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École centrale de Lyon

The École centrale de Lyon is a research university in greater Lyon, France. Founded in 1857 by François Barthélemy Arlès-Dufour in response to the increasing industrialization of France, it is one of the oldest graduate schools in France; the university is part of the Grandes Écoles, a prestigious group of French institutions dedicated to engineering, scientific research, business education. The current 45-acre campus is located in the city of Ecully; the École centrale de Lyon is traditionally known for its research and education in applied science and engineering. It excels in the research fields of acoustics and nanotechnology, is continuously ranked in the top five Grandes Écoles for the quality of its engineering graduate programs; the school is well-reputed for educating and training skilled engineers through many specialized graduate programs with a strong emphasis on laboratory instruction. Students graduate with a degree known as the diplôme d'ingénieur, an academic title protected by the French government and equivalent to a Master of Science, or with a Ph.

D. upon completion of their doctoral studies. The École centrale de Lyon has strong ties with top institutions in Europe including Imperial College London and Darmstadt University of Technology; the university is one of the founding members of the Centrale Graduate School network. It is a founding member of University of Lyon's center for Research and Higher Education, which has over 120,000 students. Thus, it shares many of its Ph. D. programs with other institutions part of University of Lyon such as INSA Lyon, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon, Claude Bernard University Lyon 1. It was founded in 1857 on a private initiative by Désiré Girardon, its first president; the founding vision was to educate multidisciplinary engineers for the emerging industry. The institution was given to the French State Ministry of Education in 1947. Located downtown Lyon, it was transferred to Écully, its current location. 1857: Birth of the Lyons Central School for Industry and Commerce, on the initiative of Desire Girardon, a professor at La Martiniere School, an institution for the teaching of advanced industrial science and based on the methods of La Martiniere school.

The school was located at the course of Bourbon. 3 November 1857: Opening of the school with 14 students, who are promoting an issue, that of 1860. 1860: The first class graduated, it will be followed by a promotion of 17 students. 1869: Transfer of School Augagneur dock. 1887: The school was placed under the patronage of the Chamber of Commerce of Lyon. 1901: Transfer street Chevreul on land donated by the city of Lyon in the person of its mayor, Edouard Herriot. 1930: First woman in a promotion. 1947: Assignment of the school to the state. 1949: Creation of the student association. 1963: Establishment of joint competition with the Ecole centrale de Paris. 1967: Transfer in Ecully, creation of a campus in the "American". 1968: First agreement with the School of Darmstadt. 1970: New name: École centrale de Lyon and first class of over 100 engineering students. 1980: First agreements with Japan and the United States. 1983: First batch of over 200 engineering students. 1990: Creation of the Intergroup schools "Central", the first agreement with China.

1992: School is a Public Establishment Scientific and Cultural Professional, the first agreement with the countries of Central and Eastern. 1996: Creation of the European university network for dual degrees. 2000: First agreements with countries in South America. 2001: First batch of over 300 students. 2002: Opening an office in Shenzhen, China. 2003: Opening of the Franco-Russian center for technology transfer. 2005: Creation of central Beijing. 2007: Intergroup is the group of central schools with Lille, Marseille and Paris. 2006-2007-2008: 150th anniversary of the Ecole centrale de Lyon. 2009: Yin Yang - Alliance project between Central and Lyon Business School EM LYON. 2011: Agreement with France AEROTECH The centralien program is the main academic program offered by the École centrale de Lyon, as a Centrale Graduate School. It is quite different from typical college studies; the engineering degree of École centrale de Lyon is a Master of Science degree. The defining characteristic of the curriculum is that it is multidisciplinary, with studies focusing on all math and physics derived engineering specialties: mechanics, materials, fluid mechanics, electrical engineering, applied mathematics, civil engineering, computer science, telecommunications and micro-nano-biotechnology.

The large majority of the students are admitted after two to three years of classes préparatoires, known as "mathematics superior" and "mathematics special", which are an undergraduate courses with exclusive emphasis on math and physics. These undergraduate students must take a nationwide competitive entrance examination to enter a Centrale Graduate School, including Ecole centrale de Lyon. Ecole centrale de Lyon recruits among the top 6% of the students in classes preparatoires, who represent themselves 7% of higher education students, which makes it a selective and prestigious institution. A few seats are available each year to select students from French universities after completion of three or four years of post high-school education. A significant contingent o

Geevarghese Panicker

Rev. Dr. C. T. Geevarghese Panicker was a priest and educationalist of Syro-Malankara Catholic Church. Geevarghese Panicker was born on 1 April 1924 at Karichal, Alappuzha as the eldest son to K. G. Thomas Panicker and Achiyamma Thomas Panicker he was the eldest of seven children, he is the grand Nephew of the Archbishop Geevarghese Mar Ivanios, the founder of Syro-Malankara Catholic Church and, known as the'Newman of India'. Geevarghese Panicker had his primary education at Vazhathattu Primary School, Alappuzha, he completed his middle school at St. James English Middle School, Alappuzha & completed his high school final under the guidance of Kainikkara Kumara Pillai at N. S. S. English High School, Alappuzha. After the school education he joined St. Aloysius Seminary, Trivandrum on his own volition under the guidance of Archbishop Geevarghese Mar Ivanios in 1940, he continued the philosophical and theological studies at Papal Seminary, Ceylon. He was ordained a priest on 24 August 1949 by Archbishop Geevarghese Mar Ivanios at Papal Seminary, Ceylon.

He received his B. A. honours in English Literature from University of Trivandrum. He took a doctorate in English Literature at Catholic University of America, Washington, D. C. United States in 1958. Fr. Panicker started his teaching career as a lecturer at Trivandrum, he became the Vice Principal of Mar Ivanios college in 1959. And he served as the principal of Mar Ivanios College, Trivandrum from 1961 to 1979, noted as the'Golden years of Mar Ivanios College' by the Late Education Minister of Kerala, C. H. Mohammed Koya, he was the Rector and President of St. Joseph's Pontifical Seminary, Aluva in 1979 - 1985, he became the Rector of St. Mary’s Malankara Major Seminary, Trivandrum, he was the Dean of Studies of St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, Kerala. Fr. Panicker wrote a number of articles on liturgy, his main works are: An Historical Introduction to the Syriac Liturgy The Church in the Syriac Tradition. In his years he resided at St. Ephrem Ecumenical Research Institute, Kerala. Rev. Dr. C. T. Geevarghese Panicker left for his heavenly abode on 28 December 2008 at Assisi Atonement Hospital, Kollam.

His body was interred in St. George Syro-Malankara Catholic Church at Adoor. Major Archbishop of Syro-Malankara Catholic Church, Moran Mor Baselios Cardinal Cleemis Catholicos led the funeral service at Paranthal and he was buried near to his parents as per his request. Mar Ivanios College Malankara Seminary

Maude (TV series)

Maude is an American sitcom television series, broadcast on the CBS network from September 12, 1972, until April 22, 1978. Maude stars Beatrice Arthur as Maude Findlay, an outspoken, middle-aged, politically liberal woman living in suburban Tuckahoe, Westchester County, New York, with her fourth husband, household appliance store owner Walter Findlay. Maude embraces the tenets of women's liberation, always votes for Democratic Party candidates, advocates for civil rights and racial and gender equality. However, her overbearing and sometimes domineering personality gets her into trouble when speaking about these issues; the show was billed as the first spin-off of All in the Family, on which Beatrice Arthur had made two appearances in the character of Maude, Edith Bunker's cousin. Like All in the Family, Maude was a sitcom with topical storylines created by producers Norman Lear and Bud Yorkin. Unusual for a U. S. sitcom, several episodes featured only the characters of Maude and her husband Walter, in what amounted to half-hour "two-hander" teleplays.

The show's theme song, "And Then There's Maude", was written by Marilyn and Alan Bergman and Dave Grusin, performed by Donny Hathaway. Maude Findlay first appears in two season-two episodes of All in the Family: the first in December 1971 as a visitor to the Bunker home, the second, a backdoor pilot setting up the premise of the Maude series, in March 1972, she is Edith Bunker's cousin, married four times. Her first husband, had died shortly after their marriage. Albert was never portrayed on screen, but the episode "Poor Albert" revolved around his death, while second former husband Chester would appear once on the show, her current husband, Walter Findlay, owns. Maude and Walter met just before the 1968 presidential election. Maude sometimes gets in the last word during their many arguments with her hallmark catchphrase, "God'll get you for that, Walter", which came directly from Bea Arthur. Maude's deep, raspy voice is an occasional comic foil whenever she answers the phone and explaining in one episode, "No, this is not Mr. Findlay.

Mr. Findlay has a much higher voice." Maude's daughter, Carol Traynor, is divorced and has one child, like Maude. Carol and her son, live with the Findlays. Though single, Carol maintains her reputation of dating many men, she dates various men throughout early seasons forming a serious relationship with a man named Chris. Like her mother, Carol is an outspoken liberal feminist, not afraid to speak her mind, though they clash. There are conflicting accounts as to whether Carol's father was Maude's second husband; the Findlays' next-door neighbors are Dr. Arthur Harmon, a stuffy, sardonic Republican and foil for Maude played by Conrad Bain and his sweet but scatterbrained second wife Vivian, played by Rue McClanahan, who confirmed in an interview with the Archive of American Television that she was approached by Norman Lear during the taping of the All in the Family episode "The Bunkers and the Swingers" to take on the role as a late replacement for Doris Roberts, intended for the part. Arthur has been Walter's best friend since the two men served together in World War II.

Vivian has been Maude's best friend. At the beginning of the series, Arthur is a widower. Vivian was introduced in a guest appearance, she got involved with Arthur as a divorcée. For the entire run of the show, Maude has a housekeeper. At the beginning of the series, the Findlays hire Florida Evans, a no-nonsense black woman who has the last laugh at Maude's expense. Maude makes a point of conspicuously and awkwardly demonstrating how open-minded and liberal she is. Despite Florida's status as a maid, Maude emphasizes to Florida that they are "equals," and insists she enter and exit the Findlay house via the front door; as portrayed by Esther Rolle, the character of Florida was so popular that, in 1974, she became the star of her own series, entitled Good Times. In the storyline of Maude, Florida's husband Henry receives a promotion at his job, she quits to be a full-time housewife. While Maude took place in New York, the setting for Good Times was Chicago, with numerous other differences in Florida's situation, such as her husband being called James Evans-'Henry' being the name of James's long lost father.

After Florida's departure in 1974, Mrs. Nell Naugatuck, an elderly British widowed woman who drinks excessively and lies compulsively, assumes the role of housekeeper. Unlike Florida, who commuted to work, Mrs. Naugatuck is a live-in maid, she meets and begins dating Bert Beasley in 1975. They move to Ireland to care for Bert's mother. Mrs. Naugatuck's frequent sparring with Maude is, just as comedically popular as Florida's sparring; the difference in the two relationships was that Mrs. Naugatuck seems to despi

Karl Georg Albrecht Ernst von Hake

Karl Georg Albrecht Ernst von Hake was a Prussian general and Minister of War. Hake was born on the estate of Flatow in the Margraviate of Brandenburg, he entered the Prussian Army in 1785. In 1793, while serving under the command of Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, he distinguished himself in the Battle of Pirmasens during the French Revolutionary Wars against France. For his actions he was to be decorated, on 3 April 1814, with the Pour le Mérite medal with Oak leaves. Hake was appointed to a post in the War Ministry in 1809, served as Minister of War from 17 June 1810 until August 1813 when he was replaced by Boyen. Subsequently, commanded a brigade in the Prussian IV Corps with rank of major-general, played a distinguished part in the Battle of Waterloo. In 1819 Hake was again appointed Minister of War. King Frederick William III of Prussia ordered him to conduct experiments into the use of the optical telegraph. Hake, was opposed to optical telegraphy and devised several means of preventing the experiments from being implemented.

He delayed the experiments until May 1830. Hake left the War Ministry in 1833 and died two years in 1835, at Naples, Italy. Bernhard von Poten, "Hake, Karl Georg Albrecht Ernst von", Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie, 10, Leipzig: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 394–396 Gilman, D. C.. "Hake, Karl von". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Scheel, Heinrich. Von Stein zu Hardenberg. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Pp. 780–782. Hirtenfeld, Jaromir. Der Militär-Maria-Theresien-Orden und seine Mitglieder. Vienna. P. 1312. Priesdorff, Kurt von. Soldatisches Führertum. 3. Hamburg: Hanseatische Verlagsanstalt. Pp. 376–382


Orohippus is an extinct equid that lived in the Eocene. It is believed to have evolved from equids such as Eohippus, as the earliest evidence for Orohippus appears about 2 million years after the first appearance of Eohippus; the anatomical differences between the two are slight: they were the same size, but Orohippus had a slimmer body, a more elongated head, slimmer forelimbs and longer hind legs, all of which are characteristics of a good jumper. Its teeth were brachydont in height, but the development of flattened surfaces and shearing lophs on their molars suggests they were more a browser than a frugivorous eater; the outer toes of Eohippus are no longer present in Orohippus, hence on each forelimb there were four fingers and on each hind leg three toes. Species of Orohippus has been referred to Protorohippus. Evolution of the horse Horse MacFadden, B. J. 1998. Equidae. Pp. 537–559 in C. M. Janis, K. M. Scott, L. L. Jacobs Evolution of Tertiary Mammals of North America Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Orohippus, Index Fossils and the Tertiary The Evolution of the Horse National Center for Science Education

John of Fordun

John of Fordun was a Scottish chronicler. It is stated that he was born at Fordoun, Mearns, it is certain that he was a secular priest, that he composed his history in the latter part of the 14th century. The work of Fordun is the earliest attempt. We are informed that Fordun's patriotic zeal was roused by the removal or destruction of many national records by Edward III of England and that he traveled in England and Ireland, collecting material for his history. Collectively, this work, divided into five books, is known as the Chronica Gentis Scotorum; the first three are unverified which therefore casts doubt on their accuracy, yet they form the groundwork on which Boece and George Buchanan afterwards based some of their historical writings. Thomas Innes argued that some of the history these men presented was doubtful in his Critical Essay, but Innes himself had his own political agenda and his work has been criticized by modern historians; the 4th and 5th books contain much valuable information, become more authentic the more nearly they approach the author's own time.

The 5th book concludes with the death of King David I in 1153. More recent scholarship by Professor Dauvit Broun of Glasgow University, suggests that the portion of what has hitherto been considered Fordun's chronicle, after 1153 should be regarded as two separate works, neither of which can, in any meaningful sense, be attributed to Fordun himself. We now refer to the list of yearly events after the death of King David I in 1153 as the separate works Gesta Annalia I and Gesta Annalia II; the new thinking, put forward by Professor Broun, has been presented to Scottish school pupils, by Bill Glennie in the following helpful terms • We should regard John of Fordun's work as the chronicle alone. • So Fordun's own work proceeds no further than the death of King David I in 1153. • Fordun can not be regarded in any meaningful sense as the author of ‘Gesta Annalia’. • We should regard ‘Gesta Annalia’ as a separate work. • In fact we should regard ‘Gesta Annalia’ as not one work but two. • An examination of the surviving manuscripts reveals two separate texts.

• For convenience these are called ‘Gesta Annalia I’ and ‘Gesta Annalia II’. • ‘Gesta Annalia I’ ends when King Alexander III despatches an embassy to France to find him a new wife in February 1285. • ‘Gesta Annalia II’ begins with Alexander III's marriage to his new bride in October 1285. • ` Gesta Annalia I' is the rump -- -- of a much longer work. • The author of ‘Gesta Annalia’ ended this work around February 1285. • At some point a scribe appended it to Fordun's chronicle. • Might that scribe have been Fordun himself? Did he append ‘Gesta Annalia I’ to his own chronicle? That, writes Dauvit Broun, ‘is an open question’. • So when we read ‘Gesta Annalia I’ we are reading a copy of an original work. • But we should assume that whoever copied the original work left it undisturbed, i.e. without altering the text. • There is a consistency of writing and presentation of the history in ‘Gesta Annalia I’ which we don't always find in ‘Gesta Annalia II’ Gesta Annalia II’ is a more challenging – and some would suggest more interesting – work.

• Whereas there is a consistency in the style and presentation of ‘Gesta Annalia I’, not the case in ‘Gesta Annalia II’. The above bullet points are reproduced from Bill Glennie's advice to Scottish School pupils studying'Scotland: Independence and Kingship, 1249-1334' at Advanced Higher. Historical texts published before this new thinking was accepted will still refer to Fordun as the author of comments relating to the period after 1153; these comments are now cited as Gesta Annalia I or II. Besides these five books, published around 1360, Fordun wrote part of another book, collected materials for bringing down the history to a period; these materials were used by a continuator who wrote in the middle of the 15th century, and, identified with Walter Bower, abbot of the monastery of Inchcolm. The additions of Bower form eleven books, bring down the narrative to the death of King James I of Scots in 1437. According to the custom of the time, the continuator did not hesitate to interpolate Fordun's portion of the work, with additions of his own, the whole history thus compiled is known as the Scotichronicon.

The first printed edition of Fordun's work was that of Thomas Gale in his Scriptores quindecim, published in 1691. This was followed by Thomas Hearne's edition in 1722; the whole work, including Bower's continuation, was published by Walter Goodall at Edinburgh in 1759. In 1871 and 1872 Fordun's chronicle, in the original Latin and in an English translation, was edited by William F. Skene in The Historians of Scotland; the preface to this edition collects all the biographical details and gives full references to manuscripts and editions. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Fordun, John of". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10. Cambridge University Press. Pp. 643–644. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: John William. A Short Biographical Dictionary of English Literature. London: J. M. Dent & Sons – via Wikisource. For further discussion of the political motivations which may have influenced the approach taken in the Chronica Gentis Scotorum, see: Goldstein, J.

The Matter of Scotland: Historical Narrative in Medieval Scotland University of Nebraska Press. Chapter 4. Skene, Felix James Henry.