Lieutenant Governor of Quebec
The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is the viceregal representative in Quebec of the Canadian monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, who operates distinctly within the province but is shared with the ten other jurisdictions of Canada, as well as the other Commonwealth realms and any subdivisions thereof, resides predominantly in her oldest realm, the United Kingdom. The Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is appointed in the same manner as the other provincial viceroys in Canada and is tasked with carrying out most of the monarch's constitutional and ceremonial duties; the present and 29th Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is J. Michel Doyon, who has served in the role since 24 September 2015; the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec is tasked with a number of governmental duties. Not among them, though, is delivering the Throne Speech, which sets the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec apart from the other Canadian viceroys; the lieutenant governor is expected to undertake various ceremonial roles. For instance, upon installation, the lieutenant governor automatically becomes a Knight or Dame of Justice and the Vice-Prior in Quebec of the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem.
As well, he or she will present numerous other provincial honours and decorations and various awards that are named for and presented by the lieutenant governor, which were reinstated in 2000 by Lieutenant Governor Lise Thibault. These honours are presented at official ceremonies, which count among hundreds of other engagements the lieutenant governor partakes in each year, either as host or guest of honour. At these events, the lieutenant governor's presence is marked by the lieutenant governor's standard, consisting of a blue field bearing the escutcheon of the Arms of Her Majesty in Right of Quebec surmounted by a crown and set within a white disc. Within Quebec, the lieutenant governor follows only the sovereign in the province's order of precedence, preceding other members of the Canadian Royal Family and the Queen's federal representative, it has been argued by Jeremy Webber and Robert Andrew Young that, as the office is the core of authority in the province, the secession of Quebec from the Confederation would first require the abolition or transformation of the post of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec.
Others, such as J. Woehrling, have claimed that the legislative process towards Quebec's independence would not require any prior change to the viceregal post. Young felt that the lieutenant governor could refuse Royal Assent to a bill that proposed to put an unclear question on sovereignty to referendum or was based on the results of a referendum that asked such a question; the office of Lieutenant Governor of Quebec came into being in 1867, upon the creation of Quebec at Confederation, evolved from the earlier position of Lieutenant Governor of Canada East. Since that date, 28 lieutenant governors have served the province, amongst whom were notable firsts, such as Lise Thibault—the first female and first disabled lieutenant governor of the province; the shortest mandate by a Lieutenant Governor of Quebec was Lomer Gouin, from January to March 1929, while the longest was Hugues Lapointe, from 1966 to 1978. One of the few examples in Canada of a viceroy exercising the royal prerogative against or without ministerial advice came in 1887, when Lieutenant Governor Auguste-Réal Angers dismissed the Cabinet headed by Premier Honoré Mercier.
The appointment of Jean-Louis Roux as Lieutenant Governor of Quebec by Governor General Roméo LeBlanc, on the advice of Prime Minister Jean Chrétien, stirred controversy, as Roux was well known as a strong opponent of Quebec independence and, soon after he took up the post, it was revealed that, as a university student in the 1940s, he had worn a swastika on his lab coat in protest of the proposal to invoke conscription for service in World War II and had participated in an anti-Semitic protest. Roux had, in an interview after his appointment as lieutenant governor, stated that he might have to use the reserve powers of the Crown should certain circumstances arise following a referendum result in favour of Quebec's separation from Canada. Bouchard thereafter exploited the revelation of Roux's past anti-Semitism and the Lieutenant Governor soon resigned his post voluntarily in 1996; the following year, Bouchard tabled in the legislature three motions, calling the Office of the Lieutenant Governor "a heritage of the colonial past", the appointment process controversial and interfering, demanding the post be abolished, until the federal Crown-in-Council should appoint a person "democratically designated by the Assembly".
Since 1997 there is no longer an official residence. However, they still retain an official office at Édifice André-Laurendeau. Previous residences includes Maison Sewell at 87, rue Saint-Louis, Spencer Wood from 1870 to 1966 and 1010 rue St. Louis from 1967 to 199
Joseph-Edmond-André Laurendeau was a journalist, politician, co-chair of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, playwright in Quebec, Canada. He is referred to as André Laurendeau, he was active in various spheres and capacities, for three decades. Laurendeau's career "spanned the most turbulent periods in the history of Canada". André Laurendeau was born March 1912, into a ` notable' Québécois family, he was the only child of Arthur Laurendeau. Theirs was a musically and politically oriented home, a Catholic atmosphere, his father Arthur was an ardent nationalist and Laurendeau grew up admiring people such as the founder of Le Devoir, Henri Bourassa, the Catholic nationalist historian Abbé Lionel Groulx. Laurendeau graduated from Collège Sainte-Marie in 1931. Due to a bout with depression, Laurendeau did not pursue a university degree thereafter; the fact that he reached young adulthood as the Great Depression struck influenced his social views. Starting in 1933, Laurendeau and several friends from the University of Montréal founded a neo-nationalist, separatist movement called "Jeune-Canada".
They advocated for a homeland for French Canadians. While a member of Jeune-Canada, Laurendeau helped organize and spoke at a protest rally titled "Politicians and Jews", it was held in response to a protest against anti-Semitism in Germany held in Montreal, both rallies taking place in 1933. Laurendeau questioned the validity of the charges of maltreatment against Jewish peoples in Germany, he described Jewish peoples' ability to make their political weight felt as a cohesive unit. While claiming not to be anti-Semitic throughout their political career, Jeune-Canada's message of hatred was debated in the newspaper Le Devoir, it was not until the death of Hitler that the group died down. In 1963 Laurendeau wrote an article in the French edition of Maclean's magazine, which denounced this period of his life as ignorant, youthful passion. In 1935 he left Quebec with his spouse to study philosophy and social sciences at the Sorbonne. After studying abroad, Laurendeau relinquished his separatist persuasion and began to be more preoccupied with the American threat to French-Canadian culture than with that threat posed by English Canada.
Upon returning home, he served as director of the L'Action nationale magazine from 1937 to 1943 and from 1949 to 1953, under his father's direction in the past. As a journalist and editorialist, Laurendeau broached a myriad of topics, from nationalism, to World War II, to federalism, to separatism and bilingualism/biculturalism, but always from the same platform. Laurendeau subscribed to tenets of Christian humanism throughout his long career, he was concerned for the good of the collective and suspicious of those who wished to concentrate power in the hands of the few. Additionally, Laurendeau believed that though Quebec constituted a minority in Canada, their position as a unique province with a unique culture were to be respected and not undermined by a central power based in Ottawa. In 1942, Laurendeau entered into politics in opposition to conscription, as a member of the Ligue pour la défense du Canada, his primary reason for doing so was that Prime Minister Mackenzie King had promised conscription would not become national policy, only to put a plebiscite to Canadians to determine whether or not he might revoke his promise and retain their favour.
Laurendeau took part in the founding of the centre-left party Bloc populaire Canadien, soon became its provincial leader while Maxime Raymond was its federal leader. Laurendeau was a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec from 1944 to 1948 in Montréal-Laurier electoral district. In 1947, Laurendeau became associate editor-in-chief of Le Devoir and, in 1957, became its editor-in-chief; as editor, he was known first for his battles against Maurice Duplessis and as a leading spokesman for the rising national identity of Quebec during the Quiet Revolution. His editorial column of November 18, 1958, Maurice Duplessis à l'Assemblée nationale: la théorie du roi nègre was cited by Quebecers of all political stripes for years afterwards; this piece compared the status of Duplessis in Quebec in Canada to that of an indigenous ruler in an imperial colony, the parallel being that violations of civil rights and liberties, perpetrated by Duplessis, were tolerated by English Canadians. In the colonial case, the same would hold true though such violations would not be tolerated by colonists in their imperial lands of origin.
Laurendeau is known for having popularized the word "joual". From 1953 to 1961, he was the host of the television show Pays et Merveilles broadcast by Radio-Canada. From 1963 until his death, Laurendeau served as co-chair, along with Davidson Dunton, of the Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism, a position that brought him considerable criticism from his nationalist colleagues; the stress caused by this criticism was blamed for Laurendeau's early death by historian Charles Godin. In many of his publications, Laurendeau attached particular importance to the education and future of youth. Schools were named in his honour in Saint-Hubert, in LaSalle, in Ottawa. "Biography". Dictionnaire des parlementaires du Québec de 1792 à nos jours. National Assembly of Quebec. Bouvier, Félix. André Laurendeau, LIDEC, Montréal, 1996. Horton, Donald. André Laurendeau, French-Canadian Nationalist, 1912-1968, Oxf
Premier of Quebec
The Premier of Quebec (French: Premier ministre du Québec or Première ministre du Québec is the head of government of the Canadian province of Quebec. The current Premier of Quebec is François Legault of the Coalition Avenir Quebec, sworn in on October 18, 2018 following the 2018 election; the Premier of Quebec is appointed as president of the Executive Council by the Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, the viceregal representative of the Queen in Right of Quebec. The Premier is most the head of the party winning the most seats in the National Assembly of Quebec, is a sitting member of the National Assembly. An exception to this rule occurs when the winning party's leader fails to win the riding in which he or she is running. In that case, the premier would have to attain a seat by winning a by-election; this has happened, for example, to Robert Bourassa in 1985. The role of the Premier of Quebec is to set the legislative priorities on the opening speech of the National Assembly, he or she represents the leading party and must have the confidence of the assembly, as expressed by votes on budgets and other matters considered as confidence votes.
The term "premier" is used in English, while French employs "premier ministre", which translates directly to "prime minister". In at least one instance, the term "Prime Minister of the Province of Quebec" was used in an English-language advertisement; the term is used for the Podium Ceremony of the annual Formula One Grand Prix du Canada in Montreal. The Premiers of Quebec are chosen according to the principle of responsible government; this principle is a matter of constitutional convention, since the Constitution Act, 1867 does not mention it. Politics of Quebec List of premiers of Quebec List of premiers of Quebec by time in office Prime Minister of Canada Premier Premier of Quebec official site
Beaux-Arts architecture was the academic architectural style taught at the École des Beaux-Arts in Paris from the 1830s to the end of the 19th century. It drew upon the principles of French neoclassicism, but incorporated Gothic and Renaissance elements, used modern materials, such as iron and glass, it was an important style in France until the end of the 19th century. It had a strong influence on architecture in the United States, because of the many prominent American architects who studied at the Beaux-Arts, including Henry Hobson Richardson, John Galen Howard, Daniel Burnham, Louis Sullivan; the "Beaux Arts" style evolved from the French classicism of the Style Louis XIV, French neoclassicism beginning with Louis XV and Louis XVI. French architectural styles before the French Revolution were governed by Académie royale d'architecture following the French Revolution, by the Architecture section of the Académie des Beaux-Arts; the Academy held the competition for the "Grand Prix de Rome" in architecture, which offered prize winners a chance to study the classical architecture of antiquity in Rome.
The formal neoclassicism of the old regime was challenged by four teachers at the Academy, Joseph-Louis Duc, Félix Duban, Henri Labrouste and Léon Vaudoyer, who had studied at the French Academy in Rome at the end of the 1820s, They wanted to break away from the strict formality of the old style by introducing new models of architecture from the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Their goal was to create an authentic French style based on French models, their work was aided beginning in 1837 by the creation of the Commission of Historic Monuments, headed by the writer and historian Prosper Mérimée, by the great interest in the Middle Ages caused by the publication in 1831 of The Hunchback of Notre-Dame by Victor Hugo. Their declared intention was to "imprint upon our architecture a national character."The style referred to as Beaux-Arts in English reached the apex of its development during the Second Empire and the Third Republic that followed. The style of instruction that produced Beaux-Arts architecture continued without major interruption until 1968.
The Beaux-Arts style influenced the architecture of the United States in the period from 1880 to 1920. In contrast, many European architects of the period 1860–1914 outside France gravitated away from Beaux-Arts and towards their own national academic centers. Owing to the cultural politics of the late 19th century, British architects of Imperial classicism followed a somewhat more independent course, a development culminating in Sir Edwin Lutyens's New Delhi government buildings; the Beaux-Arts training emphasized the mainstream examples of Imperial Roman architecture between Augustus and the Severan emperors, Italian Renaissance, French and Italian Baroque models but the training could be applied to a broader range of models: Quattrocento Florentine palace fronts or French late Gothic. American architects of the Beaux-Arts generation returned to Greek models, which had a strong local history in the American Greek Revival of the early 19th century. For the first time, repertories of photographs supplemented meticulous scale drawings and on-site renderings of details.
Beaux-Arts training made great use of clasps that link one architectural detail to another. Beaux-Arts training emphasized the production of quick conceptual sketches finished perspective presentation drawings, close attention to the program, knowledgeable detailing. Site considerations tended toward urbane contexts. All architects-in-training passed through the obligatory stages—studying antique models, constructing analos, analyses reproducing Greek or Roman models, "pocket" studies and other conventional steps—in the long competition for the few desirable places at the Académie de France à Rome with traditional requirements of sending at intervals the presentation drawings called envois de Rome. Beaux-Arts architecture depended on sculptural decoration along conservative modern lines, employing French and Italian Baroque and Rococo formulas combined with an impressionistic finish and realism. In the façade shown above, Diana grasps the cornice she sits on in a natural action typical of Beaux-Arts integration of sculpture with architecture.
Overscaled details, bold sculptural supporting consoles, rich deep cornices and sculptural enrichments in the most bravura finish the client could afford gave employment to several generations of architectural modellers and carvers of Italian and Central European backgrounds. A sense of appropriate idiom at the craftsman level supported the design teams of the first modern architectural offices. Characteristics of Beaux-Arts architecture included: Flat roof Rusticated and raised first story Hierarchy of spaces, from "noble spaces"—grand entrances and staircases—to utilitarian ones Arched windows Arched and pedimented doors Classical details: references to a synthesis of historicist styles and a tendency to eclecticism.
Quebec is one of the thirteen provinces and territories of Canada. It is bordered to the west by the province of Ontario and the bodies of water James Bay and Hudson Bay. S. states of Maine, New Hampshire and New York. It shares maritime borders with Nunavut, Prince Edward Island, Nova Scotia. Quebec is Canada's largest province by its second-largest administrative division, it is and politically considered to be part of Central Canada. Quebec is the second-most populous province of Canada, after Ontario, it is the only one to have a predominantly French-speaking population, with French as the sole provincial official language. Most inhabitants live in urban areas near the Saint Lawrence River between Montreal and Quebec City, the capital. Half of Quebec residents live in the Greater Montreal Area, including the Island of Montreal. English-speaking communities and English-language institutions are concentrated in the west of the island of Montreal but are significantly present in the Outaouais, Eastern Townships, Gaspé regions.
The Nord-du-Québec region, occupying the northern half of the province, is sparsely populated and inhabited by Aboriginal peoples. The climate around the major cities is four-seasons continental with cold and snowy winters combined with warm to hot humid summers, but farther north long winter seasons dominate and as a result the northern areas of the province are marked by tundra conditions. In central Quebec, at comparatively southerly latitudes, winters are severe in inland areas. Quebec independence debates have played a large role in the politics of the province. Parti Québécois governments held referendums on sovereignty in 1980 and 1995. Although neither passed, the 1995 referendum saw the highest voter turnout in Quebec history, at over 93%, only failed by less than 1%. In 2006, the House of Commons of Canada passed a symbolic motion recognizing the "Québécois as a nation within a united Canada". While the province's substantial natural resources have long been the mainstay of its economy, sectors of the knowledge economy such as aerospace and communication technologies and the pharmaceutical industry play leading roles.
These many industries have all contributed to helping Quebec become an economically influential province within Canada, second only to Ontario in economic output. The name "Québec", which comes from the Algonquin word kébec meaning "where the river narrows" referred to the area around Quebec City where the Saint Lawrence River narrows to a cliff-lined gap. Early variations in the spelling of the name included Kébec. French explorer Samuel de Champlain chose the name Québec in 1608 for the colonial outpost he would use as the administrative seat for the French colony of New France; the province is sometimes referred to as "La belle province". The Province of Quebec was founded in the Royal Proclamation of 1763 after the Treaty of Paris formally transferred the French colony of Canada to Britain after the Seven Years' War; the proclamation restricted the province to an area along the banks of the Saint Lawrence River. The Quebec Act of 1774 expanded the territory of the province to include the Great Lakes and the Ohio River Valley and south of Rupert's Land, more or less restoring the borders existing under French rule before the Conquest of 1760.
The Treaty of Paris ceded territories south of the Great Lakes to the United States. After the Constitutional Act of 1791, the territory was divided between Lower Canada and Upper Canada, with each being granted an elected legislative assembly. In 1840, these become Canada East and Canada West after the British Parliament unified Upper and Lower Canada into the Province of Canada; this territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867. Each became one of the first four provinces. In 1870, Canada purchased Rupert's Land from the Hudson's Bay Company and over the next few decades the Parliament of Canada transferred to Quebec portions of this territory that would more than triple the size of the province. In 1898, the Canadian Parliament passed the first Quebec Boundary Extension Act that expanded the provincial boundaries northward to include the lands of the local aboriginal peoples; this was followed by the addition of the District of Ungava through the Quebec Boundaries Extension Act of 1912 that added the northernmost lands of the Inuit to create the modern Province of Quebec.
In 1927, the border between Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador was established by the British Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. Quebec disputes this boundary. Located in the eastern part of Canada, part of Central Canada, Quebec occupies a territory nearly three times the size of France or Texas, most of, sparsely populated, its topography is different from one region to another due to the varying composition of the ground, the climate, the proximity to water. The Saint Lawrence Lowland and the Appalachians are the two main topographic regions in southern Quebec, while the Canadian Shield occupies most of central and northern Quebec. Quebec has one of the world's largest reserves of fresh water, occupying 12% of its surface, it has 3 % of the world's renewable fresh water. Mor
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
Quebec City Québec, is the capital city of the Canadian province of Quebec. The city had a population estimate of 531,902 in July 2016, the metropolitan area had a population of 800,296 in July 2016, making it the second largest city in Quebec after Montreal, the seventh largest metropolitan area and eleventh largest city in the country; the Algonquian people had named the area Kébec, an Algonquin word meaning "where the river narrows", because the Saint Lawrence River narrows proximate to the promontory of Quebec and its Cape Diamant. Explorer Samuel de Champlain founded a French settlement here in 1608, adopted the Algonquin name. Quebec City is one of the oldest European cities in North America; the ramparts surrounding Old Quebec are the only fortified city walls remaining in the Americas north of Mexico. This area was declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1985 as the "Historic District of Old Québec"; the city's landmarks include the Château Frontenac hotel that dominates the skyline and the Citadelle of Quebec, an intact fortress that forms the centrepiece of the ramparts surrounding the old city and includes a secondary royal residence.
The National Assembly of Quebec, the Musée national des beaux-arts du Québec, the Musée de la civilisation are found within or near Vieux-Québec. According to the Government of Canada, the Government of Quebec and the Geographical Names Board of Canada, the names of Canadian cities and towns have only one official form. Thus, Québec is spelled with an accented é in both Canadian English and French. In English, the city and the province are distinguished by the fact that the province does not have an accented é and the city does. Informally, the accent is omitted in common usage, so the unofficial form "Quebec City" is used to distinguish the city from the province. In French, the names of provinces are gendered nouns and the names of cities are not, so the city and the province are distinguished by the presence or absence of a definite article in front of the name. For example, the concept of "in Quebec" is expressed as "à Québec" for the city and "au Québec" for the province. Quebec City is one of the oldest European settlements in North America and the only fortified city north of Mexico whose walls still exist.
While many of the major cities in Latin America date from the 16th century, among cities in Canada and the U. S. few were created earlier than Quebec City. It is home to the earliest known French settlement in North America, Fort Charlesbourg-Royal, established in 1541 by explorer Jacques Cartier with some 400 persons but abandoned less than a year due to the hostility of the natives and the harsh winter; the fort was in the suburban former town of Cap-Rouge. Quebec was founded by Samuel de Champlain, a French explorer and diplomat, on 3 July 1608, at the site of a long abandoned St. Lawrence Iroquoian settlement called Stadacona. Champlain called "The Father of New France", served as its administrator for the rest of his life; the name "Canada" refers to this settlement. Although the Acadian settlement at Port-Royal was established three years earlier, Quebec came to be known as the cradle of North America's Francophone population; the place seemed favourable to the establishment of a permanent colony.
The population of the settlement remained small for decades. In 1629 it was captured by English privateers, led during the Anglo-French War. Samuel de Champlain argued that the English seizing of the lands was illegal as the war had ended, worked to have the lands returned to France; as part of the ongoing negotiations of their exit from the Anglo-French War, in 1632 the English king Charles agreed to return the lands in exchange for Louis XIII paying his wife's dowry. These terms were signed into law with the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye; the lands in Quebec and Acadia were returned to the French Company of One Hundred Associates. In 1665, there were 550 people in 70 houses living in the city. One-quarter of the people were members of religious orders: secular priests, Ursulines nuns and the order running the local hospital, Hotel-Dieu. Quebec City was the headquarters of many raids against New England during the four French and Indian Wars. In the last war, the French and Indian War, Quebec City was captured by the British in 1759 and held until the end of the war in 1763.
It was the site of three battles during Seven Years' War: a French victory. France ceded New France, including the city, to Britain in 1763. At the end of French rule in 1763, villages and pastures surrounded the town of 8,000 inhabitants; the town distinguished itself by its monumental architecture and affluent homes of masonry and shacks in the suburbs of Saint-Jean and Saint-Roch. Despite its urbanity and its status as capital, Quebec City remained a small colonial city with close ties to its rural surroundings. Nearby inhabitants traded their farm surpluses and firewood for imported goods from France at the two city m