Les Abrets-en-Dauphiné is a commune in the Isère department of southeastern France. The municipality was established on 1 January 2016 and consists of the former communes of Les Abrets, La Bâtie-Divisin and Fitilieu. Communes of the Isère department
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Isère is a department in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region in eastern France named after the river Isère. Isère is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on March 4, 1790, it was created from the main part of the former province of Dauphiné. Its area has been reduced twice, in 1852 and again in 1967, on both occasions losing territory to the department of Rhône. In 1852 in response to rapid urban development around the edge of Lyon, the communes of Bron, Vaulx-en-Velin, Vénissieux and Villeurbanne were transferred to Rhône. In 1967 the redrawing of local government borders led to the creation of the Urban Community of Lyon. At that time intercommunal groupings of this nature were not permitted to straddle departmental frontiers, accordingly 23 more Isère communes found themselves transferred to Rhône; the affected Isère communes were Chaponnay, Communay, Corbas, Décines-Charpieu, Genas, Jons, Meyzieu, Pusignan, Saint-Bonnet-de-Mure, Saint-Laurent-de-Mure, Saint-Pierre-de-Chandieu, Saint-Priest, Saint-Symphorien-d'Ozon, Sérézin-du-Rhône, Solaize and Toussieu.
Most on 1 April 1971, Colombier-Saugnieu was lost to Rhône. Banners appeared in the commune's three little villages at the time proclaiming "Dauphinois toujours" Isère was the name of the French ship which delivered the 214 boxes holding the Statue of Liberty. Isère is part of the current region of Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes and is surrounded by the departments of Rhône, Savoie, Hautes-Alpes, Drôme, Ardèche, Loire. Isère includes a part of the French Alps; the highest point in the department is the Sub-Peak "Pic Lory" at 4,088 metres, subsidiary to the Barre des Écrins. The summit of La Meije at 3,988 metres is well known; the Vercors Plateau aesthetically dominates the western area of the department. Inhabitants of the department are called Isérois; the President of the General Council is André Vallini of the Socialist Party. The Grande Chartreuse is the mother abbey of the Carthusian order, it is located 14 miles north of Grenoble. As early as the 13th century, residents of the north and central parts of Isère spoke a dialect of the Franco-Provençal language called Dauphinois.
It continued to be spoken in rural areas of Isère into the 20th century. Isère features many ski resorts, including the Alpe d'Huez, Les Deux Alpes, the 1968 Winter Olympics resorts of Chamrousse, Villard de Lans, Autrans. Other popular resorts include Les 7 Laux, Le Collet d'Allevard, Méaudre, Saint-Pierre-de-Chartreuse, Alpe du Grand Serre, Gresse-en-Vercors. Grenoble has a dozen museums, including the most famous created in Grenoble in 1798, the Museum of Grenoble, it is the third largest ski and winter destination of France, after Savoie and Haute-Savoie, before Hautes-Alpes. It hosts Coupe Icare, an annual festival of free flight, such as paragliding and hang-gliding, held at the world-renowned paragliding site at Lumbin. Cantons of the Isère department Communes of the Isère department Arrondissements of the Isère department
Stade Toulousain referred to as Toulouse, is a French rugby union club from Toulouse in Occitania. Toulouse is one of the most successful clubs in Europe, having won the Heineken Cup a joint record four times – in 1996, 2003, 2005 and 2010, they were runners-up in 2004 and 2008 against London Wasps and Munster, respectively. Stade Toulousain have won a record 19 French Championship titles, it is traditionally one of the main providers for the French national team. Their home ground is the Stade Ernest-Wallon. However, big Top 14 matches along with Heineken Cup games are played at the Stadium Municipal de Toulouse; the club colours are red and white. Before 1907 rugby in Toulouse was only played in universities. In 1893, students of secondary school "Lycée de Toulouse" got together in "les Sans Soucis". Once attending university the same students founded "l'Olympique Toulousain", which became "Stade Olympien des Etudiants de Toulouse" a few years in 1896. In the same period,'non-students' grouped in "le Sport Atléthique Toulousain" while students of the veterinary school created "l'Union Sportive de l'Ecole Vétérinaire".
Both entities merged in 1905 and called themselves "Véto-Sport". In 1907, Stade Toulousain was founded resulting from a union between the SOET and Véto-Sport. Stade Toulousain played its first final of the national title French Championship in 1909 and lost it to Stade Bordelais Université Club in Toulouse. In 1912 Stade Toulousain won its first national title, it had to wait until 1922. However the 1920s were a golden era for the club, their first final action in the 1920s was in 1921. Despite losing in 1921, the side went on to win the 1923, 1924, 1926 and 1927 championships; the following decades were quiet after such a dominant era during the 1920s. Stade Toulousain would not make it to any grand finals during the 1930s, it would not be until the late 1940s when they would return; however they did contest the Challenge Yves du Manoir with RC Toulon in 1934, though it ended in a nil-all tie and both teams were winners. The club made it to the final of the 1947 championship, claimed the premiership, beating SU Agen, 10 to 3.
However, no such championships followed, the club was again quiet on the championship. It was 22 years in the waiting. In 1971 Toulouse contested the Challenge Yves du Manoir against US Dax, losing 18 to 8. Eleven years after the CA Bègles defeat, the club was again disappointed in the final, being defeated by AS Béziers in the championship game of 1980; the latter end of the decade reminiscent of the 1920s sides. Toulouse were again contesting the Challenge Yves du Manoir for the 1984 season, though they lost to RC Narbonne 17 to 3, they did however claim their first championship since 1947. The following season saw them defend their championship, defeating SU Agen in the final. After a number of defeats in the Challenge Yves du Manoir finals, Toulouse defeated US Dax to win the 1988 competition. Both Toulon and Agen won the following premierships but Toulouse won another championship in 1989; the dominance continued in the 1990s, starting with a grand final loss in 1991, a Challenge Yves du Manoir championship in 1993, defeating Castres 13 to 8 in the final.
The mid-1990s saw Stade Toulousain become a major force yet again, as the club claimed four premierships in a row, winning the championship in 1994, 1995, 1996 and 1997, as well as the Challenge Yves du Manoir in 1995. The club emmulated its success in the European Rugby Cup, becoming the first champions in the 1995–96 season; the late 1990s and the 2000s saw. The club won the Challenge Yves du Manoir in 1998, defeating Stade Français Paris, the 1999 championship as well as the 2001 championship and were runners-up in the 2003 season, losing to Stade Français in the final; as the club had done in the mid-1990s, Stade Toulousain replicated this success in the European Rugby Cup, winning the 2002–03 championship and the 2004–05 championship. The club made it to the final of the 2005–06 Top 14, despite only trailing Biarritz 9–6 at half time, Toulouse could not prevent a second-half whitewash going down 40–13, they ended their seven-year title drought with a 26–20 win over ASM Clermont Auvergne on 28 June 2008.
In 2008 they narrowly lost a Heineken Cup Final to Munster by 3 points. In 2010 Toulouse defeated Leinster to reach the final where they faced Biarritz Olympique at Stade de France in Paris on Saturday 22 May 2010. Toulouse won the game by 21–19 to claim their fourth Heineken Cup title, making them the only club to win the title four times. Stade Toulousain is the only French club to have taken part in all the editions of Heineken Cup since its creation, they won the French championship in 2011 against 2012 against Toulon. Stade Toulousain reached the semi-finals of the French championship 20 consecutive years. Toulouse play their home games at the Stade Ernest-Wallon, built in the late 1980s and was renovated. Stade Toulousain is one of the three teams, it has a capacity of 19,500. The stadium however cannot always accommodate all the fans of the Toulouse club. For the larger fixtures, such as championship or Heineken Cup games or play-offs, the fixture may be moved to Stadium Municipal, which has double capacity, 38,000.
The stadium was used for numerous matches at the 2007
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine
Benin the Republic of Benin and Dahomey, is a country in West Africa. It is bordered by Togo to the west, Nigeria to the east, Burkina Faso and Niger to the north; the majority of its population lives on the small southern coastline of the Bight of Benin, part of the Gulf of Guinea in the northernmost tropical portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The capital of Benin is Porto-Novo, but the seat of government is in Cotonou, the country's largest city and economic capital. Benin covers an area of 114,763 square kilometres and its population in 2016 was estimated to be 10.87 million. Benin is a tropical nation dependent on agriculture. Benin is a big exporter of palm oil; the substantial employment and income arise from subsistence farming. The official language of Benin is French. However, indigenous languages such as Fon and Yoruba are spoken; the largest religious group in Benin is Roman Catholicism, followed by Islam and Protestantism. Benin is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation, the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, La Francophonie, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Petroleum Producers Association and the Niger Basin Authority.
From the 17th to the 19th century, the main political entities in the area were the Kingdom of Dahomey, along with the city-state of Porto-Novo, a large area with many different nations to the north. This region was referred to as the Slave Coast from as early as the 17th century due to the large number of enslaved people who were shipped to the New World during the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. After enslavement was abolished, France renamed it French Dahomey. In 1960, Dahomey gained full independence from France; the sovereign state has had a tumultuous history since with many different democratic governments, military coups, military governments. A Marxist–Leninist state called the People's Republic of Benin existed between 1975 and 1990. In 1991, it was replaced by the current multi-party Republic of Benin. During the colonial period and at independence, the country was known as Dahomey. On 30 November 1975, it was renamed to Benin, after the body of water on which the country lies—the Bight of Benin.
This had been named by Europeans after the Benin Empire in present-day Nigeria. The country of Benin has no connection to Benin City in modern Nigeria, nor to the Benin bronzes; the form "Benin" is the result of a Portuguese corruption of the city of Ubinu. The new name, was chosen for its neutrality. Dahomey was the name of the former Fon Kingdom of Dahomey, limited to most of the southern third of the present country and therefore did not represent Porto-Novo, central Benin, the multi-ethnic northwestern sector Atakora, nor the Bariba Kingdom of Borgu, which covered the northeastern district; the current country of Benin combines three areas which had distinctly different political systems and ethnicities prior to French colonial control. Before 1700, there were a few important city-states along the coast and a mass of tribal regions inland; the Oyo Empire, located to the east of modern Benin, was the most significant large-scale military force in the region. It conducted raids and exacted tribute from the coastal kingdoms and the tribal regions.
The situation changed in the 1600s and early 1700s as the Kingdom of Dahomey, consisting of Fon people, was founded on the Abomey plateau and began taking over areas along the coast. By 1727, king Agaja of the Kingdom of Dahomey had conquered the coastal cities of Allada and Whydah, but it had become a tributary of the Oyo empire and did not directly attack the Oyo allied city-state of Porto-Novo; the rise of the kingdom of Dahomey, the rivalry between the kingdom and the city of Porto-Novo, the continued tribal politics of the northern region, persisted into the colonial and post-colonial periods. The Dahomey Kingdom was known for its culture and traditions. Young boys were apprenticed to older soldiers, taught the kingdom's military customs until they were old enough to join the army. Dahomey was famous for instituting an elite female soldier corps, called Ahosi, i.e. the king's wives, or Mino, "our mothers" in the Fon language Fongbe, known by many Europeans as the Dahomean Amazons. This emphasis on military preparation and achievement earned Dahomey the nickname of "black Sparta" from European observers and 19th-century explorers such as Sir Richard Burton.
The kings of Dahomey sold their war captives into transatlantic slavery. They had a practice of killing war captives in a ceremony known as the Annual Customs. By about 1750, the King of Dahomey was earning an estimated £250,000 per year by selling African captives to European slave-traders. Though the leaders of Dahomey appear to have resisted the slave trade, it flourished in the region of Dahomey for three hundred years, beginning in 1472 with a trade agreement with Portuguese merchants; the area was named the "Slave Coast" because of this flourishing trade. Court protocols, which demanded that a portion of war captives from the kingdom's many battles be decapitated, decreased the number of enslaved people exported from the area; the number went from 102,000 people per decade in the 1780s to 24,000 per decade by the 1860s. The decline was due to the Slave Trade Act 1807 banning the trans-Atlantic slave trade by Britain and the United States following in
Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix was a French Romantic artist regarded from the outset of his career as the leader of the French Romantic school. As a painter and muralist, Delacroix's use of expressive brushstrokes and his study of the optical effects of colour profoundly shaped the work of the Impressionists, while his passion for the exotic inspired the artists of the Symbolist movement. A fine lithographer, Delacroix illustrated various works of William Shakespeare, the Scottish author Walter Scott and the German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. In contrast to the Neoclassical perfectionism of his chief rival Ingres, Delacroix took for his inspiration the art of Rubens and painters of the Venetian Renaissance, with an attendant emphasis on colour and movement rather than clarity of outline and modelled form. Dramatic and romantic content characterized the central themes of his maturity, led him not to the classical models of Greek and Roman art, but to travel in North Africa, in search of the exotic.
Friend and spiritual heir to Théodore Géricault, Delacroix was inspired by Lord Byron, with whom he shared a strong identification with the "forces of the sublime", of nature in violent action. However, Delacroix was given to neither sentimentality nor bombast, his Romanticism was that of an individualist. In the words of Baudelaire, "Delacroix was passionately in love with passion, but coldly determined to express passion as as possible." Together with Ingres, Delacroix is considered one of the last old Masters of painting, one of the few, photographed. Eugène Delacroix was born on 26 April 1798 at Charenton-Saint-Maurice near Paris, his mother was named the daughter of the cabinet-maker Jean-François Oeben. He had three much older siblings. Charles-Henri Delacroix rose to the rank of General in the Napoleonic army. Henriette married the diplomat Raymond de Verninac Saint-Maur. Henri was born six years later, he was killed at the Battle of Friedland on 14 June 1807. There are medical reasons to believe that Eugène's legitimate father, Charles-François Delacroix, was not able to procreate at the time of Eugène's conception.
Talleyrand, a friend of the family and successor of Charles Delacroix as Minister of Foreign Affairs, whom the adult Eugène resembled in appearance and character, considered himself as his real father. Throughout his career as a painter, he was protected by Talleyrand, who served successively the Restoration and king Louis-Philippe, as ambassador of France in Great Britain, by Talleyrand's grandson, Charles Auguste Louis Joseph, duc de Morny, half-brother of Napoleon III and speaker of the French House of Commons, his legitimate father, Charles Delacroix, died in 1805, his mother in 1814, leaving 16-year-old Eugène an orphan. His early education was at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, at the Lycée Pierre Corneille in Rouen where he steeped himself in the classics and won awards for drawing. In 1815 he began his training with Pierre-Narcisse Guérin in the neoclassical style of Jacques-Louis David. An early church commission, The Virgin of the Harvest, displays a Raphael-esque influence, but another such commission, The Virgin of the Sacred Heart, evidences a freer interpretation.
It precedes the influence of the more colourful and rich style of the Flemish Baroque painter Peter Paul Rubens, fellow French artist Théodore Géricault, whose works marked an introduction to Romanticism in art. The impact of Géricault's The Raft of the Medusa was profound, stimulated Delacroix to produce his first major painting, The Barque of Dante, accepted by the Paris Salon in 1822; the work caused a sensation, was derided by the public and officialdom, yet was purchased by the State for the Luxembourg Galleries. Two years he again achieved popular success for his The Massacre at Chios. Delacroix's painting of the massacre at Chios shows sick, dying Greek civilians about to be slaughtered by the Turks. One of several paintings he made of this contemporary event, expressed the official policy for the Greek cause in their war of independence against the Turks, war sustained by English and French governments. Delacroix was recognized by the authorities as a leading painter in the new Romantic style, the picture was bought by the state.
His depiction of suffering was controversial, however, as there was no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valour as in David's Oath of the Horatii, only a disaster. Many critics deplored the painting's despairing tone; the pathos in the depiction of an infant clutching its dead mother's breast had an powerful effect, although this detail was condemned as unfit for art by Delacroix's critics. A viewing of the paintings of John Constable and the watercolour sketches and art of Richard Parkes Bonnington prompted Delacroix to make extensive painted changes to the sky and distant landscape. Delacroix produced a second painting in support of the Greeks in their war for independence, this time referring to the capture of Missolonghi by Turkish forces in 1825. With a restraint of palette appropriate to the allegory, Greece Expiring on the Ruins of Missolonghi displays a woman in Greek costume with her breast bared, arms half-raised in an imploring gesture before the horrible scene: the suicide of the Greeks, who chose to kill themselves and destroy their city rather than surrender to the Turks.
A hand is seen at the bottom, the body having be