Édouard Manet

Édouard Manet was a French modernist painter. He was one of the first 19th-century artists to paint modern life, a pivotal figure in the transition from Realism to Impressionism. Born into an upper-class household with strong political connections, Manet rejected the future envisioned for him, became engrossed in the world of painting, his early masterworks, The Luncheon on the Grass and Olympia, both 1863, caused great controversy and served as rallying points for the young painters who would create Impressionism. Today, these are considered watershed paintings; the last 20 years of Manet's life saw him form bonds with other great artists of the time, develop his own style that would be heralded as innovative and serve as a major influence for future painters. Édouard Manet was born in Paris on 23 January 1832, in the ancestral hôtel particulier on the rue des Petits Augustins to an affluent and well-connected family. His mother, Eugénie-Desirée Fournier, was the daughter of a diplomat and goddaughter of the Swedish crown prince Charles Bernadotte, from whom the Swedish monarchs are descended.

His father, Auguste Manet, was a French judge. His uncle, Edmond Fournier, took young Manet to the Louvre. In 1841 he enrolled at the Collège Rollin. In 1845, at the advice of his uncle, Manet enrolled in a special course of drawing where he met Antonin Proust, future Minister of Fine Arts and subsequent lifelong friend. At his father's suggestion, in 1848 he sailed on a training vessel to Rio de Janeiro. After he twice failed the examination to join the Navy, his father relented to his wishes to pursue an art education. From 1850 to 1856, Manet studied under the academic painter Thomas Couture. In his spare time, Manet copied the Old Masters in the Louvre. From 1853 to 1856, Manet visited Germany and the Netherlands, during which time he was influenced by the Dutch painter Frans Hals, the Spanish artists Diego Velázquez and Francisco José de Goya. In 1856, Manet opened a studio, his style in this period was characterized by loose brush strokes, simplification of details and the suppression of transitional tones.

Adopting the current style of realism initiated by Gustave Courbet, he painted The Absinthe Drinker and other contemporary subjects such as beggars, Gypsies, people in cafés, bullfights. After his early career, he painted religious, mythological, or historical subjects. Manet had two canvases accepted at the Salon in 1861. A portrait of his mother and father, who at the time was paralysed and robbed of speech by a stroke, was ill-received by critics; the other, The Spanish Singer, was admired by Theophile Gautier, placed in a more conspicuous location as a result of its popularity with Salon-goers. Manet's work, which appeared "slightly slapdash" when compared with the meticulous style of so many other Salon paintings, intrigued some young artists; the Spanish Singer, painted in a "strange new fashion caused many painters' eyes to open and their jaws to drop." Music in the Tuileries is an early example of Manet's painterly style. Inspired by Hals and Velázquez, it is a harbinger of his lifelong interest in the subject of leisure.

While the picture was regarded as unfinished by some, the suggested atmosphere imparts a sense of what the Tuileries gardens were like at the time. Here, Manet has depicted his friends, artists and musicians who take part, he has included a self-portrait among the subjects. A major early work is The Luncheon on the Grass Le Bain; the Paris Salon rejected it for exhibition in 1863, but Manet agreed to exhibit it at the Salon des Refusés, a parallel exhibition to the official Salon, as an alternative exhibition in the Palais des Champs-Elysée. The Salon des Refusés was initiated by Emperor Napoleon III as a solution to a problematic situation which came about as the Selection Committee of the Salon that year rejected 2,783 paintings of the ca. 5000. Each painter could decide whether to take the opportunity to exhibit at the Salon des Refusés, less than 500 of the rejected painters chose to do so. Manet employed model Victorine Meurent, his wife Suzanne, future brother-in-law Ferdinand Leenhoff, one of his brothers to pose.

Meurent posed for several more of Manet's important paintings including Olympia. The painting's juxtaposition of dressed men and a nude woman was controversial, as was its abbreviated, sketch-like handling, an innovation that distinguished Manet from Courbet. At the same time, Manet's composition reveals his study of the old masters, as the disposition of the main figures is derived from Marcantonio Raimondi's engraving of the Judgement of Paris based on a drawing by Raphael. Two additional works cited by scholars as important precedents for Le déjeuner sur l'herbe are Pastoral Concert and The Tempest, both of which are attributed variously to Italian Renaissance masters Giorgione or Titian; the Tempest is an enigmatic painting featuring a dressed man and a nude woman in a rural setting. The man is standing to the left and gazing to the side at the woman, seated and breastfeeding a baby. In Pastoral Concert, two clothed men

J. Y. Dykman Store

The J. Y. Dykman Store is located at Main and Pearl streets in the village of Nelsonville, New York, United States, across from the Fish and Fur Club, now the village hall. Like that building, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1982, it is an antique map store. It is a four-bay clapboard-sided frame building. Three of the front four bays are taken up by wood-framed plate glass windows and the recessed double-door entrance with single-light transom. Above it is a bracketed sheet metal entablature with the words "J. Y. DYKMAN" and fleur-de-lis and swag motifs on the fascia and pilaster capitals; the 1876 Beers map of the Nelsonville area, the earliest one, shows the corner as part of the Gouverneur estate. By 1912 James Y. Dykman, a prominent local businessman who had opened a feed store nearby, is listed as the owner of a grocery at the site. By the late 20th century it had become Hudson Rogue, a dealer in antique maps and prints


Khatauli is a city and nagar palika in Muzaffarnagar district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. A part of National Capital Region, the town is situated 100 km away from the national capital New Delhi. Khatauli lies on the National Highway 58, an important route for trade and commerce and a main route for the many Hindu pilgrim places like Haridwar, Kedarnath and many hill stations like Dehradun and Chopta. Khatauli was declared as Tehsil in 2007; the town lies on Delhi - Saharanpur railway route. Khatauli came into news because of an unfortunate train accident on 19th Aug 2017 because of human negligence; as many as 14 coaches of Puri Haridwar Kalinga Utkal Express went off track. Khatauli's Triveni Sugar Mill is the largest in Asia in terms of scale of production and storage capacity; the mill has been operational since 1933. Khatauli offers some tourist attractions. Khatauli's position on the banks of the upper Ganga canal serves as the area's main tourist attraction. Khatauli is known for its combination of cultural influences from the Hindu, Jain and Sikh religions.

There are nine Jain temples in the town. As per the 2011 census, Khatauli municipality had a population of 4,33,910 and the urban agglomeration had a population of 1,04,108; the municipality had a sex ratio of 898 females per 1,000 males and 15% of the population were under six years old. Effective literacy was 73%; the Tehsil has 33 % Muslims, 0.2 % Sikhs, 0.2 % Christians and 0.8 % Jains. Khatauli is governed by Municipal Council; the city's population is 4,33,910. The majority of the population speaks Hindi. 1) Balaji Institute Of Hotel Management & Science 2) Pt. Chhotan Lal I. T. I. 3) Prahlad Singh Memorial Group of Institutions consists of a Degree College, B. Ed College, ITI. Law and Paramedical colleges are under construction. 4) KK Jain Degree College 5) Vidhyotma College 6) Janta Inter College 2017 Khatauli train derailment