de Caus in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Calke Abbey Derbyshire, a Hidden House Revealed. 1985 National Trust. ISBN 9780540010844 "Sir Howard Colvin"; the Times. London. 1 January 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2008. Obituary in The Independent Alumni of History Faculty Newsletter, Oxford Obituary in The Guardian Obituary in The Times Obituary in The Daily Telegraph May 2011 meeting of SAHGB in Oxford: "ARCHITECTURAL HISTORY AFTER COLVIN" The Howard Colvin Archive Research notes and correspondence

Paul Byard

Paul Spencer Byard was a lawyer and an architect. He was born in New York to Dever Spencer Byard, a lawyer and Margaret Mather Byard, a teacher of English Literature at Columbia University. Byard graduated from Milton Academy in Massachusetts in 1957, from Yale College in 1961 and went on to receive degrees from Clare College, Harvard Law School, from Columbia University's Graduate School of Architecture. In 1966, having completed law school, Byard joined the law firm of Winthrop & Stimson, where he remained for three years, he acted as general counsel to the Roosevelt Island Development Corporation and as an associate counsel to the New York State Urban Development Corporation. Combining law with architecture, Byard supported the legal defense of the New York City Landmarks Preservation Law. In 1977, Byard received an architectural degree from the Graduate School of Architecture and Planning at Columbia University, after which he joined James Stewart Polshek & Associates in 1977. In 1981, he was made a partner in the firm.

In 1989, Byard joined Charles A. Platt Partners. While working as an architect, Byard was involved in the renovations of Carnegie Hall, the old Custom House on Bowling Green, the State Supreme Court’s Appellate Division Courthouse on Madison Square, the Cooper Union Foundation Building, the Villard Houses, he helped to design the New 42nd Street Studios, the Channel 57 building, a mausoleum and columbarium at Green-Wood Cemetery in Brooklyn, all of which were of contemporary design. Byard was involved in the Architectural League of New York and served as president from 1989 to 1994. While working as an architect, Byard wrote The Architecture of Additions: Design and Regulation, in which he discusses the renovations of many historic buildings and exhibits his knowledge of blending old and new styles of architecture. At the time of his death, Byard was working on a book to be entitled Why Save This Building? The Public Interest in Architectural Meaning. In keeping with his architectural interests, Byard directed the historic preservation program at Columbia for ten years until his death.

He developed a third-year studio and workshop for architecture and preservation students. Byard had two children, he lived in Prospect Heights, where he died on July 15, 2008, of cancer. Architectural League of New York