Édouard Philippe

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Édouard Philippe
Edouard Philippe, le 1er septembre 2017.jpg
Prime Minister of France
Assumed office
15 May 2017
President Emmanuel Macron
Preceded by Bernard Cazeneuve
Member of the National Assembly
for Seine-Maritime's 7th constituency
In office
23 March 2012 – 15 June 2017
Preceded by Jean-Yves Besselat
Succeeded by Agnès Firmin-Le Bodo
President of the Agglomeration Community of Le Havre
In office
18 December 2010 – 25 June 2017
Preceded by Antoine Rufenacht
Succeeded by Luc Lemonnier
Mayor of Le Havre
In office
23 October 2010 – 20 May 2017
Preceded by Antoine Rufenacht
Succeeded by Luc Lemonnier
Personal details
Born (1970-11-28) 28 November 1970 (age 46)
Rouen, France
Political party Socialist Party (1990s)
Union for a Popular Movement (2002–2015)
The Republicans (2015–present)
Spouse(s) Edith Chabre
Children 3
Residence Hôtel Matignon
Alma mater Sciences Po
École nationale d'administration

Édouard Charles Philippe (French: [edwaʁ filip]; born 28 November 1970) is a French lawyer and politician, serving as the Prime Minister of France since 15 May 2017.

A member of the Union for a Popular Movement, which later became The Republicans, he has served as a member of the National Assembly representing the 7th constituency of Seine-Maritime from 2012, as well as mayor of Le Havre and president of the agglomeration community of Le Havre from 2010.

On 15 May 2017, President Emmanuel Macron appointed him Prime Minister; Philippe subsequently named his government on 17 May.

Early life and education[edit]

Édouard Philippe, the son of French teachers, was born in Rouen in 1970 and grew up in a left-wing household. He has one sibling, a sister,[1] he comes from a family of dockworkers, a profession that members of his family are still employed in.[2] He grew up in a suburban neighbourhood in Rouen, he was at first a pupil at the Michelet School in Rouen before moving to Grand-Quevilly where he attended Jean-Texier college and finally attending Lycée les Bruyères in Sotteville-lès-Rouen.[3]

He obtained his baccalauréat in Bonn, and after a year in hypokhâgne, he studied at Sciences Po for three years and graduated in 1992, and later studied at the École nationale d'administration from 1995 to 1997 (the "Marc Bloch cohort").[4][5]

Philippe served as an artillery officer during his national service in 1994, he continued to serve in the operational reserve for several years afterwards.[6]

In his years at Sciences Po, he supported Michel Rocard and was influenced by him, identifying with the Rocardian and social democratic wings of the Socialist Party, his brief flirtation with the Socialists ended after Rocard was toppled from the leadership of the Socialist Party. After leaving the ENA in 1997, he went on to work at the Council of State,[4][5] specializing in public procurement law.[7]

Political career[edit]

In 2001, Philippe joined Antoine Rufenacht as deputy mayor of Le Havre charged with legal affairs;[8] Rufenacht served as mayor of Le Havre from 1995 to 2010 and campaign director for Jacques Chirac in the 2002 presidential election.[5] Recognizing the ideological proximity between Michel Rocard and Alain Juppé, Philippe supported the latter at the time of the creation of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) in 2002, marking the end of his left-wing activism;[5] the same year, he failed to win his constituency in the legislative elections.[7] He served under Juppé as director general of services of the UMP until 2004, when the mayor of Bordeaux was convicted as a result of the fictitious jobs case implicating the Rally for the Republic (RPR), he then took a job in the private sector, working with the American law firm Debevoise & Plimpton LLP,[4][5] and was elected to the regional council of Upper Normandy the same year.[8]

In the wake of Nicolas Sarkozy's victory in the 2007 presidential election, Philippe briefly returned to political life working for Alain Juppé, when Juppé served briefly as Minister of Ecology, before being appointed Director of Public Affairs at Areva, where he worked from 2007 to 2010.[5] He has been substitute to deputy Jean-Yves Besselat, elected to Seine-Maritime's 7th constituency, since 2007.[4] In 2008, he was elected to the general council of Seine-Maritime in the canton of Le Havre-5,[9] and in 2010 was elected mayor of Le Havre after the resignation of Rufenacht,[5] his mentor,[4] and also became president of the agglomeration community of Le Havre the same year.[8] After Besselat's death in 2012 following a long illness, Philippe took his seat,[10] successfully holding it in the subsequent legislative elections,[5] he was re-elected as mayor of Le Havre in the 2014 municipal elections in the first round, with an absolute majority of 52.04% of expressed votes.[9]

2017 presidential election[edit]

He worked for the campaign of Alain Juppé in the primary of the right and centre in 2016, serving as a spokesperson alongside Benoist Apparu.[11] Though Philippe and Apparu, as well as Christophe Béchu, later joined the campaign of François Fillon for the 2017 presidential election after his victory in the primary, the three parliamentarians – close to Juppé – quit on 2 March 2017 after the candidate was summoned to appear before judges amidst the Fillon affair.[5][12] He said he would not seek to retain his seat in the legislative elections in June to avoid breaching the law limiting the accumulation of mandates. Following the victory of Emmanuel Macron in the presidential election, there was speculation that Philippe was a potential choice for Prime Minister, representing three essential aspects: political renewal (at the age of only 46), affiliation with the moderate right, and familiarity with the political terrain.[5]

Prime Minister[edit]

Aggregated opinion polls ("political barometers") monitoring Philippe's approval (excluding "no opinion")

On 15 May 2017, Philippe was appointed as Prime Minister by Emmanuel Macron.[13]

In the June 2017 legislative elections, Macron's party, renamed "La République En Marche!", together with its ally the Democratic Movement (MoDem), secured a comfortable majority, winning 350 seats out of 577, with his party alone winning an outright majority of 308 seats. Philippe is a member of The Republicans though he campaigned for La République En Marche! due to the party supporting his role as Prime Minister.

Philippe formed a second government on 21 May, 2017 following a series of resignations after scandal embroiled ministers Francois Bayrou, Sylvie Goulard, Marielle de Sarnez and Richard Ferrand. This diminished Democratic Movement's representation in the government significantly.[14][15][16][17]

Philippe secured a vote of confidence and was allowed to govern with a majority government on July 4, 2017. Philippe was confirmed with a vote of 370-67.[18] Following the vote, Philippe addressed the parliament, talking about plans to tackle France's debt by raising cigarette tax and cutting spending.[19] Philippe also talked about plans to reduce corporate tax from 33.3% to 25% by 2022.[20] Philippe announced the government's labour reform plan which will give companies more power when it comes to negotiating conditions directly with their employees.[21] Labour reform was one of Macron's biggest election promises and has been seen as the government's biggest economic reform.[22]

On July 12, 2017, Philippe announced a new immigration plan, the plan attempts to speed up asylum claims from fourteen months to six, provide housing for 7,500 refugees by the end of 2019, improve living conditions for minors and deport economic migrants[23][24] The draft of the law will be introduced in September.[25]

Personal life[edit]

Philippe is married to Edith Chabre, the executive director of the School of Law at Sciences Po,[26][27] and they have three children.[28][29] Philippe is an amateur boxer.

Published works[edit]

Philippe has co-authored two works of fiction:

In 2015, he prefaced Promenades avec Oscar Niemeyer by Danielle Knapp, published by Petit à Petit.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Les moments-clés de la vie politique d’Edouard Philippe". Le Monde.fr (in French). 2017-05-15. ISSN 1950-6244. Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  2. ^ "Edouard Philippe, un fidèle juppéiste qui s’affranchit pour recomposer". lesechos.fr (in French). 2017-05-15. Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  3. ^ "La jeunesse rouennaise d’Edouard Philippe". www.paris-normandie.fr (in French). Retrieved 2017-08-06. 
  4. ^ a b c d e Valérie Peiffer; Pierre Simon; Pascal Mateo (16 December 2010). "Edouard Philippe de A à Z". Le Point. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Jules Pecnard (10 May 2017). "Trois choses à savoir sur Edouard Philippe, le potentiel futur Premier ministre". L'Express. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  6. ^ "Prime Minister". Gouvernement.fr. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  7. ^ a b Justine Chevalier (11 May 2017). "Qui est Edouard Philippe, juppéiste pressenti pour être Premier ministre?". BFM TV. Retrieved 14 May 2017. 
  8. ^ a b c "Biographie et actualités de Edouard Philippe". France Inter. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  9. ^ a b "Edouard Philippe : Biographie et articles". Le Point. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  10. ^ "Jean-Yves Besselat, député UMP de Seine-Maritime, est mort". Le Monde. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  11. ^ Damien Fleurot (14 October 2014). "QG, porte-parole: Alain Juppé lance sa campagne". BFM TV. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  12. ^ "Les juppéistes Apparu, Philippe et Béchu se retirent de la campagne Fillon". Le Figaro. Agence France-Presse. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  13. ^ "Le premier ministre Philippe prépare " un gouvernement rassembleur de compétences "". Le Monde. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  14. ^ "Top Macron ally Bayrou quits French government". BBC News. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  15. ^ "French Defense Minister Sylvie Goulard asks to step down amid probe". POLITICO. 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  16. ^ "François Bayrou, Marielle de Sarnez resign from French government: report". POLITICO. 2017-06-21. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  17. ^ "Emmanuel Macron's close ally Richard Ferrand to resign from Cabinet; to seek leadership role in En Marche". Firstpost. 2017-06-20. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  18. ^ "French PM Edouard Philippe wins confidence vote, vows to cut budget deficit". Firstpost. 2017-07-05. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  19. ^ "French PM Edouard Philippe wins confidence vote". Jagranjosh.com. 2017-01-05. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  20. ^ "French PM says time to end addiction to public spending - France 24". France 24. 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  21. ^ "France unveils pro business reform plan". www.enca.com. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  22. ^ "Parliament votes massively in favour of cost-cutting reforms". RFI. 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  23. ^ News, ABC. "French PM lays out new migrant plan, offers no 'magic wand'". ABC News. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  24. ^ "Edouard Philippe: France will maintain border controls until November". POLITICO. 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  25. ^ "France to boost refugee aid, deport economic migrants - France 24". France 24. 2017-07-12. Retrieved 2017-07-22. 
  26. ^ "School of Law". Sciences Po. Retrieved 17 May 2017. 
  27. ^ "Qui est la "très discrète" Edith Chabre, épouse d'Edouard Philippe, le nouveau Premier ministre?". France Soir. 16 May 2017. Retrieved 17 May 2017. 
  28. ^ "All you need to know about France's little-known Prime Minister Edouard Philippe". The Local France. 15 May 2017. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  29. ^ "Session 1: Building a Smart Port City for today and tomorrow (Durban)". 14th World Conference Cities and Ports. Retrieved 15 May 2017. 
  30. ^ Alain Auffray (15 May 2017). "Edouard Philippe, la transgression à Matignon". Libération. Retrieved 16 May 2017. 

External links[edit]

Political offices
Preceded by
Antoine Rufenacht
Mayor of Le Havre
2010–2017
Succeeded by
Luc Lemonnier
President of the Agglomeration Community of Le Havre
2010–present
Incumbent
Preceded by
Bernard Cazeneuve
Prime Minister of France
2017–present
National Assembly of France
Preceded by
Jean-Yves Besselat
Member of the National Assembly
for Seine-Maritime's 7th constituency

2012–2017
Incumbent
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Emmanuel Macron
as President
Order of Precedence of France
as Prime Minister
Succeeded by
Gérard Larcher
as President of the Senate