Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree is required, it is considered to be part of higher education. In North America, this level is referred to as graduate school; the organization and structure of postgraduate education varies in different countries, as well as in different institutions within countries. This article outlines the basic types of courses and of teaching and examination methods, with some explanation of their history. There are two main types of degrees studied for at the postgraduate level: academic and vocational degrees; the term degree in this context means the moving from one stage or level to another, first appeared in the 13th century. Although systems of higher education date back to ancient Greece, ancient Rome, ancient India and Arabian Peninsula, the concept of postgraduate education depends upon the system of awarding degrees at different levels of study, can be traced to the workings of European medieval universities Italians.
University studies took six years for a bachelor's degree and up to twelve additional years for a master's degree or doctorate. The first six years taught the faculty of the arts, the study of the seven liberal arts: arithmetic, astronomy, music theory, grammar and rhetoric; the main emphasis was on logic. Once a Bachelor of Arts degree had been obtained, the student could choose one of three faculties—law, medicine, or theology—in which to pursue master's or doctor's degrees; the degrees of master and doctor were for some time equivalent, "the former being more in favour at Paris and the universities modeled after it, the latter at Bologna and its derivative universities. At Oxford and Cambridge a distinction came to be drawn between the Faculties of Law and Theology and the Faculty of Arts in this respect, the title of Doctor being used for the former, that of Master for the latter." Because theology was thought to be the highest of the subjects, the doctorate came to be thought of as higher than the master's.
The main significance of the higher, postgraduate degrees was that they licensed the holder to teach. In most countries, the hierarchy of postgraduate degrees is: Master's degrees; these are sometimes placed in a further hierarchy, starting with degrees such as the Master of Arts and Master of Science degrees the Master of Philosophy degree, the Master of Letters degree. In the UK, master's degrees may be taught or by research: taught master's degrees include the Master of Science and Master of Arts degrees which last one year and are worth 180 CATS credits, whereas the master's degrees by research include the Master of Research degree which lasts one year and is worth 180 CATS or 90 ECTS credits and the Master of Philosophy degree which lasts two years. In Scottish Universities, the Master of Philosophy degree tends to be by research or higher master's degree and the Master of Letters degree tends to be the taught or lower master's degree. In many fields such as clinical social work, or library science in North America, a master's is the terminal degree.
Professional degrees such as the Master of Architecture degree can last to three and a half years to satisfy professional requirements to be an architect. Professional degrees such as the Master of Business Administration degree can last up to two years to satisfy the requirement to become a knowledgeable business leader. Doctorates; these are further divided into academic and professional doctorates. An academic doctorate can be awarded as a Doctor of Philosophy degree or as a Doctor of Science degree; the Doctor of Science degree can be awarded in specific fields, such as a Doctor of Science in Mathematics degree, a Doctor of Agricultural Science degree, a Doctor of Business Administration degree, etc. In some parts of Europe, doctorates are divided into the Doctor of Philosophy degree or "junior doctorate", the "higher doctorates" such as the Doctor of Science degree, awarded to distinguished professors. A doctorate is the terminal degree in most fields. In the United States, there is little distinction between a Doctor of Philosophy degree and a Doctor of Science degree.
In the UK, Doctor of Philosophy degrees are equivalent to 540 CATS credits or 270 ECTS European credits, but this is not always the case as the credit structure of doctoral degrees is not defined. In some countries such as Finland and Sweden, there is the degree of Licentiate, more advanced than a master's degree but less so than a Doctorate. Credits required are about half of those required for a doctoral degree. Coursework requirements are the same as for a doctorate, but the extent of original research required is not as high as for doctorate. Medical doctors for example ar
Cyrano de Bergerac
Savinien de Cyrano de Bergerac was a French novelist, playwright and duelist. A bold and innovative author, his work was part of the libertine literature of the first half of the seventeenth century. Today he is best known as the inspiration for Edmond Rostand's most noted drama Cyrano de Bergerac, although it includes elements of his life contains invention and myth. Since the 1970s, there has been a resurgence in the study of Cyrano, demonstrated in the abundance of theses, essays and biographies published in France and elsewhere in recent decades. Cyrano's short life is poorly documented. Certain significant chapters of his life are only known from the Preface to the Histoire Comique par Monsieur de Cyrano Bergerac, Contenant les Estats & Empires de la Lune published in 1657, nearly two years after his death. Without Henri Le Bret, who wrote the biographical information, his country childhood, his military engagement, the injuries it caused, his prowess as a swordsman, the circumstances of his death and his supposed final conversion would remain unknown.
Since 1862 when Auguste Jal revealed that the "Lord of Bergerac" was Parisian and not Gascon, research in parish registries and notarial records by a small number of researchers, in particular Madeleine Alcover of Rice University, has allowed the public to know more about his genealogy, his family, his home in Paris and those of some of his friends, but has revealed no new documents that support or refute the essentials of Le Bret's account or fill the gaps in his narrative. Savinien II de Cyrano was the son of Abel I de Cyrano, lord of Mauvières, counsel of the Parliament of Paris, of Espérance Bellanger, "daughter of deceased nobleman Estienne Bellanger, Counsellor of the King and Treasurer of his Finances", his paternal grandfather, Savinien I de Cyrano, was born into a notable family from Sens in Burgundy. Documents describe him in turn as a "merchant and burgher of Paris", "fish merchant to the King" in several other documents in following years, "Royal counsellor". In Paris, on 9 April 1551, he married Anne Le Maire, daughter of Estienne Le Maire and Perrette Cardon, who died in 1616.
They are known to have had four children: Abel, Samuel and Anne. Of his maternal grandfather, Estienne Bellanger, "Financial Controller of the Parisian general revenue", of his background, we know nothing. We know more about his wife, Catherine Millet, whose father, Guillaume II Millet, Lord of Caves, was secretary of the King's finances, whose grandfather, Guillaume I Millet, qualified in medicine in 1518, was doctor to three kings in succession, he married Catherine Valeton, daughter of a property tax collector from Nantes, Audebert Valeton, accused of involvement in the Affair of the Placards, was "burned alive on wood taken from his house" on 21 January 1535 at the crossroads of la Croix du Trahoir, in front of the Pavillon des singes, where Molière lived a century later. Espérance Bellanger and Abel I de Cyrano were married on 3 September 1612 at the church of St-Gervais-et-St-Protais, she was at least twenty-six years old. Their marriage contract, signed the previous 12 July at the office of Master Denis Feydeau, counsellor and king's notary, second cousin of the bride, was only published in the year 2000 by Madeleine Alcover, who minutely traces the fate of the witnesses and notes that many of them "had entered the worlds of high finance, the noblesse de robe, of the aristocracy and the noblesse d'épée".
In 1911 Jean Lemoine made known the inventory of Abel de Cyrano's worldly goods. His library poorly stocked, testifies to his schooling as a jurist and to an open curiosity: a taste for languages and ancient literature, the great humanists of the Renaissance, knowledge of Italian, interest in the sciences. On the religious side, one notices the presence of two Bibles, of an Italian New Testament and the Prayers of St. Basil in Greek, but no pious works. There is no object of that kind amongst the other inventoried items, but in contrast "twelve small paintings of portraits of gods and goddesses" and "four wax figures: one of Venus and Cupid, another of a woman pulling a thorn, one of a flageolet player and one of an ashamed nude woman". One notes the presence of several books by well-known Protestants: the Discours politiques et militaires of François de la Noue, two volumes of George Buchanan, the Dialectique of Pierre de La Ramée, the Alphabet de plusieurs sortes de lettres by master calligrapher Pierre Hamon and La Vérité de la religion chrétienne by Philippe Duplessis-Mornay, whose presence confirms that Abel spent his younger years in Huguenot surroundings.
Espérance and Abel I had at least six children: Denis, baptised at the church of Saint-Eustache on 31 March 1614 by Anne Le Maire, his grandmother, Denis Feydeau, financier. He died in the 1640s.
Prime Minister of France
The French Prime Minister in the Fifth Republic is the head of government. During the Third and Fourth Republics, the head of government position was called President of the Council of Ministers shortened to President of the Council; the Prime Minister proposes a list of ministers to the President of the Republic. Decrees and decisions of the Prime Minister, like all executive decisions, are subject to the oversight of the administrative court system. Few decrees are taken after advice from the Council of State. All prime ministers defend the programs of their ministry, make budgetary choices; the extent to which those decisions lie with the Prime Minister or President depends upon whether they are of the same party. Manuel Valls was appointed to lead the government in a cabinet reshuffle in March 2014, after the ruling Socialists suffered a bruising defeat in local elections. However, he resigned on 6 December 2016, to stand in the French Socialist Party presidential primary, 2017 and Bernard Cazeneuve was appointed as Prime Minister that day by President François Hollande.
Cazeneuve resigned on 10 May 2017. Édouard Philippe was named his successor on 15 May 2017. The Prime Minister is appointed by the President of the Republic, who can select whomever he or she wants. While prime ministers are chosen from amongst the ranks of the National Assembly, on rare occasions the President has selected a non-officeholder because of their experience in bureaucracy or foreign service, or their success in business management—Dominique de Villepin, for example, served as Prime Minister from 2005 to 2007 without having held an elected office. On the other hand, while the Prime Minister does not have to ask for vote of confidence after cabinet's formation and they can depend their legitimacy on the President's assignment as Prime Minister and approval of the cabinet, because the National Assembly does have the power to force the resignation of the cabinet by motion of no confidence, the choice of Prime Minister must reflect the will of the majority in the Assembly. For example, right after the legislative election of 1986, President François Mitterrand had to appoint Jacques Chirac Prime Minister although Chirac was a member of the RPR and therefore a political opponent of Mitterrand.
Despite the fact that Mitterrand's own Socialist Party was the largest party in the Assembly, it did not have an absolute majority. The RPR had an alliance with the UDF; such a situation, where the President is forced to work with a Prime Minister, an opponent, is called a cohabitation. Édith Cresson is the only woman to have held the position of Prime Minister. Aristide Briand holds the record for number of cabinet formations as Prime Minister with 11 times, he served between 1929 with some terms as short as 26 days. According to article 21 of the Constitution, the Prime Minister "shall direct the actions of the Government". Additionally, Article 20 stipulates that the Government "shall determine and conduct the policy of the Nation", it includes domestic issues, while the President concentrates on formulating directions on national defense and foreign policy while arbitrating the efficient service of all governmental authorities in France. Other members of Government are appointed by the President "on the recommendation of the Prime Minister".
In practice the Prime Minister acts on the impulse of the President to whom he is a subordinate, except when there is a cohabitation in which case his responsibilities are akin to those of a Prime Minister in a parliamentary system. The Prime Minister can "engage the responsibility" of his or her Government before the National Assembly; this process consists of placing a bill before the Assembly, either the Assembly overthrows the Government, or the bill is passed automatically. In addition to ensuring that the Government still has support in the House, some bills that might prove too controversial to pass through the normal Assembly rules are able to be passed this way; the Prime Minister may submit a bill that has not been yet signed into law to the Constitutional Council. Before he is allowed to dissolve the Assembly, the President has to consult the Prime Minister and the presidents of both Houses of Parliament; the office of the prime minister, in its current form, was created in 1958 under the French Fifth Republic.
Under the Third Republic, the French Constitutional Laws of 1875 imbued the position of President of the Council with similar formal powers to those which at that time the British Prime Minister possessed. In practice, this proved insufficient to command the confidence of France's multi-party parliament, the president of the Council was a weak figure, his strength more dependent on charisma than formal powers, serving as little more than the cabinet's "primus inter pares". Most notably, the legislature had the power to force the entire cabinet out of office by a vote of censure; as a result, cabinets were toppled twice a year, there were long stretches where France was left with only a caretaker government. After several unsuccessful attempts to strengthen the role in the first half of the twentieth century, a presidential system was introduced under the Fifth Republic; the 1958 Constitution includes several provisions intended to strengthen the prime minister's position, for instance by restricting the legislature's power to vote censure.
The current prime minister is Édouard Philippe, appointed on 15 May 2017. The only person to serve as Prime Minister more than once under the Fifth Republic was Jacques Chirac (1974–1
Human rights are "the basic rights and freedoms to which all humans are entitled" Examples of rights and freedoms which are thought of as human rights include civil and political rights, such as the right to life and property, freedom of expression, pursuit of happiness and equality before the law. All human beings are born equal in dignity and rights, they are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Ancient peoples did not have the same modern-day conception of universal human rights; the true forerunner of human-rights discourse was the concept of natural rights which appeared as part of the medieval natural law tradition that became prominent during the European Enlightenment. From this foundation, the modern human rights arguments emerged over the latter half of the 20th century.17th-century English philosopher John Locke discussed natural rights in his work, identifying them as being "life and estate", argued that such fundamental rights could not be surrendered in the social contract.
In Britain in 1689, the English Bill of Rights and the Scottish Claim of Right each made illegal a range of oppressive governmental actions. Two major revolutions occurred during the 18th century, in the United States and in France, leading to the United States Declaration of Independence and the French Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen both of which articulated certain human rights. Additionally, the Virginia Declaration of Rights of 1776 encoded into law a number of fundamental civil rights and civil freedoms. We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life and the pursuit of Happiness. Philosophers such as Thomas Paine, John Stuart Mill and Hegel expanded on the theme of universality during the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1831 William Lloyd Garrison wrote in a newspaper called The Liberator that he was trying to enlist his readers in "the great cause of human rights" so the term human rights came into use sometime between Paine's The Rights of Man and Garrison's publication.
In 1849 a contemporary, Henry David Thoreau, wrote about human rights in his treatise On the Duty of Civil Disobedience, influential on human rights and civil rights thinkers. United States Supreme Court Justice David Davis, in his 1867 opinion for Ex Parte Milligan, wrote "By the protection of the law, human rights are secured. In Western Europe and North America, labour unions brought about laws granting workers the right to strike, establishing minimum work conditions and forbidding or regulating child labour; the women's rights movement succeeded in gaining for many women the right to vote. National liberation movements in many countries succeeded in driving out colonial powers. One of the most influential was Mahatma Gandhi's movement to free his native India from British rule. Movements by long-oppressed racial and religious minorities succeeded in many parts of the world, among them the civil rights movement, more recent diverse identity politics movements, on behalf of women and minorities in the United States.
The foundation of the International Committee of the Red Cross, the 1864 Lieber Code and the first of the Geneva Conventions in 1864 laid the foundations of International humanitarian law, to be further developed following the two World Wars. The League of Nations was established in 1919 at the negotiations over the Treaty of Versailles following the end of World War I; the League's goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and improving global welfare. Enshrined in its Charter was a mandate to promote many of the rights which were included in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the League of Nations had mandates to support many of the former colonies of the Western European colonial powers during their transition from colony to independent state. Established as an agency of the League of Nations, now part of United Nations, the International Labour Organization had a mandate to promote and safeguard certain of the rights included in the UDHR: the primary goal of the ILO today is to promote opportunities for women and men to obtain decent and productive work, in conditions of freedom, equity and human dignity.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights is a non-binding declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 in response to the barbarism of World War II. The UDHR urges member nations to promote a number of human, civil and social rights, asserting these rights are part of the "foundation of freedom and peace in the world"; the declaration was the first international legal effort to limit the behavior of states and press upon them duties to their citizens following the model of the rights-duty duality....recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and inalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom and peace in the world The UDHR was framed by members of the Human Rights Commission, with Eleanor Roosevelt as Chair, who began to discuss an International Bill of Rights in 1947. The members of the Commission did not agree on the form of such a bill of rights, whe
Strasbourg is the capital and largest city of the Grand Est region of France and is the official seat of the European Parliament. Located at the border with Germany in the historic region of Alsace, it is the capital of the Bas-Rhin department. In 2016, the city proper had 279,284 inhabitants and both the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and the Arrondissement of Strasbourg had 491,409 inhabitants. Strasbourg's metropolitan area had a population of 785,839 in 2015, making it the ninth largest metro area in France and home to 13% of the Grand Est region's inhabitants; the transnational Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau had a population of 915,000 inhabitants in 2014. Strasbourg is one of the de facto capitals of the European Union, as it is the seat of several European institutions, such as the Council of Europe and the Eurocorps, as well as the European Parliament and the European Ombudsman of the European Union; the city is the seat of the Central Commission for Navigation on the Rhine and the International Institute of Human Rights.
Strasbourg's historic city centre, the Grande Île, was classified a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1988, the first time such an honour was placed on an entire city centre. Strasbourg is immersed in Franco-German culture and although violently disputed throughout history, has been a cultural bridge between France and Germany for centuries through the University of Strasbourg the second largest in France, the coexistence of Catholic and Protestant culture, it is home to the largest Islamic place of worship in France, the Strasbourg Grand Mosque. Economically, Strasbourg is an important centre of manufacturing and engineering, as well as a hub of road and river transportation; the port of Strasbourg is the second largest on the Rhine after Germany. Before the 5th century, the city was known as Argantorati, a Celtic Gaulish name Latinized first as Argentorate, as Argentoratum; that Gaulish name is a compound of -rati, the Gaulish word for fortified enclosures, cognate to the Old Irish ráth, arganto-, the Gaulish word for silver, but any precious metal gold, suggesting either a fortified enclosure located by a river gold mining site, or hoarding gold mined in the nearby rivers.
After the 5th century, the city became known by a different name Gallicized as Strasbourg. That name is of Germanic origin and means "Town of roads"; the modern Stras- is cognate to the German Straße and English street, all of which are derived from Latin strata, while -bourg is cognate to the German Burg and English borough, all of which are derived from Proto-Germanic *burgz. Gregory of Tours was the first to mention the name change: in the tenth book of his History of the Franks written shortly after 590 he said that Egidius, Bishop of Reims, accused of plotting against King Childebert II of Austrasia in favor of his uncle King Chilperic I of Neustria, was tried by a synod of Austrasian bishops in Metz in November 590, found guilty and removed from the priesthood taken "ad Argentoratensem urbem, quam nunc Strateburgum vocant", where he was exiled. Strasbourg is situated at the eastern border of France with Germany; this border is formed by the Rhine, which forms the eastern border of the modern city, facing across the river to the German town Kehl.
The historic core of Strasbourg however lies on the Grande Île in the river Ill, which here flows parallel to, 4 kilometres from, the Rhine. The natural courses of the two rivers join some distance downstream of Strasbourg, although several artificial waterways now connect them within the city; the city lies in the Upper Rhine Plain, at between 132 metres and 151 metres above sea level, with the upland areas of the Vosges Mountains some 20 km to the west and the Black Forest 25 km to the east. This section of the Rhine valley is a major axis of north–south travel, with river traffic on the Rhine itself, major roads and railways paralleling it on both banks; the city is some 397 kilometres east of Paris. The mouth of the Rhine lies 450 kilometres to the north, or 650 kilometres as the river flows, whilst the head of navigation in Basel is some 100 kilometres to the south, or 150 kilometres by river. In spite of its position far inland, Strasbourg's climate is classified as oceanic, but a "semicontinental" climate with some degree of maritime influence in relation to the mild patterns of Western and Southern France.
The city has warm sunny summers and cool, overcast winters. Precipitation is elevated from mid-spring to the end of summer, but remains constant throughout the year, totaling 631.4 mm annually. On average, snow falls 30 days per year; the highest temperature recorded was 38.5 °C in August 2003, during the 2003 European heat wave. The lowest temperature eve
The Paris Institute of Political Studies referred to as Sciences Po, is the primary institution of higher learning for French political and administrative elite, one of the most prestigious and selective European schools in the social sciences. It was founded in 1872 to promote a new class of French politicians in the aftermath of the French defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1871, has since educated, among others, 32 heads of state or government, 7 of the past 8 French Presidents, 3 past heads of the International Monetary Fund, heads of international organizations, 6 of sitting CAC 40 CEOs; the school is the alma mater of numerous intellectual and cultural figures, such as Marcel Proust, René Rémond, Paul Claudel, Raymond Aron. In 2019, it was ranked as the world's 3rd best school for international relations. Sciences Po undertook an ambitious reform agenda starting in the mid-1990s, which broadened its focus to prepare students for the private sector, put an emphasis on the internationalization of the school's curriculum and student body, established a special admission process for underprivileged applicants.
It expanded outside Paris by establishing additional campuses in Dijon, Le Havre, Nancy and Reims. The institution is a member of the Association of Professional Schools of International Affairs and the Global Public Policy Network. Sciences Po was established in February 1872 as the École Libre des Sciences Politiques by a group of French intellectuals and businessmen led by Émile Boutmy, including Hippolyte Taine, Ernest Renan, Albert Sorel and Paul Leroy Beaulieu; the creation of the school was in response to widespread fears that the inadequacy of the French political and diplomatic corps would further diminish the country’s international stature, as France grappled with the aftermath of a series of crises including the defeat in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War, the demise of Napoleon III, the upheaval and massacre resulting from Paris Commune. The founders of the school sought to reform the training of French politicians by establishing a new "breeding ground where nearly all the major, non-technical state commissioners were trained.".
ELSP proved successful at preparing candidates for entry into senior civil service posts, acquired an image as a major feature of France’s political system. From 1901 to 1935, 92.5% of entrants to the Grands Corps de l'État, which comprises the most powerful and prestigious administrative bodies in the French civil service, had studied there.. In August 1894, the British Association for the Advancement of Science spoke out for the need to advance the study of politics along the lines of ELSP. Sidney and Beatrice Webb used the purpose and curriculum of Sciences Po as part of their inspiration for creating the London School of Economics in 1895. Sciences Po underwent significant reforms in the aftermath of France's liberation from Nazi occupation in 1945; the humiliation of France's surrender to Nazi Germany and the collapse of the Vichy regime provided the impetus for a major restructuring of the state's institutions. Charles de Gaulle, as leader of France's Provisional Government, appointed Michel Debré to overhaul the recruiting and training of public servants.
Though eight of thirteen ministers in De Gaulle's government, including Debré himself, were Sciences Po alumni, a significant reform of the university seemed inevitable, as it had been instrumental in training the class of leaders whom many accused of complacency in face of Nazi aggression. Communist politicians including Georges Cogniot proposed abolishing the ELSP and founding a new state-run administration college on its premises. Debré proposed the compromise, adopted. First, the government established the Ecole Nationale d'Administration, an elite postgraduate college for training government officials. From on, the Grands Corps de l'Etat had to recruit new entrants from ENA; the change, had little impact on Sciences Po's central role in educating the French elite. Although it was now the ENA rather than Sciences Po that fed graduates directly into senior civil service posts, Sciences Po became the university of choice for those hoping to enter the ENA, so retained its dominant place in educating high-ranking officials.
The reforms restructured the administration of École libre des sciences politiques, by creating two separate legal entities: the Institut d'études politiques and the Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques or FNSP. Both entities were tasked by the French government to ensure "the progress and the spread, both within and outside France, of political science and sociology". FNSP manages IEP Paris, its library, budget, an administrative council assures the development of these activities. NSP, a private foundation that receives generous subsidies from the government, administers the school, IEP, owns its buildings and library; the two entities worked together in lockstep, however, as the director of the school is, by tradition the administrator of FNSP. This institutional arrangement gave Sciences Po a unique status, as FNSP continued to receive substantial government subsidies, but the school did not need to submit to many government interventions and regulations, preserved a higher level of autonomy compared to other French universities and schools.
The epithet Sciences Po is applied
Édith Cresson is a French politician. She is the only woman to have held the office of Prime Minister of France, her political career ended in scandal from corruption charges while she was the European Commissioner for Research and Technology. Cresson was appointed to the prime ministerial post by President François Mitterrand on 15 May 1991, she soon became unpopular among the electorate and had to leave office after less than one year, following the Socialists' poor showing in 1992's regional elections. Her premiership is one of the shortest in the history of the Fifth Republic, her strong criticism of Japanese trade practices, going so far as to compare the Japanese to "yellow ants trying to take over the world", led some to consider her to be a racist. She said, discussing the sexual activities of Anglo-Saxon males, "Homosexuality seems strange to me. It's marginal, it exists more in the Anglo-Saxon tradition than the Latin one."In social policy, Cresson's government enacted the Urban Framework Act of 1991, which sought to ensure a "right to the city" for all citizens.
The Act required "local bodies to provide living and dwelling conditions which will foster social cohesion and enable conditions of segregation to be avoided." The Cresson Government placed considerable emphasis during its time in office on facilitating the international competitiveness of firms with under 500 employees. A law was passed in July 1991 which included several measures aimed at improving access of people with disabilities to housing, work places, public buildings. In addition an Act of July 1991 on legal aid "gave the public wider access to the courts." In January 1992, housing allowances were extended to all low-income households in cities with more than 100 000 inhabitants. Under a law of 10 July 1991, access to legal information “was included as part of the legal aid system.” A water law was passed in January 1992 "to ensure the protection of water quality and quantity and aquatic ecosystems," and in February 1992 a law was passed to promote citizens' consultation. Cresson is a member of the Council of Women World Leaders, an International network of current and former women presidents and prime ministers whose mission is to mobilize the highest-level women leaders globally for collective action on issues of critical importance to women and equitable development.
While a European Commissioner, Cresson was the main target in the fraud allegations that led to the resignation of the Santer Commission in 1999. Subsequent to a fraud inquiry the European Commission said that Cresson in her capacity as the Research Commissioner "failed to act in response to known and continuing irregularities over several years". Cresson was found guilty of not reporting failures in a youth training programme from which vast sums went missing; when Cresson took up her functions, she intended to appoint dental surgeon Philippe Berthelot, one of her close acquaintances, as a "personal advisor". Because Berthelot was 66 years old, he could not be appointed as a member of a Commissioner's Cabinet; when Cresson took up office, her Cabinet was fully staffed with personal advisors. Berthelot was instead engaged as a "visiting scientist" in September 1995. Berthelot worked only as a personal advisor to Cresson, his contract expired on 1 March 1997, he was offered another visiting scientist's contract for a period of one year.
EU rules specify a maximum duration of 24 months for visiting scientists, but Berthelot spent two and a half years in the position. On 31 December 1997, Berthelot requested the termination of his contract on medical grounds, his application was accepted. A complaint was made by a member of parliament, a criminal investigation concerning Berthelot was opened in Belgium in 1999. In June 2004, the Chambre du conseil of the Tribunal de première instance de Bruxelles decided that no further action should be taken in the case. On 11 July 2006, in a judgment by the European Court of Justice on Case C-432/04, the Court declared that Édith Cresson acted in breach of her obligations as a European Commissioner. While the breach of the obligations arising from the office of Member of the Commission calls, in principle, for the imposition of a penalty, the Court held that, having regard to the circumstances of the case, the finding of breach constituted, of itself, an appropriate penalty and, decided not to impose on Cresson a penalty in the form of a deprivation of her right to a pension or other benefits.
Cresson claimed that where the conduct complained of in criminal and disciplinary proceedings was the same, the findings of the criminal court were binding on the disciplinary authorities. However, the Court held that it was not bound by the legal characterisation of facts made in the context of the criminal proceedings and that it was for the Court, exercising its discretion to the full, to investigate whether the conduct complained of in proceedings brought under Article 213 EC constituted a breach of the obligations arising from the office of Commissioner. Accordingly, the decision of the Chambre du conseil of the Tribunal de première instance de Bruxelles that there was no evidence of criminal conduct on Cresson's part could not bind the Court. European Commissioner for Research and Science, 1995–1999. Governmental functions Prime minister, 1991–1992. Minister of Agriculture, 1981–1983. Minister of Foreign trade and Tourism, 1983–1984. Minister of Industrial Redeployment and Foreign Trade, 1984–1986.
Minister of European Affairs, 1988–1990. Electoral ma