1978 FIFA World Cup
The 1978 FIFA World Cup, the 11th staging of the FIFA World Cup, quadrennial international football world championship tournament, was held in Argentina between 1 and 25 June. The Cup was won by the Argentine hosts, who defeated the Netherlands 3–1 in the final, after extra time; the final was held at River Plate's home stadium, Estadio Monumental, in the Argentine capital of Buenos Aires. This win was the first World Cup title for Argentina, who became the fifth team to be both hosts and world champions. Argentina, the Netherlands and Brazil were the gold and bronze medalists, respectively. Iran and Tunisia made their first appearances in the tournament; this was the last World Cup tournament to use the original inclusion of 16 teams. Since the first World Cup in 1930, only 15 teams had been allowed to qualify; the official match ball was the Adidas Tango. Argentina was chosen as the host nation by FIFA on 6 July 1966 in England. Mexico withdrew from the bidding process after having been awarded the 1970 competition two years earlier.
The logo is based on President Juan Perón's signature gesture: a salute to the crowd with both arms extended above his head. This was one of the most famous, populist images of Perón; the design was created in 1974, two years prior to the military coup in 1976. The military leadership were aware that the World Cup's logo symbolized Perón's gesture, they tried to change the competition's logo. At this point, the design was broadly commercialized and the merchandise had been made: a forced modification "would trigger a sea of lawsuits against the country", so the military "munched the defeat". England, Belgium and the Soviet Union failed to qualify for the second World Cup in succession, losing out to Italy, the Netherlands and Hungary respectively. 1974 Quarter-finalists East Germany and Yugoslavia were eliminated by Austria and Spain and thus failed to qualify for the finals, along with Bulgaria which failed to qualify for the first time since 1958 after losing to France. Bolivia's win meant Uruguay failed to qualify for the first time since 1958.
Newcomers to the finals were Tunisia. Peru and Mexico returned after missing the previous tournament. For the first time, more than 100 nations entered the competition; the following 16 teams qualified for the final tournament: A controversial fact surrounding the 1978 World Cup was that Argentina had suffered a military coup only two years before the cup, a coup known as the National Reorganization Process. Less than a year before the World Cup, in September 1977, Interior Minister General Albano Harguindeguy, stated that 5,618 people had disappeared; the infamous Higher School of Mechanics of the Navy held concentration camp prisoners of the Dirty War and those held captive could hear the roars of the crowd during matches held at River Plate's Monumental Stadium, located only a mile away. Because of the political turmoil, some countries, most notably the Netherlands, considered publicly whether they should participate in the event. Despite this, all teams took part without restrictions. Allegations that Dutch star Johan Cruyff refused to participate because of political convictions were denied by him 30 years later.
More controversy surrounded the host, Argentina, as all of their games in the first round kicked off at night, giving the Argentines the advantage of knowing where they stood in the group. This issue would arise again in Spain 1982, which prompted FIFA to change the rules so that the final two group games in subsequent World Cups would be played simultaneously. Argentina's controversial and favorable decisions in their matches has caused many to view their eventual win as illegitimate. Desperate to prove their stability and prominence to the world after their coup two years earlier, the government used whatever means necessary to ensure that the team would progress far in the tournament. Suspicions of match fixing arose before the tournament began, he talked about the financial imperative to have Argentina win the World Cup: “The success of Argentina is financially so important to the tournament.”From Will Hersey’s article “Remembering Argentina 1978: The Dirtiest World Cup of All Time”: "The other teams in Argentina and Hungary’s group were the much-fancied France and Italy, establishing the tournament’s toughest qualifying section.
After the victory against Hungary, one junta official remarked to Luque, that “this could turn out to be the group of death as far as you are concerned”. It was delivered with a smile. “Uppermost in my mind was that earlier that day, the brother of a close friend of mine had disappeared,” recalled Luque. “His body was found by villagers on the banks of the River Plate with concrete attached to his legs. At that time, opponents of the regime were sometimes thrown out of aeroplanes into the sea.”"In their second group stage game against France, Argentina were the beneficiaries of multiple favorable calls. After France was denied what
Brazil the Federative Republic of Brazil, is the largest country in both South America and Latin America. At 8.5 million square kilometers and with over 208 million people, Brazil is the world's fifth-largest country by area and the fifth most populous. Its capital is Brasília, its most populated city is São Paulo; the federation is composed of the union of the 26 states, the Federal District, the 5,570 municipalities. It is the largest country to have Portuguese as an official language and the only one in the Americas. Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 kilometers, it borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile and covers 47.3% of the continent's land area. Its Amazon River basin includes a vast tropical forest, home to diverse wildlife, a variety of ecological systems, extensive natural resources spanning numerous protected habitats; this unique environmental heritage makes Brazil one of 17 megadiverse countries, is the subject of significant global interest and debate regarding deforestation and environmental protection.
Brazil was inhabited by numerous tribal nations prior to the landing in 1500 of explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral, who claimed the area for the Portuguese Empire. Brazil remained a Portuguese colony until 1808, when the capital of the empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro. In 1815, the colony was elevated to the rank of kingdom upon the formation of the United Kingdom of Portugal and the Algarves. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the creation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system; the ratification of the first constitution in 1824 led to the formation of a bicameral legislature, now called the National Congress. The country became a presidential republic in 1889 following a military coup d'état. An authoritarian military junta came to power in 1964 and ruled until 1985, after which civilian governance resumed. Brazil's current constitution, formulated in 1988, defines it as a democratic federal republic. Due to its rich culture and history, the country ranks thirteenth in the world by number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Brazil is considered an advanced emerging economy. It has the ninth largest GDP in the world by nominal, eight and PPP measures, it is one of the world's major breadbaskets, being the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years. It is classified as an upper-middle income economy by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country, with the largest share of global wealth in Latin America. Brazil is a regional power and sometimes considered a great or a middle power in international affairs. On account of its international recognition and influence, the country is subsequently classified as an emerging power and a potential superpower by several analysts. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Union of South American Nations, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, it is that the word "Brazil" comes from the Portuguese word for brazilwood, a tree that once grew plentifully along the Brazilian coast.
In Portuguese, brazilwood is called pau-brasil, with the word brasil given the etymology "red like an ember", formed from brasa and the suffix -il. As brazilwood produces a deep red dye, it was valued by the European textile industry and was the earliest commercially exploited product from Brazil. Throughout the 16th century, massive amounts of brazilwood were harvested by indigenous peoples along the Brazilian coast, who sold the timber to European traders in return for assorted European consumer goods; the official Portuguese name of the land, in original Portuguese records, was the "Land of the Holy Cross", but European sailors and merchants called it the "Land of Brazil" because of the brazilwood trade. The popular appellation eclipsed and supplanted the official Portuguese name; some early sailors called it the "Land of Parrots". In the Guarani language, an official language of Paraguay, Brazil is called "Pindorama"; this was the name the indigenous population gave to the region, meaning "land of the palm trees".
Some of the earliest human remains found in the Americas, Luzia Woman, were found in the area of Pedro Leopoldo, Minas Gerais and provide evidence of human habitation going back at least 11,000 years. The earliest pottery found in the Western Hemisphere was excavated in the Amazon basin of Brazil and radiocarbon dated to 8,000 years ago; the pottery was found near Santarém and provides evidence that the tropical forest region supported a complex prehistoric culture. The Marajoara culture flourished on Marajó in the Amazon delta from 800 CE to 1400 CE, developing sophisticated pottery, social stratification, large populations, mound building, complex social formations such as chiefdoms. Around the time of the Portuguese arrival, the territory of current day Brazil had an estimated indigenous population of 7 million people semi-nomadic who subsisted on hunting, fishing and migrant agriculture; the indigenous population of Brazil comprised several large indigenous ethnic groups. The Tupí people were subdivided into the Tupiniquins and Tupinambás, there were many subdivisions of the other gro
Associação Desportiva São Caetano
Associação Desportiva São Caetano known as São Caetano, is a Brazilian football team based in the city of São Caetano, part of the São Paulo greater metropolitan area. The club finished as runner-up in the Série A once in the Copa Libertadores. Founded in 1989, the club found success early, winning the Third and Second Divisions of São Paulo regional tournaments. São Caetano rose to national prominence in 2000. In 2000, the Brazilian national championship was contested in a rather unusual way. According to previous credentials, teams would play in Second or Third Division; the difference was that, after all Divisions were finished, a mini tournament would gather representatives from all of them, the winner would be the Brazilian Champion of 2000. São Caetano qualified to the finals. Beating Fluminense, Palmeiras and Grêmio, they entered the final against Vasco da Gama; the first match ended as a draw. During the second, fans invaded the match was suspended. Despite several claims that São Caetano should be declared champion, Vasco petitioned the league for a third match, which Vasco went on to win.
Unlike many teams that rise prominently quickly fall back to obscurity, São Caetano had another strong campaign in 2001. Playing a full season in the top division, they reached the final against Atlético Paranaense. Once again they finished as the runner-up, but consecutive seasons placing well secured their reputation on a national level. In 2002, São Caetano was finalist of Copa Libertadores, the most important tournament in South America. Again, they were runner-up. São Caetano had earned no titles. In 2004, São Caetano won the São Paulo State Championship, beating the upstate squad Paulista, from Jundiaí. On October 27, 2004, while playing in a match against São Paulo, São Caetano defender Serginho suffered a fatal heart attack; as São Caetano's staff let Serginho play knowing that he had heart problems, the club was penalized by the CBF, which has since marked a decline in their performance. At the end of the 2006, they finished within the relegation zone, played in the 2007 Brasileirão B.
They remained there until 2013, when the team finished in 19th place and was relegated to Série C after 14 years in the top two divisions of Brazil. In the same year, the team was relegated in the São Paulo state championship, relegated to the Paulista Serie A2. In 2014, the team would begin the season with lackluster performance in the 2nd level of the state championship, in which the team only escaped relegation in the last round.. Following a lacklustre season, the team was relegated once again from the national Série C, would compete in the Série D in 2015. After an unsuccessful campaign in the Serie D, the club would not get invited back to the four major series of Brazilian football, playing only in the state leagues. However, after finishing the 2018 Campeonato Paulista in 7th place, they qualified for the 2019 Serie D. Copa LibertadoresRunner-up: 2002 Série ARunners-up: 2000, 2001Série CRunner-up: 1998Campeonato PaulistaWinner: 2004 Runner-up: 2007Campeonato Paulista Série A2Winner: 2000, 2017Campeonato Paulista Série A3Winners: 1991, 1998 Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. São Caetano 4–1 São Paulo – 2007 Campeonato Paulista – Second Semi-Finals São Caetano 2–0 Club América – 2002 Libertadores Cup First – Semi-Finals Built in 1955, São Caetano's stadium is Estádio Anacleto Campanella, its capacity is 22,738 people. Márcio Goiano Ademir Fonseca Toninho Cecílio Sérgio Guedes Antônio Carlos Zago Guilherme Macuglia Pintado Sérgio Soares Vadão Giba Paulo Comelli Dorival Júnior Levir Culpi Estevam Soares Muricy Ramalho Jair Picerni Márcio Araújo Émerson Leão Aílton Silva The team is dubbed Azulão, after the shirt color; the club's biggest rival is Santo André. Official Website
Sport Club do Recife
Sport Club do Recife is a Brazilian sports club, located in the city of Recife, in the state of Pernambuco. It was founded on May 13, 1905, by Guilherme de Aquino Fonseca, who lived for many years in England, where he studied at Cambridge University. In football, the club has won six CBD/CBF titles, including three three regional, its greatest glories are the Brazilian Championship 1987 and Brazil Cup 2008. Central campeão de 1986 In addition to professional football, the club participates in women's football and Olympic sports, such as rowing, hockey, futsal, table tennis, taekwondo and athletics, it has a historic rivalry with Náutico, where matches between the two are known as the Clássico dos Clássicos, this being the third oldest derby in the country. The derby against Santa Cruz is called the Clássico das Multidões, while the derby with América-PE is called the Clássico dos Campeões. Sport Club do Recife was founded in May 1903 by Guilherme de Aquino Fonseca, a member of a wealthy family in Pernambuco who found a love for football while studying engineering at the University of Cambridge.
The club were the first recorded football club in the state of Pernambuco. Sport played their first match in 1905, drawing against a team called English Eleven The Campeonato Pernambucano was established in 1916, Sport won the competition's first two titles. Sport Recife celebrated their 50th anniversary in 1955 by winning their 15th state title; as a result of a dispute with the Federação Pernambucana de Futebol, Sport did not participate in the 1978 Campeonato Pernambucano. The 1987 Campeonato Brasileiro Série A resulted in Sport's first national title. After topping group B in both the 1st and 2nd rounds Sport beat Bangu 5-4 on aggregate in the semi-final, Guarani 3-2 in the final, they qualified for the 1988 Copa Libertadores, but failed to qualify for the next stages of the competition, finishing in 15th place overall. Sport Club do Recife won the 1990 Série B, they drew 1-1 on aggregate with Atlético Paranaense in the final, but were awarded the title due to their better record across the season.
Led by Givanildo Oliveira, Sport won the 1st Copa do Nordeste, beating hosts CRB-AL on penalties after a draw in normal time by 0–0. In 2000, Sport won the Copa do Nordeste for the 2nd time, this time under the command of coach Celso Roth after a 2–2 draw against Vitória, again winning the title due to a superior record. In 2006, after five years in Série B, Sport Club do. Sport had the same number of points as state rivals Náutico, but a better goal difference, were promoted to Série A. Sport became the first club from Northeastern Brazil to win the Copa do Bras, beating Corinthians on away goals in the 2008 final. Sport contested its second Copa Libertadores, finishing top of a group containing LDU, Colo-Colo and Palmeiras, they were drawn against Palmeiras in the next round, but were defeated on penalties, after drawing 1-1 on aggregate. In the second half of 2009, Sport disputed the Brasileirão, but could not repeat the excellent 1st half, finishing the race in last place, being demoted to Série B.
After a poor first half, O Leão da Ilha returned to Série A in 2011. Over the season the club had three different managers - Helio dos Anjos, Mazola Júnior, PC Gusmão. Sport inherited a spot in the 2013 Copa Sudamericana by regulation of CBF towards the remnants of the Copa do Brasil; as the club had not planned to dispute it, it was not too far in its 1st participation. Leão were eliminated by Libertad of Paraguay with two losses in the 2nd phase, after eliminating Náutico; the only success of Leão this season was the return to Serie A in 2014 and the approval of the Sport's Arena project. In 2014 Sport won their third Copa do Nordeste, 40th Campeonato Pernambucano, campaigned in the Brasileirão, finishing in 11th place and ensuring a place in the Copa Sudamericana. Campeonato Brasileiro Série A: 11987Campeonato Brasileiro Série B: 11990Copa do Brasil: 12008Copa do Nordeste: 31994, 2000, 2014Torneio Norte-Nordeste: 11968 Campeonato Pernambucano: 411916, 1917, 1920, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1928, 1938, 1941, 1942, 1943, 1948, 1949, 1953, 1955, 1956, 1958, 1961, 1962, 1975, 1977, 1980, 1981, 1982, 1988, 1991, 1992, 1994, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2003, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2014, 2017Copa Pernambuco: 31998, 2003, 2007 As of 30 October 2018Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules.
Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality. Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality; the supporters of Sport are called Crimson-black and Sportista. The Sport Club do Recife has various organized supporters: There are other movements, such as barra brava and ultras, respectively: Brava Ilha Leões da Ilha. Total: 1.7% or 3.300.000 Supporters. Population Brazil: 192.924.506 hab. The Derby of Crowds is a duel that leads many people to Pernambuco. Sport has a considerable advantage in relation to its archrival, with a number exceeding 60 wins difference, it is the second largest difference in classic triumphs of Brazilian football. The Derby of Derbies is the third oldest derby in the country, second only to Clássico Vovô and Grenal; this brings together the two oldest teams in Pernambuco, with Sport having a big difference of advantages over its archrival: more than 20 wins. The Champions Derby is one of the most ancient and classical derbies of Pernambuco, is named because until the late 1930s, Sport and its archrival America were together the t
Associação Portuguesa de Desportos
Associação Portuguesa de Desportos called Portuguesa or Lusa, is a sports club, a Brazilian football team from São Paulo in São Paulo state, founded on August 14, 1920 by the Portuguese population of the city. On August 14, 1920, the five Paulista clubs representing the Portuguese community of São Paulo met at Salão da Câmara Portuguesa de Comércio to merge, founded Associação Portuguesa de Esportes, they chose the colors of Portugal: red. The club merged with Mackenzie College in 1920, was renamed Mackenzie-Portuguesa. In 1940, the club changed its name to its current name. In 1956, Portuguesa bought from São Paulo a big piece of land located in the limits between the northeast and center of the city. In the land, the Canindé stadium was built, as well as the official headquarters and social club. In the 2011 season Portuguesa participated on the São Paulo State Championship Série A1 when they were eliminated in the Quarterfinals by São Paulo, in the Campeonato Brasileiro Série B and in the Copa do Brasil, when they were eliminated in the First Round by Bangu.
After a comeback victory against Americana, on October 22, 2011, the club achieved promotion to Campeonato Brasileiro Série A 2012. On November 8, 2011, after a 2–2 draw against Sport Recife, the club won the 2011 Série B, the first national title won by the club; the title crowned a strong campaign with 23 Wins, 12 Draws and only 3 losses. The offensive and fast-paced style of play implemented by the team's coach and the great amount of 82 goals scored led to the nickname of "Barcelusa", referring to FC Barcelona's style of playing. Lusa ended the 2011 Season with a 2–0 win over Icasa, finishing 21 straight games undefeated. In 2012, the "Barcelusa" squad struggled in the Campeonato Paulista following the losses of players Marco Antonio and Edno, which led to the relegation to the Campeonato Paulista Série A2 after a 4–2 loss to Mirassol and combined results on other games; the chairman disappointment with the awful campaign in a much considered easy tournament led to the dismissal of the team's coach, after 14 months working for the Lusa side.
The team turned sights on Geninho, confirmed the former Brazilian champion as their new manager. The team mounted a good campaign in the Copa do Brasil, but fell through at the Round of 16 after a 2–0 defeat to Bahia. Lusa started the Campeonato Brasileiro Série A with their goalkeeper Wéverton Pereira da Silva negotiating with his departure to play for Atlético Paranaense. Without a good replacement at the Youth Squad nor the added Glédson, Lusa started negotiating with the two-time UEFA Champions League champion and former A. C. Milan goalkeeper Dida, signed the 38-year-old keeper to wear their colors until the end of the "Brasileirão" tournament; the keeper started for the first time for Lusa in a match against São Paulo FC, had a good showing in a 1–0 win for the Lusa side. Lusa played against Neymar's Santos, again at home, with amazing saves by the veteran goalkeeper and losing several clear scoring chances at the first half, the game ended 0–0, with Lusa mounting two wins, three losses and two draws starting the tournament.
Lusa pulled off a trade with Clube Atlético Paranaense, bringing aboard striker Bruno Mineiro. The negotiation proved to be positive, since the new number 9 started scoring goals at will: in 12 games, he scored 11 times, becoming one of the top scorers in the league, pursuing the likes of Vagner Love, Fred and Luís Fabiano. After twenty-seven games in the Brasileirão, Lusa survived a series of difficult games to maintain its spot out of the relegation zone. Playing against Sociedade Esportiva Palmeiras and Coritiba Football Club, Lusa won both games by three goals to none at home. Playing Fluminense, São Paulo and Atlético Mineiro, Lusa lost the first two games, but benefited from the absence of superstar Neymar to beat Santos away by 3–1 and allowed Atlético Mineiro to escape out of Canindé with a draw. Despite having Brazilian international and former Ballon d'Or winner Ronaldinho, the Atlético side struggled to get out of the strong midfield pressure and ball possession imposed by Lusa, which had played the majority of the second half with a one-man advantage after defender Leonardo Silva was sent off.
Playing against Sport Club do Recife, Bruno Mineiro scored a hat-trick in a turnaround win by 5–1, becoming the new league scoring leader, trespassing Fred. Fred and BM9 are close friends, having played with Fluminense's striker at the youth level in América Mineiro. In December 2012, Péricles Chamusca was announced with a one-year contract, he was fired in April 2013. A day after Chamusca's dismissal, the club announced Edson Pimenta, as new coach. On April 16, 2013, Portuguesa was eliminated by Naviraiense in 2013. Only nine days Lusa won promotion to Campeonato Paulista Série A1, after a 2–1 victory against Capivariano. Although Portuguesa finished the championship just above the relegation positions, it was punished by the Superior Court of Sport Justice for irregularly calling in a player during a match against Grêmio – Héverton, suspended for a red card received at his previous Copa do Brasil match. With the punishment, the team lost four points – three for the irregular usage of a player and a fourth one which the team won due to the game resulting in a tie – and ended up