Émile Durkheim

David Émile Durkheim was a French sociologist. He formally established the academic discipline of sociology and—with W. E. B. Du Bois, Karl Marx and Max Weber—is cited as the principal architect of modern social science. Much of Durkheim's work was concerned with how societies could maintain their integrity and coherence in modernity, an era in which traditional social and religious ties are no longer assumed, in which new social institutions have come into being, his first major sociological work was The Division of Labour in Society. In 1895, he published The Rules of Sociological Method and set up the first European department of sociology, becoming France's first professor of sociology. In 1898, he established the journal L'Année Sociologique. Durkheim's seminal monograph, Suicide, a study of suicide rates in Catholic and Protestant populations, pioneered modern social research and served to distinguish social science from psychology and political philosophy; the Elementary Forms of the Religious Life presented a theory of religion, comparing the social and cultural lives of aboriginal and modern societies.

Durkheim was deeply preoccupied with the acceptance of sociology as a legitimate science. He refined the positivism set forth by Auguste Comte, promoting what could be considered as a form of epistemological realism, as well as the use of the hypothetico-deductive model in social science. For him, sociology was the science of institutions, if this term is understood in its broader meaning as "beliefs and modes of behaviour instituted by the collectivity" and its aim being to discover structural social facts. Durkheim was a major proponent of structural functionalism, a foundational perspective in both sociology and anthropology. In his view, social science should be purely holistic, he remained a dominant force in French intellectual life until his death in 1917, presenting numerous lectures and published works on a variety of topics, including the sociology of knowledge, social stratification, law and deviance. Durkheimian terms such as "collective consciousness" have since entered the popular lexicon.

Emile Durkheim was born 15 April 1858 in Épinal in the son of Mélanie and Moïse Durkheim. He came from a long line of devout French Jews, he began his education in a rabbinical school, but at an early age, he decided not to follow in his family's footsteps and switched schools. Durkheim led a secular life. Much of his work was dedicated to demonstrating that religious phenomena stemmed from social rather than divine factors. While Durkheim chose not to follow in the family tradition, he did not sever ties with his family or with the Jewish community. Many of his most prominent collaborators and students were Jewish, some were blood relations. Marcel Mauss, a notable social anthropologist of the pre-war era, was his nephew. One of his nieces was Claudette Bloch, a marine biologist and mother of Maurice Bloch, who became a noted anthropologist. A precocious student, Durkheim entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1879, at his third attempt; the entering class that year was one of the most brilliant of the nineteenth century and many of his classmates, such as Jean Jaurès and Henri Bergson, would go on to become major figures in France's intellectual history.

At the ENS, Durkheim studied under the direction of Numa Denis Fustel de Coulanges, a classicist with a social scientific outlook, wrote his Latin dissertation on Montesquieu. At the same time, he read Herbert Spencer, thus Durkheim became interested in a scientific approach to society early on in his career. This meant the first of many conflicts with the French academic system, which had no social science curriculum at the time. Durkheim found humanistic studies uninteresting, turning his attention from psychology and philosophy to ethics and sociology, he obtained his agrégation in philosophy in 1882, though finishing next to last in his graduating class owing to serious illness the year before. The opportunity for Durkheim to receive a major academic appointment in Paris was inhibited by his approach to society. From 1882 to 1887 he taught philosophy at several provincial schools. In 1885 he decided to leave for Germany, where for two years he studied sociology at the universities of Marburg and Leipzig.

As Durkheim indicated in several essays, it was in Leipzig that he learned to appreciate the value of empiricism and its language of concrete, complex things, in sharp contrast to the more abstract and simple ideas of the Cartesian method. By 1886, as part of his doctoral dissertation, he had completed the draft of his The Division of Labour in Society, was working towards establishing the new science of sociology. Durkheim's period in Germany resulted in the publication of numerous articles on German social science and philosophy. Durkheim's articles gained recognition in France, he received a teaching appointment in the University of Bordeaux in 1887, where he was to teach the university's first social science course, his official title was Chargé d'un Cours de Science Sociale et de Pédagogie and thus he taught both pedagogy and sociology. The appointment of the social scientist to the humanistic faculty was an important sign of changing times and the growing importance and recognition of the social sciences.

From this position Durkheim

St. Anthony Cathedral, Endibir

St. Anthony Cathedral known as the Ethiopian Catholic Cathedral of Emdibir, is a cathedral of the Ethiopian Catholic Church located in Emdibir, Ethiopia, it follows the Alexandrian Rite. The cathedral is the main church of the Ethiopian Catholic Eparchy of Emdeber, created in 2003 by the bull "Ad universae incrementum" of Pope John Paul II with territory of the Ethiopian Catholic Archaeparchy of Addis Ababa, it is under the pastoral responsibility of Bishop Musie Ghebreghiorghis. Cathedral of the Holy Saviour, Adigrat Holy Trinity Cathedral, Sodo Roman Catholicism in Ethiopia

Count of Vila Real

Count of Vila Real was a Portuguese title of nobility created by a royal decree, in 1424, by King John I of Portugal, granted to Dom Pedro de Menezes known as Peter I of Menezes, 1st Count of Viana. The Menezes, a high nobility family quite close to the first Dynasty Kings in Portugal, was affected when the new Aviz Kings took the power, after the 1383-1385 crisis, but Pedro de Menezes supported the new king John of Aviz and was reworded, he was involved in the north African conquests, became the first Governor of Ceuta after the Portuguese conquest. He married four times from; the eldest was Beatrice of Menezes, married to Fernando of Noronha. Their issue used Menezes as family name and they originated the powerful House of Vila Real. In the 19th Century, King John VI of Portugal, granted this title again, by a royal decree dated from July 3, 1823, to José Luis de Sousa Botelho Mourão e Vasconcelos, a remarkable military and politician who fought during the Napoleonic invasions and the Liberal wars.

Pedro de Menezes, 1st Count of Vila Real Brites de Menezes and her husband Fernando of Noronha, 2nd Counts of Vila Real. Duke of Vila Real Marquis of Vila Real Duke of Caminha List of Portuguese Dukedoms List of Marquesses in Portugal List of Countships in Portugal "Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil" – Vol. III, pages 522/528. Published by Zairol Lda. Lisbon 1989